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General Electric Review 






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VOL. XXI, No. 1 

Published by 
General Electric Company's Publication Bur 
Schenectady, N. Y. 



Showing Trimmer Conveyor Belt. Traveling Tower, and Loading Boom 

'See page 15^ 


Page 4 


Unless your machine is designed to meet "peak load" con- 
ditions with entire safety, a hazard is involved. High-speed 
operation demands an entire readjustment of values from low 
or moderate speed operation; particularly in the bearmgs, 
upon which comes the brunt of the high-S|.^ed burden» 

Actual performance in day-after-day service speaks 
more convincingly of the speed qualities o' " NORftW 
Precision Bea~ings, than volumes of discussion on 
design and materials. We ask an opportunity to 
acquaint you with these " NORfflfl " performance 

Be SAFE. See That Your Machines 
Are "NORfflfl" Equipped. 



Ball, Roller, Thrust, Combination Bearings 

General Electric Review 

Manager, M. P. RICE Editor. JOHN R. HEWETT 


Associate Editor. B. M. EOFF 

Assistant Editor. E. C. SANDERS 

Subscrifit'O'' Roles: United States and Mexico, $2.00 per year; Canada, $2.25 per year; Foreign, $2.50 per year; payable in 
advance. Remit by post-office or express money orders, bank checks or drafts, made payable to the General Electric Review, 
Schenectady, N. Y. 

Entered as second-class matter. March 26, 1912, at the post office at Schenectady, N. Y., under the Act of March. 1879. 

Vol. XXL, No. 1 ty Ge,!i^l!&!I'^„y 'jAXrARV lOlS 


Frontispiece 2 

Editorial: A Review of the Industry Durint,' 1!)17; Making Skilled Mechanics ... 3 

Some Developments in the Electrical Industry Durinj; 1017 4 

By John Listox 

Extinguishing Fires in Large Totally Enclosed Generators and Motors .... 53 

By M. A. Savage 

A New Radiator Type of Hot-cathode Roentgen-ray Tube 56 

By Dr. W. D. Coolidge 

A Portable Roentgen-ray Generating Outfit 60 

By W. D. Coolidge and C. N. Moore 

Methods for More Efficiently Utilizing Our Fuel Resources 

Part IX : Hydro-electric Energy as a Conserver of Oil 68 

By H. F. Jackson and F. Emerson Hoau 

Part X : Our Future Petroleum Industry 70 

By W. A. WiLLiA.MS 

Part XI: Future Sources of Oil and Gasolene 73 

By Milton A. Allen 

Electrical Laborator},- Apparatus for Educational Insliluiions 7.'^ 

By J. J. Lamhkrty 

Life in a Large .Manufacturing Plant 

Part \'I : .\i)prenticeship System 82 

Bv Chas. M Ripley 


The leading article in this issue is a sum- 
mary of the progress in the electrical industry 
during the past year. To those who must 
keep abreast of the times, despite their spe- 
cialized and intensive daily work, this article 
is recommended for careful reading. 

The electrical industry has loyally re- 
sponded to the European War demands for 
increased production. The exigency of the 
situation has resulted in an intensified 
production of apparatus which is confined 
mainly to classes of machines which had 
previously been standardized. Consequenth', 
during the past year, less engineering efTort 
could be concentrated upon research investi- 
gation and the production of new types of 
apparatus. In spite of this situation, however, 
there have been a considerable number of 
new developments, the more important of 
which are described with such brevity that 
"he who runs may read." While few excep- 
tionally large electrical units were produced, 
there is shown a rate of developmental prog- 
ress that does not suffer by comparison with 
the record of previous years. 

The employment of women in many 
processes of electric manufacturing is not 
new, but the recent continually augmenting 
demands for apparatus hitherto produced 
exclusively by the labor of men, combined 
with the lessening of the normal masculine 
labor supply due to volunteering and selective 
conscription, necessitated a resort to the 
services of women o]5eratives on a scale and 
for classes of work never before contemplated. 
The results have in general been highly 
satisfactory. ML 

This articK is therefore of timely interest 
in a double sense, for it records the economic 
effects of the great War uiwn one of America's 
greatest industries, as well as the scientific 
and engineering achievements in the eventful 
vear of 1917. 


To take boys of sixteen with only a gram- 
mar school education and make them into 
skilled mechanics in four years is the funcaon 
of the apprenticeship system of the General 
Electric Company as described in this issue. 

We invite the attention of our readers to 
this apprentice work, as it deals with one of 
the problems confronting American industry, 
especially during these war times. The 
creation of skilled workmen from school-boy 
raw material has its patriotic features: 
102 graduates of this apprentice course are 
now in government positions, mostly in 
arsenals and navy yards, turning out muni- 
tions and accurate scientific instruments 
which will conserve lives in the army and 

In order to provide adequate facilities, 
such as modern machine tools and school- 
room and laboratory equipment, for the 
thorough training of the apprentices, the 
greater part of a million dollars has been 
spent; and during the four years that the 
bovs are serving their apprentice course they 
are paid from .«21()0 to $3200. Therefore, 
for those boys who are unable to go to 
college these apprentice courses are obviously 
a happy combination of industry and instruc- 

Statistics are included showing the earnings 
and positions held by many of the apprentice 
graduates, and the author points out that, 
in all probability, the trade which these 
boys learn will not become obsolete for many 

Mr. Thomas A. Edison has said: '"We have 
laid good foundations for industrial pros- 
IK'rity. Now we want to assure the happiness 
and growth of the workers through vocational 
guidance and wisely managed employment 
deiiartments. A great field for industrial 
experimentation and statesmanship is opening 

January 191 S 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 

Some Developments in the Electrical Industry 

During 1917 

By John Liston 

Publication Bureau, General Electric Company 

This article constitutes our annual review of the activities of the electrical industry during the past year. 
Its scope, of course, increases with the growth of the industry, and while there is more to record on this 
occasion than on any pievious one, there are yet many important developments of the year associated with 
war work that cannot be mentioned at this time for obvious reasons. Nevertheless, the advances in the 
industry that are outlined by Mr. Liston are unusual, and will be read with interest by all engineers. 

— Editor. 

When, in the fullness of time, the complete 
story of the developments in the electrical 
industry for 1917 is told, it will constitute a 
record of which the entire electrical fraternity 
may well be proud; but, at present, for reasons 
which will be appreciated by every American 
engineer, many items of interest must of neces- 
sity be omitted from any review covering the 
accomplishments of the industry. 

Despite this limitation there remains for 
analysis in this article an impressive array 
of improvements secured in many classes of 
apparatus, and, as well, a number of new 
appliances and applications of apparatus 
previously developed which can be classed 
as distinctly new. 

The feature of overshadowing importance, 
however, was the enonnous increase in the 
volume of production of standard apparatus 
to meet unprecedented demands for power 
station, railway, and industrial equipment. 

For certain types of apparatus which had 
long been in general use, this increase actually 
represented advances of several hundreds of 
per cent as compared with the maximum 
output of preceding years. In response to 
emergency demands, numerous machines of 
large capacity were manufactured with a 
rapidity which had never before been at- 

While there were many notable additions to 
the existing equipment of electric railroads, hy- 
dro-electric stations, and the power and light- 
ing systems of a great variety of industries, as 
well as extension of electric service into new 
fields, there were comparatively few instances 
in which the unit capacity of the apparatus 
supplied exceeded the maximum ratings pre- 
viously established. 

In view of the number and variety of sub- 
jects covered in this article and the limitations 
imposed by the space available, complete 

Fig. 1. 35,000-kw. Cu 

1 Turbo-generator Installed in Power Sla 

1 of the Boston Elevated Co. 


descriptive details cannot be given, and 
many items which would be of interest from 
an engineering standpoint have of necessity 
been omitted. The apparatus referred to, 
unless otherwise specified, is in every instance 
a product of the General Electric Company; 
but this does not invalidate the essential value 
of the cumulative effect of these references 
as a broad indication of the important ten- 
dencies in design, construction, and ajiplica- 
tion throughout the manufacturing industry 
during the past year. 


The pressing demands for turbines of 
all capacities necessitated the concentration 
of all efforts on the production of types 
of machines which were already developed 
and the postponement of development work 
which otherwise might have been undertaken. 

A number of the large turbine-generator 
sets referred to in last year's review* by the 
author were shipped and are in operation. 
These sets consist in every case of a single 
turbine of single flow design connected to a 
single generator (see Figs. 1 and 2) ; and, in 
accordance with G-E turbine practice, they 
are designed to utilize efficiently the highest 
degrees of vacuum. It has often been pointed 
out that the volume of each pound of steam 
is almost twice as great at 29 inches as at 28 
inches vacuum. 


There were no changes of importance in 
the design or maximum rating of this class of 
apparatus, but there was an exceptional expan- 
sion in the production of standard machines. 

Fig. 3. Spring Supported Thrust-bearing Showing 

Rubbing Surface of Rotating Ring, Stationary Ring 

is Raised to Show Arrangement of Springs 

Fig. 2. 30.000-kw. 1800-r.p.m., 60cycle Curtis Steam Turbo-generator 

Geared turbine generator sets and geared 
sets for ship propulsion mentioned last year 
as new developments, have added another 
successful year to their record. 

•Gener.vl Elkctric Review. January, 1917. 

The largest unit constructed 
was a horizontal shaft water- 
wheel dri^•en generator rated 
at 2(),()()0 kv-a., (5600 volts, 
00 cycles, and operated at 360 
r.p.m., or more than twice the 
speed of machines of the same 
class and kilowatt capacity 
previously built. 

In low-speed machines there 
were two 10.000 kv-a., 6600- 
volt. GO-cycle vertical shaft 
watcrwheel dri\-en units op- 
erating at 55.6 r.p.m. These 
were supplied to the Cedar 
Rapids Mfg. and Power Co. 
of Quebec, and were similar 
to ten units previously in- 
stalled by that company. 
They still represent the maxi- 
mum of capacity- development for machines 
of their class. 

The spring-supported thrust bearing (Fig. 
3) was developed by the General Electric 
Company to overcome certain difficulties 

6 Januar}' 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 

experienced with other types of thrust bear- 
ings for vertical shaft generators. Of the 
many types in the market there was no other 
which automatically adjusted itself to unequal 
loading due to inaccuracies in workmanship 
or in alignment. While some other types may 

Fig. 4. 6250 kv-a,, 6600-volt, 88-r.p.iT 
Engine Drive 

be properly adjusted when installed, a dis- 
tinctive feature of the sjaring-supported bear- 
ing is that it will automatically adjust itself 
while in operation if there is a loss of align- 
ment due to a settling of the foundation or 
to other causes. 

So successful have these bearings proved 
in actual service that their use on G-E \ertical 
shaft generators has been standardized. 

The demand for generators for foreign 
water power developments was more than 
double that of any previous year and amount- 
ed to more than thirty oO-cycle, (HiUO-volt 
horizontal shaft alternators with rated outputs 
of from 2rM) to 10,000 kv-a. Except for the 
unusual frequency, these machines were built 
in accordance with American standards. 

Four alternators (Fig. 4), rated at 6250 
kv-a., GfiOO volts, 2.) cycles, ,SS r.p.m., were 
supplied for gas engine drive to the Bethlehem 

* Sec article by L. B. Bonnett, in General Elkctric Rkvifw 
December 1917. ' * 

Steel Company, thereby carrying the maxi- 
mum capacity for gas engine generator sets 
well beyond any previous rating. 

The use of synchronous motors for direct 
compressor drive increased about 35 per cent 
above the requirements of previous years, 
and the motors supplied for this partictdar 
application aggregated about 65,000 h.p., 
with individual ratings ranging from 150 h.p. 
to 1020 h.p. 


A hydro-electric plant equipped with three 
vertical shaft 500-kw., 2-phase, 60-cycle, 
2300-volt, 60-r.p.m. generators, designed to 
operate in parallel with the steam power 
station of the Iowa Railway and Light Com- 
pany at Cedar Rapids, Iowa, *represents the 
first application of automatic control on any 
commercial scale for this class of service. 

The water power development is located 
about half a mile from the steam plant, and 
by means of float switches, actuated by the 
change in water level in the forebay, the 
generators are thrown in or cut out of service 
at any predetermined water stage. Remote 
control from the steam station is also pro- 

Fig. 5. Magnet Frame of RF Motor Showing Construction and 
Arrangement of Pole Pieces 

This system insures the most effective and 
economical use of the available water supply, 
and also permits the conservation of a suffi- 
cient supply of stored water, by suitable 
adjustment of the float switches, to utilize 
the capacity of the hydraulic plant during 


peak load demands on the steam power 

No operator is required for the hydro- 
electric station and the attendance is limited 
to periodic visits of inspection. 


The most important development of recent 
years, in direct-current motor design, was 
embodied in a complete new line of adjustable 
sjieed motors ranging from 2 h.p. to 12.') h.p. 
in capacity. 

By reference to Figs, o and it will be seen 
that this new motor, which is known as Type 
RF, is provided with a distributed compen- 
sating winding embedded in slots in the main 
pole pieces, in addition to the commutating 
pole winding which had been previously 
accepted as the best practicable method of 
minimizing commutation troubles. 

The use of this compensating winding 
practically prevents losses due to flux dis- 
tortion, which, in previous commutating 
pole types, ran as high as 10 per cent, and 
the motor may be safely accelerated from 
low speed to high speed when connected to a 

Magnet Frame of RF Motor Showing Locati< 
Arrangement of Coils 

friction load by inserting the total field resis- 
tance in one step. 

For ordinary operating conditions only a 
simiile drum type controller is reriuired, while 
for automatic service magnetic control of a 
very much simpler type than that necessary 

for the conventional commutating pole type 
of motor can be employed without sacrificing 
excellence of commutation. 


On account of the abnormal conditions 
due to the entrance of this countn,^ into the 
World War, the activities of the various 
large railroads looking to the electrification of 
heavy traffic and mountain grade sections 
were in most cases put aside pending the 
return of normal conditions. Railroads now 
operating electrical sections, however, placed 
orders for additional equipment and continue 
to add to their facilities as the traffic require- 
ments dictate. 

New York Central Railroad — Electric Division 

During the year the New York Central 
Railroad placed in service ten additional 
12.3-ton electric locomotives, which are du- 
plicates of those furnished in 1914. These 
locomotives are of the high-speed passenger 
type, each equipped with eight bipolar gear- 
less motors capable of handling trains between 
New York City and Albany in case the elec- 
trification should be. extended. 

Both the original' type four-motor locomo- 
tives and the later eight-motor type (Fig. 7) 
continue to show remarkably low figures on 
locomotive maintenance, approximating since 
the beginning of service about 3} o cents per 
locomotive mile. This maintenance figure 
is probably not approached by any other 
electric locomotives of similar size now- in 

The suburban service on the electric divi- 
sion of the New York Central handled by 
multiple unit trains was augmented by 
eighteen motor-cars, each equipped with 
two GE-260 motors and Type "PC" con- 
trol. This makes a total of forty multiple 
unit cars now using "PC" control on this 

CanaJidH Xorthcnt Railway 

During the early part of the year the Cana- 
dian Northern Railway placed in service on 
its Montreal terminal five of the six S3-ton, 
2400-volt electric locomotives (Fig. S) pur- 
chased for this electrification. While these 
locomotives have not been used to haul 
regular passenger and freight trains, they are 
in actual service hauling construction trains 
between the site of the new station and 
Cartiervillc, ten miles from the terminal, 
through the Mt. Roval Tunnel. 

8 January 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 


The substation, located at the portal of the 
3-mile tunnel under Mt. Royal, was entirely 
completed, and contains two 3-unit, 2400- 
volt motor-generator sets with a capacity of 
1500 kw. each (Fig. 9). Energy is purchased 
from the Montreal Light, Heat, and Power 
Company at 11,000 volts, 60 cycles, 3 phase, 
and transformed by these units to 2400 volts 
d.c. for the electric zone. 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway 

The delivery of main line and switching 
locomotives and substation material for the 
440-mile electrification of the Chicago, Mil- 
waukee and St. Paul Railway was completed, 
and there are now in service on this Hne 
twenty-four standard freight locomotives 
each weighing 282 tons; twelve passenger 
locomotives of similar construction but geared 
for 60 m.p.h. on level track, weighing 300 
tons each with heating equipment; and six 
freight locomotives equipped with heating 
equipment for emergency service on passenger 
trains, weighing approximately the same as 
the passenger locomotives. There are also 
two switching locomotives (Fig. 10) weighing 
70 tons each, making a total of forty-four 
units delivered. In order to handle local 
passenger trains, two of the passenger loco- 
motives have been separated into half units 
weighing about 150 tons each, so that the 
number of locomotives available for service 
is probably 46 instead of 44. Seven new 
substations on the Missoula Division were 
also placed in service, thus completing the 
most extensive steam road conversion in the 

The Railway Company is rapidly complet- 
ing the electrification of the Othello, Seattle, 
and Taconia di\-ision of this main line, extend- 
ing from Othello in the State of Washington 
to Seattle and Tacoma on the coast, a dis- 
tance of 211 miles. Orders were placed with 
the General Electric Company for the equiji- 
ment of five substations with apparatus 
which will be identical with that furnished 
on the Missoula Division. Five passenger 
locomotives of a new design, including bipolar 
gearless motors, are also under construction, 
and two switchers weighing 70 tons each which 
are duplicates of those now in service. Line 
material furnished by the General Electric 
Company for this section is now being shipped 
and the poles are set for a greater part of the 

* See article in 
Review, page 863. 

1917 Genkr.xl Elecirii 

A utomatic Substations* 

There were in actual operation between 
twelve and fifteen automatic substations, 
and there are under construction in the 
Schenectady factory more than thirty addi- 
tional automatic substation equipments rang- 
ing in capacity from 200 to 1500 kw. 

Electric Locomotives 

A number of locomotives ranging in size 
from thirty to eighty tons were ordered or 
put into service during the year mainly for 
switching and light freight service on city, 
suburban, and interurban railways. Most of 
these locomotives are of the steeple cab type 
equipped with four motors, all the weight 
being on the driving axles. Motor and con- 
trol equipments have also been sold for loco- 
motives constructed in railway company's 
shops. The Illinois Traction Company is now 
building six such locomotives, each weighing 
sixty tons and equipped with four GE-69 
railway motors. 

A good example of a standard steeple cab 
unit is the fifty-ton locomotive (Fig. 11) built 
for the Northern Ohio Traction and Light 
Company, which is equipped with four-type 
GE-257 railway motors and type M control. 
Two similar units are under construction for 
the Chicago, North Shore, and Milwaukee 
R.R. and one for the United States arsenal at 
Watervliet. Two eighty-ton locomotives 
with articulated trucks and four GE-69 
motors are under construction for the Manu- 
facturer's Railway of St. Louis for handling 
freight shipments for the Anheuser-Busch 
Brewing Company. 

Car Equipments 

The greatest activity in sales of equipment 
for city and suburban electric systems appear- 
ed in the sales of motors for small light-weight 
safety cars (Figs. 12 and 13). During the 
year nearly 1500 GE-25S motors were sold 
for this ser\ace, and approximately 900 
GE-247 motors were also manufactured for 
light-weight equipments. Large orders for 
the above small motors included the fol- 
lowing : 

Transit Supply Company, 360 GE-2o8 motors 
for Twin Citv Lines. 

Bav State Street Railway, 400 GE-247 motors. 

New York State Railways, 100 GE-258 motors. 

International Railway Co. of Buffalo, 200 GE- 
238 motors. 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company, 200 GE- 
247 motors. 

The commutating pole ventilated type 
railway motor known as the GE-249, rating 

10 January 1918 



43 h.p. at (iOO volts was quite popular during 
the year, especially in foreign countries such 
as Japan, India, Italy, and Spain, where a 
large part of the traction systems are narrow 
gauge for which this motor is particularly 
adapted. For subway and elevated service, 
33() GE-2()0 motors were contracted for by 
the Interborough Rapid Transit Compan\' 
(Fig. 14). Large sales of GE-200, GE-20 1 , and 
GE-203 motors also continued from a stand- 
ard line of commutating pole railway motors. 
The United Railways of Baltimore purchased 
320 GE-2()() motors', and the Detroit United 
Railway 200 GE-203 motors. 

An interesting order from an historical 
standpoint was the sale of twenty-four sup- 
plementary equipments to be used on the 

effort (12,000 lb.) at 8.8 m.p.h., and is ar- 
ranged so that two units can be operated in 
tandem, thereby bringing the two-unit capa- 
city up to GO tons. 

Among the larger units under construction 
there was one which, when completed, will 
be the heaviest locomotive of its gauge and 
height so far built. It consists of a 40-ton, 
3(J-in. gauge, single unit articulated truck 
locomotive driven by four 500-volt motors, 
and its equipment includes automatic air 
brakes and HC control which is similar in 
principle to the well known PC control, except 
that it is operated manually instead of by 
compressed air. 

While this locomotive is intended for sur- 
face haulage, its dimensions are limited by 

Fig. 15. 30-ton, 48-mch Gauge Mine Haulage Locomoti\ 

Providence, Warren and Bristol Division of 
the New York, New Haven and Hartford 
Railroad. This division was one of the earliest 
roads to change from steam to electrical equip- 
ment, purchasing GE-55 motors in 1899. The 
latest order includes twenty-four GE-2.")4 
motors of the ventilated type to be used on 
six motor cars. 


Early in the year there was placed in service 
a 30-ton, 4S-inch gauge mine haulage locomo- 
tive (Fig. 15) equipped with three 12o-h.p., ."lOO- 
volt driving motors and Type M multiple unit 
control, and both straight air and hand brakes. 

This locomotive is used for main mine 
haulage and develops 20 per cent tracu\-c 

the fact that its route includes a relatively 
low tunnel. Its overall dimensions are: 
length, 31 feet, eight inches; width, 6 feet, one 
inch; and height over cab, 9 feet. It will 
develop 20 per cent tractive effort (16,000 lb.) 
at 7 m.p.h. 

The HC controller referred to above 
was used for the first time on mine loco- 
motives in 1917. As the locomotive units 
increased in size with corresponding in- 
crements in their current demands it was 
found that the drum type controllers could 
not be utilized effectually on account of 
their limited capacity, while the PC type 
necessitated the equipment of the loco- 
moti\es with air compressors for their oper- 

12 January 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 

The HC controller, however, is capable 
of handling the heaviest currents required by 
any mine locomoti\'e in ser^•ice or under con- 
struction, and the main contactors are actua- 
ted by a cam which is in turn moved by means 
of a simple hand-operated lever. 

This type of controller was developed to 
handle 250-volt and 500-volt mine locomo- 
tives ranging from 15 tons rating to 40 tons. 

The reversing and series paralleling drums 
(Fig. 16) are mounted in separate boxes on 
top of the case holding the main cam units, 
but are mechanically interlocked. There is a 
space between the two parts of the controller 
to allow the hand brake rod to pass through. 

In order to make the controller operate as 
easily as possible, a ratchet handle is used 
whereby a 4 to 1 gear ratio may be used, f In 
turning' off, the straight 1^ to 1 ratio is used, 
and in turning on, either this ratio or the 4 to 
1 ratio can be used by ratcheting back a little 
on each point. 

In contrast to the exceptionally large sizes 
already referred to there was produced the 
smallest practical mine locomotive ever con- 
structed. It is a storage battery unit rated 
at two tons, for operation on 20-inch gauge, 
and has a single driving motor which gives an 
effective drawbar pull of 400 lb. at 3 m.p.h. 
The battery is carried on a trailer having 

Locomotive Equipped with HC Control with Covers Removed to Show 
Arrangement of Contactors 

and there are two sizes of reversing and series 
paralleling boxes and two sizes of main con- 
troller cases (Fig. 17). The larger size of 
reversing box is for hand-ling three motors as 
well as four when tandem operation is desired. 
The other size is for only two motors. The 
one main controller case takes six cam units, 
and the other five. There are also two capa- 
cities of cam units which will go in the same 
spacing, so that there is quite a wide variety 
of conditions which can be met without any 
great change of parts. 

The contact units arc wired and operated 
in such a manner that six steps are obtained 
with five units, and by using the extra sixth 
unit the capacity is doubled although still 
keeping the same number of steps. 

approximately the same dimensions as the 
locomotive (Fig. 18). 

This outfit was designed for underground 
service and to meet unusual conditions in 
mine developmental work. It is used on 
dift'erent levels in the mine, and its exception- 
ally limited dimensions, viz., overall length 
48 inches, width 34 inches, and height 35 
inches, and the fact that the step and opera- 
tors seat are removable, permit its ready 
transfer in the shaft cage from one level to 

An important development in storage bat- 
tery locomotives was the production of a 
motor (Fig. 19) specially adapted for this 
serN'ice, which rendered feasible the use of 
single reduction gear drive. Prior to 1917 


the motors applied to this type of locomotive 
were of the light weight, high-speed type 
originally designed for motor vehicle drive, 
and double reduction gearing was necessary 
in order to obtain the low speeds normally 
required for locomotives. The new motor, 
which is made in (3 h.p. and 12 h.p. 
sizes, has the same mechanical 
characteristics as the motors used 
on trolley type locomotives, and 
with a slow speed armature, wound 
for 85 volts, permits the efficient 
application of the storage battery 
energy through single reduction 
gearing, thereby avoiding the use 
of the additional gear, pinion, and 
counter-shaft heretofore required, 
and eliminating the friction losses 
they involved, simplifying the me- 
chanical arrangement of the loco- 
motive, and reducing first cost 
and maintenance charges. The 
saving in energy consumption is, of 
course, specially important in that 
it increases the radius of action of 
storage battery locomotives for each 

While the electrification of mine hoists 
did not continue at the rapid pace set during 

ments of 100 h.p. and above, aggregating 
over 22,000 h.p., were supplied. The large 
majority of these were of the induction motor 

In the metal mining fields there were put 
into regular service an 1800-h.p. equipment 

Fig. 18. 2-ton, 201 

Fig. 17. HC Control Equipment for Mil 

Locomotive Showing Location of Hand 


the preceding year, a large number of motor 
applications were made in both the coal and 
metal mining fields, and upwards of 90 cquip- 

ch Gauge Storage Battery Locomotive with Battery 
Carrying Trailer 

at the Elm Orlu Mining Companv, Butte, 
Mont. (Figs. 20 and 21), and a 900-h.p. outfit 
at the Athens shaft of the Cleveland Cliffs 
Iron Mining Company, Ishpeming, Mich. 
Both of these equipments operate on the 
Ilgner-Ward Leonard system; the flywheel 

Fig. 19. Type of Motor Designed for Driving Storage Battery 

set affording, in each case, complete equaliza- 
tion of the maximum balanced duty cycle. 
Duplicate equipments of 1400 h.p. capacity, 
operating on the Ilgner-Ward Leonard sys- 
tem, were installed in the coal fields of West 
Virginia (Fig. 22). These are located at mines 
of the Consolidation Coal Company, and are 
initial installations of this type in the coal 
fields of the East. They are designed to hoist 

14 January 191S GENERAL ELECTRIC REVIEW Vol. XXI. No. 1 

Fig. 22.1400-h.p. Motor-driving First Motion Hoist at Mine No, 86. Consolidation Coal Company, Fair 
West Virginia— Duplicate Equipment at Mine No. 87 


485 tons of coal per hour from a vertical deplh 
of 550 feet, .3.25 tons being handled per triij, 
with the caj<es and cars operatinj^ in balance. 
The hoist motor is rated MOO h.p., 00 
r.p.m., at 550 volts, its armature beinr; mount- 
ed on the same shaft with the winding,' drum. 
The drum is of the cylindro-conical t>']je, the 
cylindrical portions being S ft. and 1 1 ft. in 
diameter. At full speed of the drum the cage 
speed reaches a maximum of ;ilOO feet per 
minute. The slack rope system is employed 
in which the lower cage is landed and its 
empty car replaced by a loaded one during the 
time the upper car is being dumped. The 
hoist motor is supplied with power through a 
flywheel motor-generator set whose demand 
on the power supply is automatically limited 
to GOO h.p., although the hoist motor develops 
a peak of ISOO h.p. during hoisting. 


This pier was designed and equipped for 
the rapid transfer of coal from cars to ship- 
hold with the lowest possible breakage of the 
coal. Its equipment at the shore end of the 
pier consists of two steam operated dum])ers, 
capable of handling 45 100-ton cars per hour, 
which in service have actually dumiped 50- 
ton cars at the rate of 60 per hour. 

The coal at the dumpers is deposited into 
hoppers and distributed by six short feeder 
belt conveyors to the conveying belt system 
of the pier. Two radial incline conveyors 
pivoted at the car dumpers also deliver direct- 
ly to the power station hopper or to a balanc- 
ing bin of GOOO tons capacity (Fig. 23). The 
feeder belts travel at varying speeds and are 
driven by motors averaging about 15 h.p. in 
capacity, while the incline conveyors each 
utilize a 150-h.p. motor. 

On the pier itself, which is 700 feet in 
length (Fig. 24), there are six longitudinal 
belts traveling at constant speed. The four 
inner or main conveyors are about 1000 feet 
long, with GO-inch belts, and on either side of 
the pier there is a 4<S-inch, S20-foot conveyor 
known as a trimmer. These con\^eyors all 
move at the rate of 425 feet per minute, each 
main conveyor being driven by a 3()0-h.p. 
motor and carrying coal at the rate of 1500 
tons per hour, while the trimmers are driven 
by 150-h.p. motors and have a capacity of 
1000 tons ]3er hour each, making the aggre- 
gate delivery of the pier 8000 tons per hour. 
The pier is 1 10 feet wide, and the six longitu- 
dinal conveyors occupy practically the entire 
deck space. 

The coal is transferred from the four cen- 
lrall\- located main conveyors to the hold of 
the ship by means of four transverse bridges 
(Fig. 25) arranged to travel lengthwise of the 
dock, and carrying shuttle con\'eyors from 
which the coal is finally delivered. The 
operation of the entire system of belts ser\'ing 
each of these bridges is centered in the bridge 
itself Ijy means of remote electrical control, 
whereby an operator, stationed at the end of 
the shuttle ram, controls not only the feeder 
belt speed, but also all the motions of the 
bridge structure, up, down, in, out, and along 
the pier, as well as the starting and stopping 
of the main conve\ior belts. 

The two trimmer conveyors likewise deliver 
coal by means of two traveling towers (Fig. 
2G) which move along the sides of the pier, 
and are provided with .30-foot iDrojecting 
booms pivoted at the tower which can swing 
270 deg. horizontally and 90 deg. vertically, 
and deliver the coal from the trimmer con- 
veyors directly into the hold of the ship. The 
four shuttle belts are driven by 35-h.p. motors, 
and the two trimmer towers and boom con- 
veyors by 40-h.p. motors. 

In addition to the remote control system 
for the widely separated motor drives, a unique 
arrangement of feeders furnish current for 
the various motions of bridges and towers, 
without resorting to the complicated system 
of trolley wires or feeder rails with their con- 
comitant contact shoes which would ordinari- 
ly be used. This is accomplished by running 
all feeder cables in conduits along the deck 
of the pier and bringing them out through 
bellmouths located at suitable points, whence 
they pass over rollers to cable reels mounted 
on the movable bridges and towers. For the 
bridges, the necessary tension is maintained 
on the cable by suitable counterweights 
when winding and unwinding, while in the 
case of the trimmer towers constant torque 
motors similar to those used in mining 
locomotive cable reels are utilized in place of 

Current is supplied to the pier substation 
from the transmission lines of the Consoli- 
dated Gas and Electric Company of Balti- 
more, at 1.3,200 volts, 3-phase, 25 cycles, 
and stepped down for the operation of three 
500 kw. s\Tichronous con^•erte^s. which in 
turn deliver current to the motor groups at 
550 volts through eight main feeders. 

As an indication of the speed with which 
ships can be loaded at this pier, 8000 tons of 
coal were stored in the hold of a steamer in 
three hours twenty minutes, including all 

16 January 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 


necessary hand trimming for the proper 
stowage of the cargo. 


The production of direct-current crane 
motors was considerably more than double 
that of any preceding year, the most notable 
feature being the increased demand for small 
crane motors, principally for use in ship- 
building yards. 

Among the larger equipments were six 
overhead traveling cranes of exceptional 
size. Two of these were of 22.")-ton capacity 
the total motor rating of each aggregating 
420 h.p. 

The remaining three cranes were the larg- 
est capacity units of this type ever built, 
being designed for a full load lift with the 
main hoist hook of 330 tons at 12.0 feet per 
minute. The ])ower ccjuipment for each 
crane comprised two 2(J()-h.p. main hoist 
motors, two 105-h.p. auxiliary hoist motors, 
an SO-h.p. and a 30-h.]j. motor for main and 
auxiliary trolley, and two 50-h.p. motors for 
bridge motion; all these capacities being 
intermittent ratings. 

Two high-speed alternating-current hammer- 
head coal handling gantry cranes, [provided 
with a unique system of dynamic braking, 
were installed at the La Belle Iron Works 

Fig. 27. High Speed AC. Hammer Head Coal Handling Gantry Cr 

A third crane of the same capacity had 
motors with a total intermittent rating of 
850 h.p. The two main hoist motors each 
had a rating of 2.50 h.p. for continuous, and 
425 h.p. for intennittent service, giving a 
hoisting speed for 225 tons of 40 feet per min- 
ute, and 120 feet per minute for 60 tons. 
Due to the high and variable speeds recjuired, 
the large current demands could not be han- 
dled to the best advantage through the usual 
arrangement of rheostats' and contactors, 
and Ward-Leonard control was, therefore, 
provided; this being the first application of 
this system of control on large cranes. 

* See paper by James 
Annual Convention of Ir 
tembor 10-H, 1917. 

ington and R. H. McLair 
nd Steel Electrieal Engii 

plant at Steubenville, Ohio. Each crane 
(Fig. 27) is equipped with a o75-h.p. slip 
ring induction motor direct coupled to a 40- 
h.p. direct-current motor, and hoists a four- 
ton bucket of coal at 500 feet per minute. 
The dynamic braking is obtained by combin- 
ing the small direct-current motor with the 
alternating-current motor so that the direct- 
current unit scr\-es as an exciter and gives 
d\-namic braking which is comparable with 
that ordinarily obtained with direct-current 
motors on this class of work. *This is the 
first application on any large scale of this 
system of d\niamic braking for cranes, which 
is more economical in first cost and has a 
number of practical operating advantages 
when compared with the method which 

IS January 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 

utilizes a motor-generator set in addition to 
an exciter for securing dynamic braking for 
alternating-current hoist motors. Creeping 
speeds of 110 feet per minute, lowering, are 
obtainable with these cranes under ordinary 
service conditions. 


I| ? |i 

wwww vwvww 


/yVSA. '/VVV ^ , AA/V\ 

Fig. 28. Connection Diagram of 3-phase 
Furnace Arranged for Variable Voltage 
Operation by Means of Changing High- 
voltage Connections. The High Melting 
Voltage is Obtained by Connecting High- 
voltage Windings Delta and the Low Re- 
fining Voltage by Connecting them "Y" 

Fig. 29. Connection Diagram of Furnace 
Equipment. Variable Voltage is Ob- 
tained by Means of High-voltage Taps 
and External Reactance is Provided to 
be Cut in During the Melting Period 


The individual capacity of electric furnaces 
has remained about the same since 1909, 
but in 1917, 2()-ton furnaces were put in 
operation and there is every indication of an 
early advance to a standard maximum of 30 
tons. The rate of steel production in these 

furnaces has been increased by the use of 
higher capacitv transformers and higher 
voltages, which" permit of forcing power into 
the furnace at considerably higher rates. 

Taking for example, the 6-ton furnace, 
which is the size in greatest general use, the 
transformer capacity has increased from 
900 kv-a. to 1500 kv-a., and even 1800 ky-a. 
has been proposed, all these capacities being 
based on 100 volts. In the variable voltage 
equipments the successful use of 150 volts 
renders it possible to increase the normal 
1500 kv-a. up to 2250 ky-a. 

Although 100 volts remains standard for 
refining, voltages up to 173 have been used 
for melting, these voltages being obtained 
either by high voltage taps or high voltage Y- 
delta, as shown in Fig. 28. 

The use of high voltages during melting 
down permits of decreasing the current for a 
given input, improves the power factor, and 
insures higher emergency input when most 
needed. When it is considered desirable to 
use external reactance with high voltage taps, 
the method of using these reactances is shown 
in Fig. 29. 

The most important of the recent develop- 
ments in electric furnace practice are the im- 
provements resulting in the increased use of 
the improved G-E system of automatic con- 

The control panel is made in three sections, 
as shown in Fig. 30. The top section contains 
three shunt relays and three contactor groups ; 
the total number of each being in accordance 
with the number of electrodes used. The 
middle section has three contact-making 
ammeters each provided with dashpots to 
prevent hunting, and with coils provided 
with taps which are used to vary the amount 
of power supplied to the furnace. Beneath 
are three small dial switches which are con- 
nected to the coil taps. On the lowest 
section there are four d.p.s.t. knife blade 
switches with fuses, one switch being used 
for the line and the others for the electrode 

Each contactor group consists of three 
units all mechanicallj^ interlocked, two con- 
tactors being normally open and one being 
normally closed. 

Facing the panel, the left-hand contactor 
of any group makes the necessary connections 
to raise the electrode, while the right-hand 
contactor causes the electrode to be lowered 
and the bottom contactor short circuits the 
motor armature through a resistance, in this 
way dynamically braking all mo-\-ing parts 



and stoppinj^ them almost instantly. A 
higher resistance is connected in circuit with 
the armature when lowering than when rais- 
ing, this being done to keep the sj)eed apj)roxi- 
mately constant. 

The shunt-wound electrode motor (Fig. 31) 
is connected to the line until the desired 
regulation is obtained, when the motor is 
disconnected and stopped instanta- 
neously by means of dynamic braking, this 
method giving the simplest and most posi- 
tive control of the electrode movement. The 
type of motor used was designed for this 
particular service, especially in regard to 
self-lubricating bearings, and ranges in size 

Fig. 30. Control Panel for Furnace 

from 1 to 1}'2 h.p. for small equipments to 
5 h.p. for 15- to 20-ton furnaces. 


The uniircccdented cx]iansion which oc- 
curred in the iron and steel industry during 
the years of lOl.o and IDKi continued un- 
checked during the first nine months of 1!I17. 

With a few exceptions, the great quantity of 
electrical equipment purchased by the steel 
industry during the year comprised the less 
spectacular but equally important auxiliary' 
drives, control, transformers, motor-genera- 
tors, etc. 

Fig. 31. Shunt-wound Electrode Motor with Special Bearings 
and Conduit Terminal Box 

There was added approximately 60,000 
h.p. (normal continuous rating) to the exist- 
ing capacity of main roll drives installed by 
the General Electric Company, bringing the 
present grand total, including onh' units of 
300 h.p. and above, to the impressive figure 
of 315,000 h.p. This does not include the 
capacity of auxiliary flywheel motor-genera- 
tors, speed regulating sets, etc., which are an 
essential part of manj' of these main roll 

The first reversing mill drives built by the 
General Electric Company and, incidentally, 
the largest single unit motors of this type in 
the country, were placed in successful oi>era- 
tion by the Ashland Iron and Mining Com- 
pany, Ashland, Ky. (Figs 32, 33, and 34), 
and the Keystone Steel and Wire Companv, 
Peoria, 111. ' 

Other important reversing equipments were 
under construction for the Bethlehem Steel 
Company, Sparrows Point, Md., and the 
Trumbull Steel Company, Warren, Ohio, each 
comprising a double-unit consisting of two 
Ashland Steel type motors, electrically in 
series on a common base. Two other equip- 
ments of similar mechanical design but with 
even greater normal capacity were being 
constructed for the Lackawanna Steel Com- 
pany and the Tennessee Coal, Iron, and Rail- 
road Company. This last equipment con- 
sists of a double-unit main roll motor, 5600 
h.p. normal rating, guaranteed peak 22,000 

20 January 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 

h.p., which is supplied with current from a 
flywheel motor-generator, the generator of 
which consists of three units electrically in 
series. Taking into account the guaranteed 
overloads and speeds, this in the largest 

2500-h.p., 40/120-r.i 
Mill, Ashland Ir 

Motor-driving 36-inch Reversing Bli 
fining Company, Ashland, Ky. 

Fig. 33. Flywheel Motor-generator Set for Power Supply of Reversing Mill 

Motor, Shown in Fig. 31, 2000-h.p., 360-r.p.m., 2300-volt Motor. 

2000-kw., 360-r.p.m. Generator, 100,000 lb. Flywheel, Ashland 

Iron Mining Company, Ashland, Ky. 

dri\'e vet contracted for 



The question of adjustable speed alter- 
nating-current motors assumed increasing 
importance with the successful installation 

of the first of the so-called double-range 
speed regulating sets developed by the Gener- 
al Electric Company. By means of these 
sets, strictly adjustable and highly efficient 
speed control can be obtained at all points 
within the range for which the equip- 
ment is designed. The motors may 
be built for either constant torque or 
constant horse power throughout the 
speed range. With the auxiliary set 
in operation, the normal synchronous 
speed virtually disappears and strictly 
continuous control at and near, as 
well as at points remote from syn- 
chronism, is obtained without sacri- 
fice of the desirable maximum torque 
characteristics common to simple mill 
type induction motors. There are 
now in operation, or nearing comple- 
tion at the factory, 49 of these auxil- 
iary speed regulating equipments, 
all but one of which in\'olve the 
now well known modified Scherbius 
alternating-current commutator ma- 

One of the most notable contracts 
ever closed for steel mill electrical 
equipment was that with the Ten- 
nessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Com- 
pany, which, in addition to the re- 
versing drive mentioned above, also 
included one 4000 h.p. unit (constant) 
with double-range speed regulating 
set, to give continuous control from 
130/155 r.p.m. 

Another notable contract with the 
Tata Iron and Steel Company, Sakchi, 
India, included in part one 2250-h.p., 
450/300-r.p,m. motor with speed regu- 
lating set; one 2000-h.p., 200-r.p.m. 
motor; one 1500-h.p., 250-r.p.m. 
motor; and one 600-h.p., 550/370- 
r.p.m. motor with speed regulating 

This contract also included: 

two 5000-kw., one 4200-kw., and 
one 3000-kw. turbo generators ; 
three 750-kw. motor-generators; 
ten 200-kv-a. transformers; 
four turbo-compressors, two of 
45,000 cu. capacity, and one 
each of 28,000 and 37,500 cu. 
ft. respectivel}- ; 
four 8700 cu. ft. gas exhausters, turbo 
driven, about 40 crane equipments, 
motors and control; also all auxiliary- 
motors for use with mills driven by the 
above mentioned main roll motors. 


Some remarkable records were established 
in the manufacture of motors: for example, a 
4000-h.p., 83-r.p.m., 6G00-volt mill type 
motor with pedestal bearings, base, and 
110,000 lb. flywheel on the motor shaft was 
contracted for on May KJth, and built, ship- 
ped, installed, and ptit into commercial opera- 
tion by Oct. ITlh. 


For this industry there was developed a 
new system of electric drive of the cane 
crushing rolls. 

As the crushed cane passes through the 
several sets of rolls (Fig. 35), it is necessary 
to preserve a given relative speed from roll 
to roll and also to vary the speed of the mill 
as a whole without changing the predeter- 
mined relative speeds. As the cane feed 
varies, the torque of the motors will also vary, 
and means mtist therefore be provided for 
maintaining a given speed independent of 
the load. 

Previous practice utilized variable speed 
induction motors with manual speed control, 
through the adjustment of the secondary 
motor resistance, to obtain relative speed 
control and to reduce the output of the whole 
mill. With the variation in torque experi- 
enced it was found difficult to maintain a 
given relative speed, and when it was desired 
to operate at reduced output it was found 
that the motors required the same power in- 
put. Since, however, the refuse cane consti- 
tuting the fuel was reduced, it was necessary 
to make up the deficiency with wood or coal. 

HHKLLi^^aiiii.1. fciiai iiil 

■ . ■ IIL 111 ^ 


^^^^ -■»' '•? ^ 



Fig. 34. Swilchboard in Motor Room and Sub-station, for 36-inch Reversing Blooming 
Mill. Ashland Iron Mining Company, Ashland. Ky 

Fig. 35. Typical Cane Crushing Rolls in Sugar Mill 

The new system provides for automatic 
control for the relative speed adjustments and 
a variable speed steam turbine generator, to 
give reduced output of the mill. Each motor 
is ser\fd from an individual control panel 
(Fig. 36) which contains elec- 
trically operated switches for 
regulating the speed of the 
motor. Master controllers 
which control the motors 
t hrough the panels are grouped 
at a convenient point on the 
mill platform and give the 
operator complete control of 
the motors, excepting that 
general speed changes of the 
mill are made at the turbine 
governors. The several mo- 
tors driving the individual rolls 
comprising a mill or tandem 
are operated from a turbine 
independent of the sugar 
house, and speed changes 
of the mill will not, there- 
fore, afTect the normal op- 
oration of the motor-driven 
pumps and miscellaneous 

22 January 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 

On the shaft of each motor is mounted a 
direct-current magneto type generator which 
excites the magnet coil of a balanced relay. 
Contact points on this relay operate a pilot 
motor which moves the contact arms of a 
dial switch and thereby varies the resistance 

Fig. 36. Main Control Panel for 200-h.p., 440-volt. Three-phase, 45/65-cycli 
Variable Speed Induction Motor for Driving Cane Crushing Rolls 

in the motor secondary. As the torque on 
the motor varies, the speed will vary, and 
thus the change in the voltage of the magneto 
generator will vary the pull on the arm of the 
relay and start the pilot motor up in a direc- 
tion to change the amount of secondary 
motor resistance to restore the motor speed. 
A resistance in the magneto generator circuit 
regulated by the master controllers will pro- 
vide means for adjustment of the motor speed. 
A change in the speed of the tandem 
changes the speed of the magneto generators 
as well, and would ordinarily affect the 
balance of the relays. Here a rather inge- 
nious idea is used to cause the speed governors 
to readjust themselves to a change in syn- 
chronous speed. The turbine generator is 
operated at constant excitation with changes 
in speed. The voltage will, therefore, be in 
proportion to the frequency. The magnet 
coil of the relay, which is excited from the 
direct current magneto generator, is balanced 
by a coil excited from the alternating-current 
power circuit. The change in synchronous 
speed of the motors will therefore cause a 
proportionate change in both the direct-cur- 
rent and alternating-current coils of the relay, 
and thereby preserve the balance. The same 
relative speeds are therefore maintained from 

roll to roll when the speed of the whole mill 
is changed. 

The automatic control panel provides for 
one point forward and one point reverse to 
75 per cent speed with automatic acceleration, 
two points forward giving 80 and 85 per cent 
speed by manual control, and 
ten points from 85 per cent to 
noiTnal load speed with auto- 
matic speed governor. Auto- 
matic control is also included 
for the two points of manual 
control and the master con- 
troller can be quickly brought 
to any desired operating point 
without overloading the mo- 
tor. While a range in relative 
speed is provided up to 15 
per cent with normal load 
torque, it is not expected that 
all of the motors will operate 
at the same time over this 

Operation of the whole mill 
over a range of 30 per cent 
is done efficiently by means 
of a change in the turbine 
generator speed. If the excita- 
tion of an alternating-current 
generator is maintained constant and thespeed 
varied, the voltage and frequency will vary 
proportionately. An induction motor opera- 
ting at constant torque from such a generator 
will draw approximately the same current at 

Fig. 37. Load Regulator for Pulp Grinde 


different frequencies, and the power input 
will vary approximately as the speed. The 
power requirements of the mill are, therefore, 
in proportion to the fuel dcHvered by the 
mill artd additional fuel is, therefore, not 

The pioneer equipment is being 
installed in Central Cunagua, 


Under normal operating condi- 
tions the current demand on grinder 
motors is subject to considerable 
fluctuation, dvie largely to the 
changes in load which occur when 
pockets are thrown on or off and 
to variations in the water pressure 
on the pockets. 

In order to eliminate these dis- 
turbing effects a regulator was de- 
signed to maintain a practically 
constant load on grinder motors 
at any predetermined value, so 
that the current variations are 
held within such narrow limits 
that their influence on the electric 
system is practically negligible. 
This result is accomplished by 
automatically regulating the water pressure 
on the pockets by means of a motor operated 
throttle valve. 

The regulator consists of a small induction 
motor (Fig. 37) which is connected through 
series current transformers to the feeder lines 
of the grinder motor. The rotor of the regu- 
lator motor rotates through a small angle 
and actuates the throttle valve of the main 
water supply to the grinder, thereby auto- 
matically reducing the water pressure when 
the load on the grinder motor starts to in- 
crease, and conversely opening the throttle 
vah'e and increasing the water pressure to 
compensate for a falling load. 

While this regulating device is simple and 
strong mechanically, it is also very sensitive 
to the load changes and smooth in its opera- 
tion. Actual ser-\'ice tests show that with a 
single three-pocket grinder, with instanta- 
neous changes in load as great as 33} 3 
per cent, the fluctuations on the driving 
motor feeder circuit did not exceed 2 per 

While the results achieved by the regulator 
on the electrical system are excellent, the 
most important eflect of its use is the very 
considerable increase in production secured. 
Without the resjulator the grinder must of 

necessity operate for \'ar>'ing periods at 
reduced output when the pockets are being 
filled, whereas with the regulator in operation 
such reductions in load are instantly corrected 
by the changes in water pressure, so that the 
motor-driven grinder set, when provided with 

Fig. 38. Outline of Contactor Panel and Controller for Rubber Calender Drive 

this regulator, is always operating at its 
maximiun rate of production. 


There was designed a new system of semi- 
automatic control for 115 '230 volt 4 1 speed 
double \'oltage shunt wound motors for driv- 
ing rubber calenders. 

The calender drive is operated through a 
master controller (Fig. 3S) designed to give 
115 or 23tt volt operation with IS field points 
on each voltage for speed regulation. 

Throwing the master controller in one 
direction starts the motor on 115 volts and 
the field is automatically kept at full strength 
during acceleration. The accelerating con- 
tactors are of the series current limit type 
and have a load pick-up to insure that they 
will come in on light loads. When the final 
accelerating contactor closes, the motor will 
further accelerate to the full weakened speed 
at which the controller is set. 

If a still higher speed is desirable, swinging 
the controller handle in the opposite direction 
will put the motor on the 23()-volt line where 
armature and field acceleration will occur as 
on the 115-volt line. IS additional speed points 
being now axailable. There is no obiection 
to starting directly on 230 volts if the operator 

24 January 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 

so desires. Bringing the controller to the 
"off" position will allow the motor to stop. 
A feature of the equipment is the ' ' quick 
stop " device. This is a small enclosed switch 
with a lever arranged to be operated by a rope, 
which runs across the calender where the 

Fig. 39. Portable X-ray Outfit Set-up, Ready foi 

workman can easily reach it. When this 
switch is pulled all line circuits are broken 
and the calender equipment is brought to a 
very quick stop by means of three-point 
dynamic braking. The calender drive cannot 
be started again until the stop switch is reset. 

The entire system is extremely simple. 
There is not an electrical interlock on the 
control panel, and this is an important feature, 
as in previous methods of control, which 
utilized electrical interlocking, the sulphur 
in the rubber mills formed a coating in the 
interlock contacts, which 
at times prevented them 
from making circuit. Me- 
chanical interlocks are used 
in the new system and 
afford protection against 
the possibility of contact- 
ors sticking in. The ac- 
celerating contactors have 
a self-contained operating 
and calibrating coil, and 
the contactor is cut out 
after operating. 

The motor used for the 
calender drive is the type 
RF (referred to under the 
heading "Direct-current Motors"), which is 
applied in sizes up to 75 h.p. for single voltage, 
and 125 h.p. for double voltage equipments. 
Where the single voltage system is used. 

either automatic or semi-automatic control 
can be provided. 


Immediately upon the receipt of news that 
a state of war existed with Germany, all the 
facilities of the Research 
Laboratory were placed at the 
disposal of the Government 
authorities by the General 
Electric Company. As a 
result of the acceptance of 
this offer of service, a very 
considerable proportion of the 
work done by the laboratory 
force during the year was di- 
rected toward the furtherance 
of our national aims. 

While even a general indi- 
cation of the character of this 
work is obviously inadvisable 
at present, the production of 
a practical, portable X-ray 
outfit, which is of interest 
both from a scientific and humanitarian view- 
point, may be cited. 

Also along purely commercial lines reference 
will be made to applications of the Kenotron. 

Portable X-ray Outfit 

In order that troops in active service at a 
distance from base hospitals might have the 
benefits of X-ray examination promptly 
available, a complete, compact, portable 
field service X-ray outfit (Fig. 40) was de- 
signed and assembled. 

Fig. 40. Separate Units Comprising Portable X-ray Outfit 

This was accomplished by a process of 
elimination through a series of tests which 
resulted in the final assembly of the most 
suitable products of several manufacturers 
which are used in connection with the 
Coolidge tube.* 


The equipment (Fig. 40) consists of a 
single cylinder air cooled gasolene engine 
direct connected to a 1-kw. direct-current 
generator provided with slip rings, so that 
current at a frequency of 47 cycles is supplied ; 
the carburetor of the engine is controlled 
through a solenoid and the necessary changes 
in speed are effected by means of a simple 
resistance unit, located at the head of the 
operating table when the outfit is being used. 

Due to the rectification characteristics of 
the Coolidge tube no sejjarate rectifier is 
required. The entire equipment including 
the operating table can be rapidly assembled 
or disassembled for transportation, the com- 
plete set having a net weight of about 860 lb. 

While sets for similar service have been 
developed in Europe, under the spur of urgent 
need, the equipment here referred to consti- 
tutes the first American portable X-ray 

The Kenotron 

This device depends for its operation on 
the fact that a highly evacuated space con- 
taining two metal electrodes (Fig. 41), one 
of which is incandescent and the other cold, 

* See article by Saul Dushman, Gener.\l Electric Review, 
May 191,5. 


possesses a unilateral conductivity, current 
passing through the tube only when the heat- 
ed electrode is negative. The amount of 
current which can be rectified by such a device 
increases rapidly with the temperature of 
the heated electrode, but remains constant 
as long as the temperature of the latter is 
maintained constant.* 

These characteristics render possible the 
use of the Kenotron as a rectifier for the pro- 
duction of high-voltage direct-current from 
an alternating-current source. At present, 
potentials up to 100,000 volts are secured 
with standard equipments. 

When the Kenotron was first produced in 
the Research Laboratory several practical 
applications were predicted for it, and two of 
these were realized commercially during the 
past year. 

The first of these was in connection with 
the process of precipitation b\' means of 
high voltage direct-current for the reclamation 
of usable materials in gases or smoke, or the 
abatement of the nuisance caused by the 
emission of noxious gases or smoke from flues 
or stacks. The Kenotron equipment for this 
service is shown in Fig. 42. 

This precipitation process was in use to a 
verv considerable extent for a number of 

Fig. 41. High-voltage Kenotri 
Maximum Voltage 90.000 
d-c. on Half-wave 

Fig. 42. Switchboard Panel with Protective Devices for use < 

Kenotron Precipitation Outfits, with Filament 

Transformers for Kenotrons 

26 January 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 

years prior to the development of the Keno- 
tron, and the necessary high voltage direct- 
current was secured by means of a inechanical 
rectifier, the use of which involved the tolera- 
tion of certain undesirable features which 
the use of the Kenotron eliminates. 

The operation of the mechanical rectifier 
is unavoidabh' noisy and is productive of 
high frequency surges which are reflected 
back to the transformer line and impose 
severe and continuous strains on the trans- 

the reduction of blast furnace gases, the sup- 
pression of smoke in railroad round houses, 
and for recovery purposes in the acid plant 
of a chemical company and in one of the 
largest copper smelters in the world. 

The second appHcation of the Kenotron 
was in the production of high voltage, portable 
cable testing sets similar to the one shown in 
Fig. 45, which was supplied to the Philadel- 
phia Electric Company. This set, which 
weighs onh' 1000 lb., is provided with trans- 

Fig. 43. Expe 

Voltage Off 

Experimental Precipitator Used in Electr: 
^cipitation of Coal Smoke — Voltage On 

former windings. These frequencies are so 
high that it is practically impossible to secure 
dependable oscillograph records of them. 
On the other hand, the Kenotron is abso- 
lutely noiseless in operation, and the recti- 
fication is nearly perfect with maximum 
voltage fluctuations of less then 15 per cent 
when delivering direct-current at 100,000 

The application of the Kenotron is shown in 
Figs. 43 and 44 which indicate the results 
obtained with an experimental equipment. 
During the year installations were made for 

formers, resistances, spark gaps, and instru- 
ment lead terminals, all arranged in one com- 
pact portable outfit and gives potentials 
for testing cables up to 00,000 volts. 


In the January 1917 Review the intro- 
duction of Tungar rectifiers was mentioned. 
Since that time some 5000 of these rectifiers 
have been sold, and the varieties of service 
to which they have been put have been quite 
astonishing in view of their comparatively 
recent development. • 


They are applied in charging, starling,', and 
lighting batteries on automobiles, motor 
boats, motorcycles, in ]3rivate and public 
garages, in groups as high as ten batteries, 
many public garages having from three to 
five rectifiers in service (Fig. 47). The}' are 

In therapeutic work they have been installed 

in doctors' and dentists' offices; and in connec- 
tion with X-ray outfits for exciting the fields of 
synchronous motors. They also supply cur- 
rent for energizing electro-magnets on electric 
organs and pianos, etc.; in fact, almost daily. 

Fig. 47. Installation of 6-amp., 75-volt Tungar Rectifiers 
Service Station, Albany. N. Y. 

Willard Storage Battery 

also Utilized for charging the batteries re- 
quired for the operation of clocks, telephones, 
fire alarms, etc., and for track and motor 
batteries on railway signal systems. 

Oeneral Electric 

Fig. 45. High voltage. Portable Dii 

t Cable Testing Set 

some new application for Tungar rectifiers is 
brought to light. 

Standard Tungar rectifiers are now built 
in sizes from 0.1 ampere and 7.5 volts up to 
15 amperes and lOS volts, with many inter- 
mediate sizes and voltages. 

This type of rectifier is so radically diff'erent 
from any other device for similar piirposes, 
and in most cases is so far superior to any- 
thing manufactured at the present lime for 
certain ap])lications, that it has met with 
great favor, and in actual operation has 
proven very efficient, simple to operate, and 
generally economical. 


The use of static condensers for the correc- 
tion of power factor was placed on a practical 
commercial basis by the design and construc- 
tion of a number of equipments similar in 
general arrangement to that shown in Fig. 48. 

They consist essentially of groups of con- 
denser sections, each made up of layers of 
thin paper and tinfoil assembled in oil in 
metal containers. The sections are individ- 
ually fused, and in addition an oil switch Is 
provided for connecting to and disconnecting 
from the line. 

28 January 19 IS 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 

It was found that when condenser sections 
were connected directly across the line no 
improvement in power factor was secured, 
but that by inserting a small reactance in 
series with the condenser the use of practi- 
cally the entire capacity of the condenser 

Fig. 48. Indoor Type Static Condi 

sections for power factor correction was pos- 

As compared with the synchronous con- 
denser, the static condenser shows exceed- 
ingly high efficiencies, the losses being less 
than one per cent of the total kv-a. regardless 
of capacity. As there are no moving parts 
except the simple mechanism of the oil switch, 
the outfit requires practically no attendance 
or renewal of parts. It weighs less and 
occupies less space for a given capacity than 
a synchronous condenser, and its structural 
form may be readily modified to meet any 
reasonable demands caused by space limita- 
tions, and, finally, it is noiseless in operation. 

A number of equipments are now in suc- 
cessful operation in sizes 50, 100, 150 and 300 
kv-a., 40 and 00 cycles single-phase, two- 
phase and three-phase, and in voltages rang- 
ing from 220 to 2300, and equijimcnts up to 
400 kv-a., are now under construction. 


In any electrical system of distribution an 
instantaneous or sustained increase or de- 
crease of current produces a corresponding 
voltage change, more or less pronounced, 
depending on "the combined regulation of the 
line and the transformer from which power is 
drawn. If the system on which the phenorn- 
ena take place is one used for power distri- 
bution alone, usually no serious results occur. 
If the S3'stem, however, is a mixed one supply- 
ing a combination load of lamps and motors, 
or other power apparatus, then the changes 
of the voltages do produce serious results in 
the form of lamp flicker, which may be indi- 
cated by either a sudden increase or decrease 
in the intensity of illumination. Incandes- 
cent lamps, being very sensitive to voltage 
changes, may show marked flicker even if the 
voltage variation be only one or two per cent. 
In fact this trouble has become so objection- 
able that the installation of motors in com- 
bination with lamps is considered inadvisable 
by some of the larger lighting companies. 

The stabilizer, which was produced to 
overcome these conditions (Fig. 49), is es- 

Fig. 49. Voltage Stabilizer 
for Alternating-cur- 
rent Circuit 

sentially a highly reactive transformer hav- 
ing a ijrimary through which the inotor cur- 
rent flows, and a secondary which is connected 
in series with the lamp load and boosts by an 
amount proportional to the voltage drop 
caused while starting. 


It consists of a laminated core into which 
an adjustable airgap has been interposed. 
On the middle leg of the core structure are 
interwound the motor and lamp coils. When 
starting, the rush of current through the 
motor coil excites the magnetic circuit of the 
stabihzer and induces a voltage in the lamp 
coil which is substantially in phase with the 
lamp voltage. This action is shown in the 
diagram, Fig. 50, where E is the voltage added 
vectorially by the lamp coil in order to main- 
tain El. the lamp voltage, at a constant value. 
If, however, a transformer or reactance is 
inserted permanently in series with the motor 
its terminal voltage is appreciably lowered 
and this might be detrimental, since in some 
cases full load could not be delivered. In the 
stabilizer this effect is overcome in two ways : 
First, by designing so that at normal full 
load running current the flux density in the 
iron core is low — this means then a corre- 

/IC C//rci//r.s. 
Diagram of Vector Relations of Voltage 

spondingly low voltage drop; Second, by 
inserting an air gap in the iron core the ap- 
paratus is made highly reactive and most of 
the drop over the motor coil is in quadrature 
with the line voltage, except for copper and 
core loss. These lo.sses can and must be keiU 
low in order lo make the apparatus efficient. 


The circular coil form of construction was 
embodied in larger sizes, of both self -cooled 
and water-cooled types than in preceding 
years. These coils permit the best distribu- 
tion of the insulation electrically, and their 

Fig. 51. Core and Coils for America's Largest Transformer — 
50,000 Kv-a. Output 

structure has proved to be ideal for resisting 
the mechanical forces imposed by short circuits. 

Another important feature of circular coil 
construction is the uniform heating and 
absence of hot spots. This is accompHshed 
through the use of many thin coils, a large 
number of oil ducts, and the bracings possible 
with circular coils which do not interfere with 
good radiation. 

The largest capacity transformer (Fig. 51) 
ever built in America was completed. It is a 
three-])hasc auto-transfonncr unit rated at 
25, 01)0 kv-a. with a maximum output of 
50.000 kv-a., and was designed to withstand 
mechanical stresses incident to momentary 
short circuit. It is intended for stepping up 
the out])ut of a 45.000-kv-a.. GO-cycle turbine 
generator, from 12.200 volts to 24,400 volts, 
and exce])tionally high efficiencies were indi- 
cated during its test; v\z., full load, 99.4 per 

30 January 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 

Fig. 52. Largest Self-cooled Transformer — 8000 
Kv-a. 25 Cycle. 44,000-6600 Volts 

Fig. 53. 10.000 kv-a. Transformer, Equipped with 
Oil Conservator 


Fig. 54. Combination Radiator and 
Corrugated Type Tank 

Fig. 55. Standard 1 S kv-a . 100,000- 

volt Precipitator Transformer with 

Protective Choke Coils 



cent; three-quarter and half-load, 99.5 ])er 
cent, and one-quarter load 99.3 per cent 
based on 50,000 kv-a. output. 

A number of single-phase self-cooled trans- 
formers of record size were produced. Among 
these were several SOOO-kv-a., 25-cycle, 44,000- 
b(300-volt units, three of which are to be used 
to give a bank output of 24,000 kv-a. They 
were designed to be proof against momentary 
short circuit stresses and their interior con- 
struction is indicated in Fig. 52. 

In the building of these transformers 
(Fig. 56) a new form of radiator tank was 
developed which worked out so successfully 
that many of its features were adopted for 

some of the largest transformers produced. 
With this arrangement all joints in the trans- 
former tank are made oil- and air-tight, and 
an expansion chamber is added as shown in 
Fig. 53. The transformer tank is completely 
filled with oil, and all expan.sion and con- 
traction of the oil is taken care of in the con- 
servator. This construction has two main 
advantages; viz., moisture due to breathing is 
trapped and prevented from entering the trans- 
former, and there are no spaces where gas or air 
may accumulate inside the transformer tank. 
In connection with the Cottrell electric 
precipitation process, already referred to 
vmder the subject heading "Kenotron," a 

Radiator Type T 

25-cycle. Self-cooled 

other new tank constructions, particularly in 
combination with the well known corrugated 
tank. This new tank combines a corrugated 
tank with external radiators to give a greatly 
increased cooling surface (Fig. 54). 

For electric furnace service an unjire- 
cedcnted number of circular coil transformers 
were constructed and installed. Some of 
these have already been in use for considerable 
periods and have amply demonstrated that 
the circular coil construction is well adapted 
to meet conditions involved in electric 
furnace operation. 

Further improvement was secured in the 
oil conservator tank, and it was applied on 

comi^lete line of transformers (Fig. 55) was 
developed and standardized. There are some 
unusual features in these transformers due 
to their high operating voltages and the high 
frequency surges to which they are unavoid- 
ably subjected. Their insulation is excep- 
tionally heavy, extra precautions are taken 
to eliminate all moisture, and the tanks are 
oil- and air-tight. The standard line includes 
50,000-, 75,000-, 85,000- and 100,000-volt 

Included among the orders received for 
precipitator transformers, was one for the 
largest installation of this process that has so 
far been made. 

32 January 191S 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 


I ? 2 ? 9 " s 11 • 



is I 



3 S-fi 

° s 











I .St 



POTENTIAL TRANSFORMERS Kv-a. Continuous Rating at 55 deg. C. Rise 

One of the most im])ortant developments (A.I.E.E. Basis) 

from a transformer standpoint was the 
progress made in more definitely establishing 
standard ratings for transformers for various 
classes of service. 

In Fig. 57 there is shown the classification 
of transformers according to their use and 
application, and in Fig. 58 the relative loca- 
tion of various classes of transformers on a 

Specific Standardization of Generating Station 

No definite standard voltage ratings have 
yet been established for generating station 
transformers, and for the time being, at least, 
they should be considered as a part of the 
generating apparatus. All requirements which 
would tend to complicate the design of such 
units, and which are not essential from an 
operating standpoint, should be eliminated. 



Standard Line 

Transformer High 

Voltage Ratings 

for Operation from Various 

Standard Line 



and Low Voltage 


and Motors 



to 220/110 (3 

to 230/115 (3 

to 220/110 (3 
to 230/115 (3 










or to 220/440 

or to 230/460 .... 

or to 220/440 .... 
or to 230/460 .... 

220 '440 

230 460 

220 440 

230 460 

220,440. .. 
230 460 .. . 

440. . . 
460. . . 

.or to 550 



. or to 575 







. or to 550 
.o. to 575 

. or to 550 
.or to 575 

.or to 550 



. or to 575 


. or to 550 


13800 . . 

.or to 575 


.or to 550 



.or to 575 









Standard Line Voltages for 
Transmission and Low 
Voltage Distribution 

Transformer High Voltage Ratings 

for Operation from Various 

Standard Line Voltages 

Transformer Low Voltage Ratings 

for Supplying Nominal 2300-voU 

Distribution and Motors 











2300 4000Y 







34 January 191S 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 


















































































































Specific Standardization of Substation Transformers 
for Miscellaneous Lighting and Power Service 

Standard Types are self-cooled, of either single- 
phase or three-phase. 
Water-cooled, of either single-phase 
or three-phase. 

c., , , r • _ i 60 cycles per second. 

Standard Frequencies are | 35 cycles per second. 

Standard Voltage Ratings for supplying service 
voltages 575 and below are given in Table No. 1, 
and for supplying 2300- volt low voltage distribution 
and motors in Table No. 2. 

Standard Taps: Standard single-phase sub-sta- 
tion transformers are provided 
with four approximately 2J^ 
per cent taps in the high voltage 

Specific Standardization of Distribution Trans- 
formers for Miscellaneous Lighting and Power 

Standard Types are self-cooled of either single- 
phase or three-phase. 

Standard Frequencies are ( %% "^f^^ P^"" =^^°"^- 
^ \ 2o cycles per second. 



Standard Line 
Voltages for 
and Low Voltage 







Transformer High 

Voltage Ratings 

for Operation 

from Various Standard 

Line Voltages 

Lighting and Motors 

440 to 110/220 

460 to 115 230 

480 to 120 240 

550 to 110 220 

575 to 115, 230 

2200 to 110/220 or to 220/440 or to 550 

2300 to 115/230 or to230/460 or to 575 

2400 to 120/240 or to 240/4S0 or to 600 

2200 4400 to 110/220 I 

2300 4600 to 115/230 

2400, 4X00 to 120/240 | 

6600/11430Y to 110/220 or to 220/440 or to 550 

6900/1 1950Y to 115/230 or to 230/460 or to 575 

7200/12470Y to 120/240 or to 240/480 or to 600 

11000 to 110/220 or to 220/440 or to 550 

11500 to 115/230 or to 230/460 or to 575 

13200 to 110/220 or to 220/440 or to 550 

13800 to 115/230 or to 230/460 or to 575 

22000 to 110/220 or to 220/440 or to 550 

23000 to 115/230 or to 230/460 or to 575. 

33000 to 110/220 or to 220/440 or to 550 

j34500 ;tolIS/230 lor to 230/460 or to 575 



Standard Line Voltages for Trans- 
mission and Low \'oltage Dis- 


Transformer High Voltage Ratings | 

I for Operation from Various 

Standard Line Voltages 

t 6600/11430Y to 

11000 to 

13200 to 

22000 to 

33000 to 

Transformer Low Voltage Ratings 

for Supplj-ing Nominal 2300-volt 

Distribution and Motors 




2300 4000Y 


36 January 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 




(a) Single-phase — oil-cooled 

(b) Three-phase — oil-cooled 

(c) Single-phase — water-cooled 

(d) Three-phase — water-cooled 


(a) 60 cycles per second 

(b) 25 cycles per second 

Transformer Standard Kv-a. Sizes and Low Voltage 



transformer's rated low voltage 

1200-volt d-c. 

1500-volt d-c. 













ting Pole 



65 200 

385 or 445 





100 300 

445 1 370 




135 400 



1 770 



165 500 



' 770 



260 780 





350 1050 





525 1575 





700 2100 





1050 3150 










Note. — Transformers having low voltages 370, 385, 770 or 965 for use with three-phase converters and 
those having 430, 445, 890 or 1115 are for use with six-phase converters. 

Starting Taps. — 50 per cent starting tap will be provided in low voltage winding of all transformers. 

Inherent Reactance. — Transformers are designed with 10 to 15 per cent inherent reactance with 
minimum of 10 per cent. 

Standard Transformer High Voltage Ratings 

Standard Line 

standard transformer high voltage ratings for operation 



On Full 


mately on 


2^ per cent Tap 1 5 per cent Tap 

7}^ per cent Tap 

10 per cent Tap 











2145 2090 









10725 10450 

12870 12540 

18623 18145 

(32175Y) (31350Y) 









Note. — For transformers 165 kv-a. single-phase, 500 kv-a. three-phase, and smaller, taps in high voltage 
winding will be for reduced kv-a. output at established temperature rise. For transformers 260 kv-a. single- 
phase, 780 kv-a. three-phase, and larger, taps in high voltage winding will be for full kv-a. output at established 
temperature rise. 


Standard Taps: Standard distribution trans- 
formers wound for voltages be- 
low the 6n00-volt class are not 
provided with taps. Standard 
distribution transformers of the 
6900-volt class or for higher 
voltages, are provided with taps 
in the high voltage winding for 
approximately 5 and 10 per 
cent voltage variation. 
Exception — Past demand neces- 
sitates an exception in the case 
of transformers of the O'.(00-volt 
class for supplying service volt- 
ages 600 volts and below. 
Standard taps for such trans- 
formers are as follows: 6300/ 
6000/5700 based on 6600 to 
110/220 or to 220/440 or to 
550-volt operation. 
6585/6275/5960 based on 6900 
to 115/230 or to 230/460 or to 
57.'5-volt operation, 
(is;.-, li.'.l.'i 15220 based on 7200 
t.. iL'ii L'lii .,r to 240/480 or to 
U(l(i--^<ilt Mi„-ration. 
Standard Kv-a. Sizes for single-phase distribution 
transformers for transformer high voltage ratings 440 
to 34,500 volts, inclusive, are given in Table No. 3. 
Standard Voltage Ratings for service voltages 600 
and below are given in Table No. 4, and for sup- 
plying nominal 2300-volt low-voltage distribution 
and motors in Table No. 5. 

Specific Standardization of Substation and Dis- 
tribution Transformers for Special Service 
Under this heading lias been classified 

transformers to operate specific devices and 

whose ratings and characteristics are very 
definitely established by the requirements of 
these specific devices. 

Standard types, frequencies, kv-a. sizes and 
voltage ratings for transformers to operate 
600-, 1200- and 1500- volt d-c. railway syn- 
chronous converters are detailed in Tables 
Nos. and 7. 

Standard types, frequencies, kv-a. sizes and 
voltage ratings for transformers to operate 
275-volt d-c. mining railway synchronous 
converters are detailed in Table No. 8. 

No specific standards have yet been estab- 
lished covering transformers for operating 
lighting and industrial converters, electric 
furnaces, and motor-generator sets. 

Constant Current Transformers 

The constant current transformer for street 
lighting service which was brought out early 
in the year differs radically from its predeces- 
sors in its appearance and methods of placing 
insulation. The changes involved were caused 
l^rimarily by the rapidly increasing cost of 
the materials used in transformer construc- 
tion; but the new type, in addition to reducing 
production costs, weight of material used, and 
overall dimensions, has at the same time 
resulted in improved power-factor and effi- 
ciency as compared with earlier types. 




Single-phase — Oil-immersed — Self-cooled 


60 Cycles per Second 
Standard Transformer Kv-a. Sizes, High and Low Voltage Ratings 







Unit Kv-a. 

Rating of 


Standard ■ 

Line Voltage 

for Low 





Rated Low 


on Full 

Approximately on 

2Vi per cent | 5 per cent 

Tap 1 Tap 

7H per cent 

10 per cent 





2243 2185 









2243 2185 2128 








2243 2185 2128 








2243 2185 2128 




Note. — Transformers having low voltage of 178 are for use with three-phase converters, and those ha\'ing 
low voltage of 206 are for use with six-phase converters. 

Starting T.-\ps. — ,50 per cent starting tap to be provided in low voltage winding. 

High Volt.m.e T.\i'^-. — Taps in the high voltage winding will be for reduced kv-a. output at established 
temperature rise. 

Inherent Re.\ct.\nce. — Transformers are designed with 10 to 15 per cent inherent reactance with a 
minimum of 10 per cent. 

38 January 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 


Before the changes were made the frame 
and base of the constant current transformer 
were made up of castings held together by 
steel rods and nuts, and the form-wound 
coils were heavily insulated. The initial 
improvement, which occurred in 1916, elimi- 
nated the castings by the substitution of angle 
iron for frame and base, effecting a reduction 
of about 20 per cent in weight. A protective 
casing of extruded metal or wire net was also 
made part of the regular equipment. 

In 1917 a new design was produced in 
which the main insulation was placed on the 
core (Fig. 59) instead of on the coils; this 
being a radical departure from pre\-ious 
practice. As these transformers are air- 
cooled and use exposed coils, they are not 
intended for use on circuits with primary 
potentials exceeding 5000 volts. 

Phase displacement transformers, used for 
pole mounting out-door service on lighting 
circuits, have comparatively low power-factor, 
and require changes in taps whenever changes 
in voltage conditions occur, if good operating 
efficiencies are to be maintained. 

These disadvantages were overcome in the 
development for this service of an oil-cooled 
constant current transformer (Fig. 60), hav- 
ing the same characteristics as those for in- 
door use. 

induction voltage regulator ever built. It is 
rated at 1000 kv-a. for use on an 11,000-volt, 
60-cycle circuit, and is cooled by forced oil 


Fig. 60. Oil-cooled Const 

A notable high voltage installation con- 
sisted of seven 160-kv-a., three-phase, 50- 
cycle, 11,000-volt automatic water-cooled 
regulators which were supplied to the Southern 

Fig. 61. Improved Pole Type Regulator 

Induction Voltage Regulators 

Toward the end of the year there was 
under construction for tlic Hartford Electric 
Light Company, Hartford, Conn., the largest 

California Edison Co.. of Los Angeles, for 
use on ll.OOO-volt feeders. They maintain 
voltage regulation on circuits largely devoted 
to supplying current for electric ranges. 

40 January 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 

While no changes occurred in the electrical 
characteristics of pole type regulators, the 
mechanical details were improved in a number 
of ways (Fig. 61). Some of the more impor- 
tant of these new features can be sum- 
marized as follows: The operating motor 
was provided with ball bearings, and the 
current consumption was reduced to 30 
watts, and lower temperature rise secured; 
the motor can be removed and replaced 
without lifting the regulator from the tank 
or removing it from the pole; the limiting 
device was re-designed to eliminate the need 
for adjustment, and absolutely prevents 
overtravel of the regulator segment; while a 

time-lag of the arrester equipment as com- 
pared with that secured with horn gaps alone. 
In order to determine the spark-lag values 
of different forms of gaps, exhaustive tests 
were made (Figs. 62 and 63) with needle- 
gaps, horn-gaps, and sphere gaps, all con- 
nected in parallel to insure identical stress 
conditions and subjected to high-potential, 
steep-front voltage waves. *The results 
showed definitely that the electrical stresses 
on the insulation of generating, transforming 
and distributing apparatus, protected by 
electrolytic arresters, could be greatly reduced 
by the addition of sphere-gaps to the equip- 
ment heretofore used. 

new method of assembly of the cores mini- 
mizes shifting of the punchings and resultant 
noise in operation. 

Current Limiting Reactors 

The cast-in concrete method of construc- 
tion was further extended during the year 
to larger sizes of current limiting reactors. 
The largest unit built was a single-phase, 
230l)-kv-a. reactor to give 163^ per cent react- 
ance in a 12,()(l(l-volt, 25-cycle circuit. 


The adoption of sphere gaps in combina- 
tion with horn gaps for use with aluminum 
lightning arresters constituted a definite 
advance in the art of electrolytic arrester 
design, inasmuch as their use was found to 
insure a very considerable reduction in the 

* See article by V. E. Goodwin in G-E Review, Aug.. 1917. 

All G-E aluminum lightning arresters for 
use on circuits above 14,000 volts (Fig. 64) 
are now provided with sphere-gaps. 

Considerable progress was secured tending 
toward the perfection of previously developed 
safety-first devices, and numerous detail 
improvements were made in standard equip- 
ments, especially in the line of high potential 
switching apparatus. 

Among the radically new de\'ices there 
were certain relays which possess features of 
exceptional interest. The first of these is a 
single unit plunger type overload relay which 
has a number of decided advantages as com- 
pared with older types, while at the same 
time retaining all their good features. In 
the new relay better mechanical and elec- 


trical characteristics have been secured, 
the number of parts used has been materially 
reduced, and standardization has been carried 
to unusual lengths. 

The interchangeability of parts 
for different service operations can 
be appreciated by reference to 
Figs. G5, 66 and 67, and it will be 
noted that all of these relays arc 
made from the sarne general parts, 
so that any one of the three types 
can be converted into any one of 
the other two by simply adding or 
omitting the bellows, or by chang- 
ing the S])ring in the barrel which 
carries the moving contact mech- 
anism. As far as the external parts 
are concerned, instantaneous, in- 
verse time-limit and definite time- 
limit are alike. 

As compared with the older types 
of relays, the new unit has bellows 
of greater diameter, and the stroke 
is also slightly greater so that the 
amount of air to be displaced dur- 
ing its operation is considerably 
increased. This produces better 
and more nearh^ uniform results. 

The fixed contacts may be ad- 
justed to give simultaneous contact 

on both sides, and the carbon cone on circtiit 
closing relays is so held that it cannot get out 
of adjustment and neither can it be assembled 
incorrectly as rei'ards adju.stments. These 

Fig. 65. Instantaneous 
Circuit -closing Relay 

Fig. 66. Inverse Time-limit 



Fig. 67. Inverse Time-limit 



fixed contacts can be removed by the removal 
of two holding screws. 

The stop of the plunger rod is adjustable 
so that it is possible to produce a definite 
minimum time on the time-current curve of 
inverse time-limit overload relays. If neces- 
sary, the operating coil can be removed with- 
out disturbing the upper parts of the relay. 

The calibration is locked by means of a 
slotted member which is held in position by a 
spring, and in order to change the calibration 
it is only necessary to push up on the cali- 
brating screw and turn it. After the relay 
is adjusted this locking feature returns auto- 
matically to the locked position. This detail 
constitutes a considerable improvement, as 
in the older types of relays such adjustment 
required the use of a wrench. 

These relays are built in single-pole units 
only and are intended for the control of a 
single circuit, circuit-closing and circuit- 
opening, and their accuracy is not aflfected 
by commercial variations of frequency. 

In connection with an arc ground sup- 
pressor there was designed a new balanced 
phase selective relay (Fig. 6S) for operation 
from three potential transformers or from a 
combination of condensers and ])otential 
transformers. The arc ground sui^jiressor con- 
sists essentiallv of this relay and three single- 

42 January 191S 


Vol XXI, No. 1 

pole electrically-operated circuit breakers 
which are interlocked to prevent the closing 
of more than one breaker at a time. 

The usual and most accurate method of 
tripping oil circuit breakers is by means of 
release or trip coils connected to the second- 

Fig. 68. Phase Selective Relay for 
Arcing Ground Suppressor 

aries of current transformers, which maj' also 
supply current to meters and instruments, 
or they may be especially designed for trip- 
ping purposes only. 

When the cost of such current trans- 
formers is excessive, due to high potential 
of the circuit, it is advisable for reasons of 
economy to use some other method. For 
this purpose the high tension series relay- 
shown in Fig. 69, was developed for use on 
circuits of 15,000 volts and upward. The 
benefits secured by this method of tripping 
are as follows : 

The relay solenoid is mounted on a high- 
voltage insulator and is located between the 
line and the relay contacts and adjusting 
parts, and this keeps the high tension leads 
away from adjacent apparatus. The long 
operating rod shown introduces an ample 
factor of safety, and will not warp or buckle 
as it is constantly under tension. The 
inverse time element is in an oil dashpot 
mounted on the frame which holds the 
tripping contacts, and the calibration can be 
adjusted while the relay is in service. The 
connecting rod between the handle and the 
relay is of the proper length for the voltage 
of the circuit, which permits the tripping 
switch and time-Hmit details to be located 

= See article. G-E Review, Oct., 1917. page 826. 
1 See article. G-E Kkvikw. Nov., 1917. iM«e 89S. 

where the}' can be most easily adjusted with- 
out danger to the operator. 

A reverse power relay' for operation on 
polyphase circuits was constructed along 
the lines of an induction meter, as shown 
in Fig. 70. It is made in polyphase units 
with circuit-closing contacts for instantane- 
ous trip. If time delay action is desired, the 
time and current setting of the overload 
relay, which must be 
connected in series with 
the reverse power limit 
contacts, will determine 
the action of the com- 

The relay is operated 
by three separate driv- 
ing elements, each hav- 
ing a current coil and a 
]3otential coil, irrespecti\'e of whether 
the relay is for quarter- or three-phase 
circuits. The third element is required 
for delta or ungrounded Y circuits, in 
order that each phase may be properly 
represented in every short circuit. 

The polyphase construction gives 
the action of the relay greater relia- 
bility than could be obtained bj^ 
means of three single-phase relays, 
because of the fact that any incorrect 
tendency on the part of one phase is 
balanced by a similar or opposite 
incorrect tendency on some other 
phase, the incorrect tendencies being 
thus neutralized. 

The operating characteristics of this 
relay are permanent, the torque is 
high, while the energy required to 
operate it is small and there is prac- 
tically no vibration even with heavy 

For use in connection with air and 
oil circuit breakers, a hinged armature 
low-voltage release (Fig. 
71) was designed. This 
type has a coil with a soft 
iron pole piece mounted 
in an iron case, the cover 
of which consists of an 
armature hinged at its 
lower end (Fig. 72). 
When the armature in 
dropping reaches an al- 
most horizontal position 
it pushes a trigger down 
and releases the toggle mechanism. This in 
turn causes two tension springs to operate a 
lever with considerable force, and the lever, 

69. High Voltage 
Series Relay 


by strikiiif^ a hammer blow against the trip- 
ping latch of the air or oil circuit breaker, 
opens the circuit. 

As compared with previous low-voltage 
release equipments this new device has cer- 
tain advantages, among them being its posi- 

The apparatus mounted on the pedestal 
varies according to the duties to be per- 
formed, but that illustrated (Fig. 73) 
consists of voltmeter, ammeter, and watthour- 
meter on the front; current transformers and 
potential transformers, oil circuit breaker and 
disconnecting switch in the interior. 

The voltmeter and ammeter are mounted 
on a cast base above the breaker, and with 
the front edges of the instruments flush with 
the casting. Back of the instruments in 
the interior of the housing are spring con- 
tacts which make contact with the instrument 
studs, so that aftei removing the mounting 

Fig. 70. Induction Polyphase Revers 
with Cover Removed 

Fig. 71. 
Fig. 72. 

Low Voltage Release, Armature Up 
Low Voltage Release. Armature Dowi 

tive action on reduction of voltage and the 
fact that the armature will drop at the pre- 
determined point and operate the trigger no 
matter how slowly the voltage may decrease. 

If, in starting the motor, the operator does 
not set the armature up against the pole 
I^iece, which is the position from which it 
should drop on low voltage, the armature 
will drop immediately when the hand is 
withdrawn, and trip the breaker. 

In connection with the production and 
standardization of safety-first equipments, a 
new line of compact, self-contained motor 
pedestals (Fig. 73) was developed. They are 
designed particularly for the control of alter- 
nating current feeder or motor circuits. 

The panels occupy small space and are 
easy to install. They can be set up singly 
or in groups and can also be moved readily 
from place to place as desired. After being 
put in place the pedestals are secured by 
being bolted to the floor. 

The framework consists of four angle iron 
corners, and steel plates which hold the angle 
irons in position serving as mountings for the 
apparatus in the interior of the pedestal. 
The back is a sheet steel plate, removable 
to allow access to the interior. 

screws the instruments can be removed from 
their support without disconnecting the leads. 

Fig. 73. Safety First Indu 

Motor Pedestals 

When the instruments are replaced, the con- 
nections to them are made automatically. 
The instrument resistances are mounted 
behind the instruments. 

As soon as it became standard practice, 
in accordance with A.I.E.E. recommenda- 

44 January lOll 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 

tions, to furnish temperature coils with all 
alternating-current machines having a stator 
core of 20 inches or more in width, or a voltage 
of 5000 or higher, and a capacity of 500 kv-a. 
or greater, the obvious advantage of having a 

Fig. 74. Temperature Indicator Panel 

compact self-contained equipment for secur- 
ing direct-reading temperature indications 
was recognized. This resulted in 
the construction of the tempera- 
ture indicator equipment* shown 
in Figs. 74 and 75, which affords 
a convenient and rapid means of 
indicating continuously at the 
switchboard the temperature of 
the various portions of the wind- 
ings of electrical machinery under 
operating conditions. 

The operation depends on the 
variation of resistance of a copper 
resistor placed in a slot of the 
machine stator, in contact with the 
insulation of the winding, or in 
any other location external or in- 
ternal where the resistoi may be 
protected by suitable insulation 
from the conductors. The increase 
or decrease of temperature of 
the windings caiises a corre- 
sponding change in the resistance of the 
coil. This change of resistance is indicated 
by a sensitive instrument, the scale of which 

•See article, G-E Review. May. T917, page 3S0. 

is graduated in degrees Centigrade and indi- 
cates directly the temperature of the wind- 

The temperature indicator is a direct 
current differential voltmeter with three 
terminals. One of the windings is in series 
with a coil of manganin, having a resistance 
equal to that of the temperature coils, usually 
at SO deg. C, and the other winding is in 
series with the copper temperature coil itself. 
When the temperature in the copper coil 
rises, the current in the branch of the cir- 
cuit carrying the temperattn-e coil decreases, 
causing a corresponding deflection toward 
higher temperature marking on the scale of 
the indicator. The reverse occurs when the 
temperature of the temperature coil falls. 
The scale of the standard instrument is 
adjusted with a range of 20-120 deg. C. or 
0-90 deg. C. and marked in single degree 


In the operation of circulation water 
heaters, especially in districts where the water 
is very alkaline, the heaters have a tendency 
to become clogged due to the accumulation 
of scale. To minimize the inconvenience of 
this, a sheathed wire heating unit of the 
immersion t ype in cart ri dge form was developed . 
This unit is an-anged so as to be easily remov- 
able and the accumulated scale can be readily 
knocked off. The sheathed wire is formed 

Fig. 75. Parts of Temperature Indicator Equipment for Mounting on Panel 

into a solid cylinder and makes a simple and 
substantial form of heating element. 

The unit carries its own terminals and 
terminal-housing (Fig. 76) and is furnished 


with a standard pipe thread for insertion in 
standard pipe fittings. It is evident that it 
can be used separately as an immersion 
heater inserted in any tank for heating not 
only water but other liquids, and therefore 
is suitable for numerous applications in the 
industrial arts. 

In order to have hot water when wanted 
and to have the current turned off when not 
required for heating the water, a very satis- 
factory, positive, and simple electric thermo- 
stat was developed, which depends for its 
action on the buckling of a diaphragm, 
actuated by a liquid which expands under 
heat. This thermostat (Fig. 77) will operate 
within limits of 10 degrees and can handle 
substantial amounts of current. 

Such a thermostat, of course, is not only 
applicable to household tanks, but on account 
of its close regulation it can be utilized 
effectively for a great variety of industrial 
purposes where it is important to maintain 
water or other liquids at constant tem- 

Many of the electric bake ovens hitherto 
used in small commercial bakeries and in 
hotel and institutional kitchens, have been 
adaptations of portable gas ovens. A new 
type of electric bake oven (Fig. 7S) was 
designed solely from the standpoint of electric 
baking, having in mind the conditions 
involved in bakeshop work and the proper 

Fig. 76. Electric Circulation Water Heater 

Fig. 77. Thermostat for Control of Water Heater 

application of electric heating elements for 
this service. These ovens are built in 3-, 
4- and 6-sheIf sizes, having a capacity of 50, 
SO and 150 loaves per hour, respectively. 

The heating elements are heavy sheathed 
wire coils of great durability, but are easilj' 

replaceable ; they are self -insulated and require 
no porcelain or other compound insulating 
support. The heaters are located in the 
bottom of the oven and the heat is distributed 
by the circulation of the air up through chan- 
nels in the sides. 

Bakers Oven with Rotary Heat 

A two-inch lining of " Resisto-Therm " heat 
insulation, together with close heat control, 
allows the oven to be operated at a mini- 
mum cost. The heat control is efi'ected by a 
small rotary controller. All connections. 
wiring, etc., are enclosed and provision is 
made for a conduit connection of the feed 

Many bakers are accustomed to using 
baking tile on the shelves of their ovens and 
this new design has been arranged to pro\-ide 
such shelves to give the oven more thermal 

The successful construction of a new heavy 
duty electric range (Fig. 79) for hotel serv-ice 
was chiefly due to the development of 
sheathed wire and to the hea^-^• cast-in 
heating unit which can be made with it for 
the cooking top. 

Experience has also shown that the frame 
of the range must be of heavy angle iron and 
sheet metal construction; oven doors and 
their hinges must stand hard serv-ice; the 
wiring must not give any trouble from 
grounding, abrasion, over-heating or defec- 
tive connections: and the switching arrange- 
ment must be simple, substantial and con- 
venient. These points are well embodied in 
this new range. 

46 January 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 

For the operation of this range, 220 volts 
has been selected rather than 110 volts, in 
order to reduce the amount of copper required 
for the outside wiring and the size of the 
internal conductors, and also to bring the 
range within the scope of application of 

Fig. 79. Heavy Duty Hotel Range 

Totary snap switches. The snap switches 
used have new indicating handles, the position 
of which tells at a glance whether the switch 
is on or off, or at what degree of heat the heat- 
ing elements are operating. 

On submarines, the only reaUy practical 
and satisfactory method of cooking is by 
electricity. This minimizes fire risk, danger 
of explosions, and avoids uncomfortable 
kitchen temperatures. 

Based on earlier experience, a new design 
of submarine range was developed (Fig. 80). 
It is made in sections so that if necessary 
it can easily be taken in and out through the 
necessarily small hatchway's. The central 
section consists of the oven and the hotplates 
on the cooking top. One side section contains 
a coffee tank, and the other a hot water tank. 
The hotplates are of the cast-in sheathed 
wire construction, so successfully used on 
hotel ranges. The oven is equipped with one 
open-coil sheathed wire unit, located in the 
bottom, and the coffee and water tanks with 
units, in cartridge form, of the sheathed wire 
swaged type. Each group of units is con- 
trolled by a rotary snap switch, located below 
the oven in a self-contained switchboard. 
The connections are very accessible and 
easily made. 

in incandescent lamps of a character which 
permits of brief description, but there were 
many minor improvements which tended to 
strengthen the lamps mechanically and main- 
tain their quality in the face of rising costs 
of materials and labor. The scarcity and 
variability of certain materials utilized in 
their manufacture also imposed some sub- 
stitutions and process changes. 

The most notable lamp brought out during 
the year is that developed especially for 
moving picture projection (Figs. 81 and 82). 
This development involved not only the 
production of a new low-voltage Mazda C 
lamp with an especially arranged filament, 
but also of a new optical system for the pro- 
jector, arranged to utilize a larger proportion 
of the light, together with devices for sub- 
stituting a new lamp at burnout, and control 
apparatus for supplying proper voltage from 
commercial circuits.* A prismatic condens- 
ing lens efficiently utilizes a wider angle of 
light than the types formerly in use, while a 
spherical mirror placed behind the lamp, not 
only utilizes light which would otherwise be 
lost, but also gives a more uniform light source 
(Fig. S3). This combination of lamp, lens and 
mirror, has been successfully applied to moving 
picture machines projecting pictures as large 

Fig. 80. Electric Range Made Up in Sections 


As compared with several preceding years, 
there were relatively few new developments 

* Motion Picture Projection with Tungsten Filament Lamps, 
J. T. Caldwell, A. R. Dennington, J A. OranRe, L. C. Porter — 
presented before the Illuminating Engineering Society. Decern. 

as 12 by 16 feet at 100-foot throw. In order 
to secure high brilliancy the filament of the 
lamp operates at a temperature which gives 
an operating life of about 100 hours. 

The lamp has been standardized in two 
sizes, one consuming 750 watts, at 30 amperes. 


25 volts, and the other consuming 600 watts, 
at 20 amperes and 30 volts. With approved 
optical equipment they give a picture cor- 
responding approximately to that obtained 
from the 40-ampert' direct current arc. 

smaller theaters, however, the incandescent 
lamp is well suited, economical, convenient 
and safe. 

The leading moving picture machine manu- 
facturers have not only designed lanterns for 


Fig. 81. 30-ainp. Edison Mazda C Lamp 
for Motion Picture Projection 

Fig. 82. 20-amp. Edison Mazda C Lamp 
for Motion Picture Projection 

P/CTL/PC P>?oje:cr/ori 


SPf/£/?/C/lL M/^/?oe 
/N OP£isar//^6 

La MP 
Fig. 83. Diagram of Optical System 

Neither of these lamps is intended for large 
theaters where the more powerful high- 
current arcs provide a more suitable light 
source. For the more numerous class of 

use with these lamps, but are also marketing 
parts for converting existing machines. 

During 1916 a blue bulb incandescent lamp 
(Mazda C-2) was announced. The purpose 
of this was to provide a practical light for 
color selection, to meet usual requirements. 
While the light is not recommended for the 
most exacting work, such as is required in 
textile dye houses, for which condition a 
greater sacrifice in efficiency would have to 
be made, this lamp, which meets all ordinary 
requirements, has become quite popular 
and is meeting a large demand for the illu- 
mination of stores and manj^ manufacturing 
processes invoh-ing color discrimination. 
Besides the obvious applications it has been 
utilized in the separation of ores on con- 
centrating tables of large smelters, the 
matching of artificial teeth, distinguishing 
tissues in surgical operations, the inspection 
of X-ray negatives and color determinations 
in chemical processes. The lamps are made 
in the following wattages: 75, 100, 150, 
200, 300, and 500 for 110/125-volt multiple 

CThe total sales of tungsten filament lamps 
in the United States, excluding miniature 
lamps, for the year 1917, aggregated in round 
numbers 165 millions (Fig. S4), an increase 
over the pre\-ious year of about 14 per cent. 
The total number of miniature lamps sold 

48 January 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 

was 75 millions (Fig. 85), an increase of about 
40 per cent over the previous year. 

The relative importance of lamps having 
a carbon filament, i.e., the carbon and Gem 
lamps, has decreased each j^ear, so that at 
present it is about 12 per cent of the total, 
whereas ten years ago it was 100 per cent; 
at that time practically no Gem nor tungsten 
filament lamps were sold, as shown by the 
curve (Fig. 84). 

The average candle-power of lamps for 
standard lighting increased from about IS 
in 1907 to about 48 during the past year. 

sold, and is considered as an actual in- 
creased amount of Hght for the same cost 
on account of the fact that the average 
wattage of the lamps has not increased 
during that period. 

It is also interesting to note that the average 
candle-power of incandescent lamps used in 
street lighting has materially increased during 
the last ten years from 35 candle-power in 
1907 to about 160 candle-power in 1917. 
Some of this increase is due to the displacing 
of carbon arc lamps by high candle-power 
tungsten filament lamps. Eliminating these 



1 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 It 1 11 1 1 1 M 1 


Number OF Large Oii^ps Soco 

IN fH£ United States 


[Ekcludinq Mini/17 lire Lamps] 
















S J, 

! , 




^ TO 
























































































:^ 30 

1 11 1 1 1 

NunBER OF Tungsten 
Filament MiNinTuRE Lamps 
Sold in the United States 









Fig. 84. "5 Chart of Sales of Large Incandescent Lamps 

Fig. 85. Chart of Sales of Miniature Tungsten Lamps 

The average wattage of lamps in 1907 was 
a little over 52 watts, coming down to a 
little under 48 watts in 1913, and during the 
past year was slightly in excess of 48 watts. 
This small increase in wattage in recent years 
is undoubtedly due to the increasing sales of 
the higher wattage non-vacuum tungsten 
filament lamps, which were put on the 
market in 1914. The result has been that 
the consumer has obtained over 200 per 
cent more light for a given cost than was 
obtainable ten years ago. This is deter- 
mined by dividing the average wattage 
by the average candle-power of all lamps 

units, the average candle-power was about 
70 dtuing the past year, or double that of 
ten years ago. 

The sales of carbon miniature lamps have 
never become a big item, the maximum 
number in any year probably not exceeding 
two million lamps, and their sales last yeai 
probably not over half a million. 

The sales of tungsten filament miniature 
lamps, however, since their introduction 
in 1907, has increased by leaps and bounds 
to about 75 millions sold during the past 
year. The majority of these lamps are used 
for flashlights and automobiles, but a con- 


siderable number are also used for candelabra 
and decorative lighting. 

Many factories were operated day and 
night, in which previous to 1917 night work 
had been unusual, with the result that plants 
which had formerly required artificial light 
for an average of about two hours per day, 
demanded at least 14 hours. Besides in- 
creasing the lamp constimption on account 
of the extended hours of lighting, this feature 
also rendered necessary a better standard of 
illtimination. The growth of high-speed pro- 
duction, combined with a greater apprecia- 
tion of the importance of good illumination, 
all acted to increase the number of lamps used 
in industrial lighting. 

A year ago it was stated that the Industrial 
Commissions of Pennsylvania and New Jersey 
had adopted rules for better lighting. At 
the present time, commissions in New York, 
Wisconsin, and Ohio are preparing similar 

The measurement of illumination and, 
therefore, the enforcement of lighting codes, 
has been facilitated by the development of a 
compact, low cost, direct reading "foot- 
candle meter"* which is somewhat more 
simple to operate than .the instruments 
previously available. 

The foot-candle meter employs the same 
principle as the Bunsen or Leeson photometer 
screens. It can be illustrated by rendering 
a spot in a sheet of opaque paper trans- 

Fig. 86. Foot-candle Meter— Front View 

lucent with oil or grease. If then the sheet 
is lighted on one side only, the grease spot 
will appear darker than the rest of the sheet 
when \dewed from the lighted side, and 

• The Foot-candle Meter, C. F. Sackwitz, presented before 
the Illuminating Engineering Society, December 14, 1917. 

lighter when viewed from the unlighted side. 
When both sides of the sheet are lighted 
equally, the grease spot will disappear, being 
of the same brightness as the rest of the sheet. 
As applied in the foot-candle meter, the 
effect of a series of such spots is secured by 

Fig. 87. Foot-candle Meter — Rear View 

mounting a strip of translucent paper on a 
strip of glass, and over it a corresponding 
strip of opaque paper in which small holes 
are punched, as shown in Fig. 86. This forms 
the cover of a long narrow box in which an 
incandescent lamp is placed at one end, so as 
to illuminate the underside of the strips. It 
is e\'ident that the spots near the lamp will 
receive more light than those farther away. 
The exposed side of the strip is lighted uni- 
formly b}^ the illumination to be measured. 
Thus the spots at one end (the right) will 
appear brighter than the surrounding paper, 
while at the other end they \rill be darker. 
Between these extremes \\-ill be found a point 
at which the spots blend with the card and 
disappear, showing that the same intensity of 
light is falling on both sides. The scale 
figure, opposite this point, gives this intensity 
as determined by calibration and, therefore, 
indicates the illumination measured. Thus 
the illumination can be read in foot-candles 
at a glance. 

In order to get correct results it is neces- 
sary that the incandescent lamp be operated 
at proper voltage, and this is made possible 

50 January 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 

by means of a rheostat and voltmeter, the 
current being supplied by a dry cell. (Fig. 87.) 
The voltmeter registers the voltage sup- 
plied to the lamp, and as long as the volt- 
meter needle is direct! 3' over the arrow on the 
voltmeter scale, the lamp is operating at the 

Fig. 88. Reflecto-cap Diffuscr 

correct voltage to supply the pro]3er illumi- 
nation to the ]3hotometric screen. 

An interesting development in street light- 
ing practice was the use of a phantom circuit 

1 G-E Review, by A. H. Da 

remote control, by means of which street 
lighting systems at a considerable distance 
from the central station can be connected direct 
to 2300-voIt feeders, without running wires 
for special systems, and the station operator 
can control the various systems at will. This 
method obviates the necessity previously 
existing for manual operation of the distant 
lighting circuit switches or the use of time 
switches mounted on the pole with the trans- 
former which supplies the lighting circuit. 

The designation "phantom circuit"* is 
used because no separate circuit is required 
for the control, the imjDulse for operating the 
switch being sent over the feeder wires. Its 
operation is based on the well known fact 
that a circuit can be used for more than one 
purpose at the same time, and in this case 
the alternating-current power lines are utilized 
for the transmission of a small direct current 
without interferring with their normal func- 
tion of carrying power. The high voltage 
lines are used as one side of the direct current 
circuit and the ground as the other. 

The use of reactance permits the passage 
of the direct current, while the amount of 
alternating current which passes during the 
few seconds required to operate the switch by 
means of the direct-current phantom circuit 
is practically negligible. 

Partly on account of the need for better 
industrial lighting and partly because of the 
increased use of Mazda C (gas-filled) lamps, 
with their inore brilliant filaments, there 
arose a demand for better diffusing devices 
in industrial lighting. For most purposes 


Fig. 89. Novalux Fixture Pendant Ur 

ventilated Type with Stippled Globe 

and Dome Refractor 

Fig. 90. Ornamental Novalux Unit > 
Eight-paneled Globe, Stippled Gla 
with Reflector and Refractor 

Novalux Unit, 
-paneled Globe. Stippled Glass 
with Reflector and Refractor 



this was met by the use of bowl-frosted lamps. 
Tests made with acid etched frosting, under 
rather severe conditions, showed that the 
loss of light due to the accumulation of dust 
and oil, was not much greater than with clear 
lamps, and cleaning was easily effected. 

To meet the conditions where a still higher 
degree of diffusion seemed desirable, a new 
type of diffuser* was developed for the 100- to 
3'OO-watt lamps. With this equipment, the 
lower part of the lamp is concealed by a metal 
reflector (Fig. SS). The main reflector above 
the lamp is of large diameter, so that cross 
rays of light tend to soften the shadows. 

A number of new street lighting units were 
also developed and three typical arrange- 
ments are shown. 

The pendent type (Fig. 89) has a stippled 
glass globe and dome refractor. f The globe 
is made of clear glass which has a rough 
surface on the inside that diffuses the light 
with very little more absorption than takes 
place in the clear glass. The dome refractor 
collects the upward light and redirects it to 
the street surface at an angle of about ten 
degrees below the horizontal. 

The ornamental unit (Fig. 90) has a globe 
consisting of eight panels of stippled glass 
inside of which is a dome refractor, and a 
similar arrangement utilizing a three-section 
globe of stippled glass inside of which is a 
dome refractor is shown in Fig. 91. 

making use of both aluminum and glass 

The glass forms are silver jjlated and then 
a copper plating is deposited by an electro- 
lytic process over the silver plating. This 

Fig. 92. Floodlighting Projector for 
Use with 1000-watt Mazda 

hermetically seals the silvering and also acts 
as a protection to the glass. 

Several different types of reflectors are 
used for different classes of work and for 

Fig. 93. Factory Yard Flood Lighted for Night Protection by 
One G-E Floodlighting Projector Equipped with 400-watt 
Edison Mazda "C" Floodlighting Lamp 

There was developed and standardized a 
complete new line of flood lighting projectors, 

ies as Judged by DayliRht 
ctions-IUuininating Enginuer- 

• Effective Lighting of Fact 
Standards. Ward Harrison. Tran 
ing Society, November 2(1. 1917. 

t A Combination of Refractor and Diffusing Globe for Street 
Lighting. Ward Harrison. Transactions-Illuminating Engineer- 
ing Society. October 10. 1917. 

Fig. 94. V. .. '. N'lijht Protection 

by G-E Fiomihgntme Projectors 

various sizes of lamjjs. A recent type is 
the so-called L-12 projector (Fig. 92), 
which is designed to make use of a regular 
1000-watt mviltiple Mazda lamp. The par- 
ticular field for this projector is large area 

52 January 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 

Previous to our participation in the war, 
floodlighting was receiving wide application 
for decorative lighting effects, which reached 
a climax in the lighting of the Capitol Dome 
at Washington (Fig. 95), for the inauguration 
of President Wilson. 

The war, after creating a demand for flag 
lighting, has had a decided tendency to 
restrict the less utilitarian applications; on 
the other hand, floodlighting equipments 
have proved of great value to the govern- 
ment and to various industries, railways, 
etc., in providing an effective means of pro- 

tective lighting (Figs. 93 and 94), whereby 
intruders may be detected and prevented 
from harming mines, oil wells, pipe lines, 
factories, bridges, piers, shipyards, railroad and 
storage yards, water supply systems, public 
buildings, etc. This, together with night con- 
struction work, resulted in a very sudden and 
severe demand for lamps and reflectors. 

It must not be inferred from this that all 
protective lighting has employed floodlighting 
equipment, as street fixtures and ordinary 
enameled street reflector equipments have 
been used to fully as great an extent. 

Fig. 95. Distant Night View of the Capitol at Washington, Illuminated by FlooJIighting Projecto 


Extinguishing Fires in Large Totally Enclosed 
Generators and Motors 

By M. A. Savage 
Alternating Current Turbo-Generator Engineering Department, General Electric Company 

This article recommends the use of steam for extinguishing fires in windings of large motors and 
generators where the construction permits of its application. The results of tests show that steam is quite 
as effective as other substances, such as carbon tetrachloride and carbon dioxide, and is free from their 
objectionable features. — Editor. 

Fires in electrical apparatus should property 
be divided into two classes : 

First, Those which occur in open appara- 
tus. This shotdd be subdivided into rotating 
and stationary. 

Second, Semi-enclosed or completely en- 
closed apparatus, subdivided into 
rotating and stationary 

It is the completely enclosed rotat- 
ing machine with which this article 
deals, notably that of the turbine 
type. These machines are necessarily 
very compactly built and are subject 
to enormous blower action. Fires in 
this class of apparatus, therefore, 
become very serious, and due to the 
blower action are more difficult to 
extinguish. Extinguishing of such 
fires has for some time past claimed 
the attention of some few operators. 
That the subject has not received the 
serious consideration of those most 
interested is evidenced by the number 
of machines, the M-indings of which 
have been completely destroyed b>- 
fire. Thousands of dollars are thus 
lost each year, while still larger 
amounts are lost by the imposed 
idleness of the whole unit while the 
windings are being repaired. 

A series of tests have recently been 
conducted by the General Electric 
Company to determine the best 
method of putting out such fires. 
Fig. 1 shows the test apparatus, which 
consists of a sheet iron cabinet, four 
feet cube. To this was attached 
a 12-in. pipe which connected the 
cabinet with a motor-driven fan for 
supph'ing the necessary draft. Both 
the inlet and outlet ducts were provided 
with quick clo.sing dampers. The cabinet 
was filled with a nimiber of scrap coils and 
waste material, and this was ignited with a 
gas jet. The fan was next started and made 

to dehver a known volume of air. When 
the combustion had reached a given stage, 
as determined by the eye, the outlet damper 
was closed and steam admitted to the cabinet. 
Fig. 2 shows the steam issuing from the inlet 
to the blower after having overcome the pres- 

Fig. 1. Apparatus for Making Tests 

Fig. 2. Showing Steam Issuing from Blower Inlet, Against Air Pressure 

sure of the air. This gives %'isual e\"idence 
that the cabinet and connecting duct were 
completely filled with steam. The experi- 
ment was repeated with the inlet damper 

54 January 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 

In all of these experiments conditions were 
maintained such as to represent those which 
exist in an actual machine. The volume and 
pressure of air, the leakage air, etc., were 
apportioned to represent say a 25,000-kw. 

The following table gives the result of this 

Cu. Ft, 

in Cab. 







Air with 


Time Required 
to Put out Fire 

*30 seconds 

* The blaze was extinguished almost instantaneously, but 
it was found necessary to leave the steam on for 20 or 30 seconds 
to thoroughly wet the outer surface of coils so that charred 
portions would not again ignite. 

Other experiments were made with carbon 
tetrachloride and carbon dioxide in the same 

The residts of these tests would seem to 
indicate that for this class of apparatus, steam, 
if supplied in sufficient quantities, will put 
out any fire which may occur by burning 
insulation. Further, that the insulation when 
properly dired out after its steam bath, will 
not be materiallv damaged. 

Carbon tetrachloride, while not as effective 
as steam, will put out such fires if used in 
sufficient quantities. It has the disadvantage, 
however, that it will attack and destroy the 
insulation; second, the fumes as given of? by 
carbon tetrachloride are very injurious when 

Carbon dioxide seems to be equally effective 
in putting out such fires, but it has the draw- 
back of being hard to apply. It has to be 
kept in containers under very high pressure 
and there are instances where the heat ab- 
sorbed by the release of these gases would 
quickly "freeze up" the outlet nozzle. 

Time the Main Factor in Putting out Fires 

It cannot be too strongly brought out that 
the main factor in putting out any fire, with 
any extinguisher, is time. Just as it is useless 
for the fireman to play a stream of water on 
a building after it is completely destroyed, 
so it is equally useless for an operator to 
expect to find his windings intact a,fter a fire 
has been burning an appreciable time. The 
sooner this fact is permanently fixed in the 
minds of those persons operating machines 
the easier it will be to deal with such fires. 
If the operator is willing to go into the subject 

systematically and make a thorough study of 
the exact conditions, the extinguishmg of 
such fires should not be a matter of serious 
difficulty. . 

There are a few essential principles, which 
are here set forth : 

First, the machine should be disconnected 
from the line and have its excitation renioved. 
This should preferably be done automatically, 
thereby eliminating waste of time and the 
human element. 

Second, the dampers with which the 
machine should be provided should close 
quickly and tightly. It is essential that the 
leakage be not too great or thus the volume 
of steam required will become prohibitive. 
It is not enough to determine this leakage by 
merely feeling the amount of air escaping — 
this should be accurately measured. A leak- 
age of from say 10 to 20 per cent may be 
reasonable. These dampers should receive 
frequent inspections to see that they close 
properly, that no dirt collects in them in such 
a manner as to prevent their closing, and that 
the operating mechanism has not rusted to 
such a degree as to make smooth and efficient 
closing impossible. 

Third, the steam should be readily available 
so that no time will be lost in getting it into 
the generator. If a coupling is to be made to 
connect to the steam supply this should be 
designed so as to require as few operations as 

Volume of Steam 

The volume of steam which will be required 
for the various size machines may be deter- 
mined from the cubic feet of air space in the 
machine, allowing one pound per minute for 
each 2. .5 cubic feet of enclosed area, provided 
the leakage does not exceed ten per cent. If 
the leakage exceeds ten per cent the amount 
of steam should be approximately one pound 
per minute for each 20 cubic feet of leakage 
air. In a 25,000-kw., 60-cycle machine of 
1800 r.p.m. this will amount "to approximately 
600 lbs. of steam per minute on a basis of 20 
per cent leakage air. The area in square 
inches of nozzle openings to give this amount 
of steam per minute may be found from 
Napier's formula: 

PA Where P = Absolute pressure 

1 . 1 66 A = Area of orifice in sq. inches . 

On the 25,000-kw. machine referred to, 

this would amount to about 2.32 sq. in. orifice 

for each end of the generator. This is on a 

basis of 150 lbs. absolute steam pressure. 


This amount of steam might be carried from 
the ttirbine to the generator end liy a .'jH-in. 

Location of Steam Pipes 

The best location of steam inlets is on the 
inner shield so that numerous jets will im- 
pinge directly on the end portion of the wind- 
ing and will be carried through the generator 
by the action of the fan. (See location A, 
Fig. 3). The inlets may be located in the air 
inlet duct (see location B, Fig. 3), but in this 
position they are not quite as effective, as 
the time required to expel the air from danger 
spaces will be slightly longer. 

Location of Dampers 

It has been found by exijerience that a dam- 
]jer located in the air exhaust duct proves 
much more effective than in the inlet duct. 
The closing of the inlet duct, however, will 
prove effective, provided a slightly larger 
volume of steam is allowed for than that given 

It is not recomrnended that both the outlet 
and inlet ducts be closed at the same time, as 

the jjressure which might be built up by the 
steam might cause injury to the generator. 
This difficulty may be overcome by the use 
of dam]5ers which are held shut by springs 
which would release when the pressure 
reached a dangerous value. Such devices, 
however, would only complicate the 

Secondary Advantage in the Use of Steam 

When a large unit which has been running 
at practically full load has its load suddenly 
thrown off the control of the steam becomes 
quite a serious problem. Any steam, there- 
fore, which can be utilized will materially aid 
the fire room force in keeping the pressure 
down below the danger point. 

Use of Water 

Water has long been considered the best 
agent for extinguishing fires. Its use, how- 
ever, in completely enclosed apparatus, is 
attendant with some uncertainty both as 
regards its application and also its effect on 
the rotating parts. No data are available as 
to its use for this purpose. 

Fig. 3. Diagram showing Suggested Arrangements of Steam Jets 

56 January 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 

A New Radiator Type of Hot-cathode 
Roentgen-ray Tube 

By Dr. W. D. Coolidge 
Research Laboratory, General Electric Company 

The following article is descriptive of the new radiator type of hot-cathode Roentgen- ray tube, developed 
for military use. The essential feature of this tube is the target of large heat capacity (provided with an 
external radiator) of such composition that the focal spot will not at any temperature emit electrons. The 
tube, therefore, is self-rectifying, which fact makes it feasible to operate the tube directly from the terminals 
of a high-tension transformer. A description of a simple and effective lead-glass protective shield is included. 
— Editor. 

the phenomenon, to conclude that the tube 
failed by puncturing under electrostatic strain. 
The local heating of the glass, attendant 
upon overloading a tube which is running on 
alternating current, can be prevented by 
making the cathode focusing device of some 
refractory metal, such as molybdenum or 
timgsten, and so locating this in the tube that 
it intercepts the "inverse" cathode-ray 
stream. - 

While this method has proved exceedingly 
useful as a safety device when such a tube is 
to be used on alternating current, it does 
not appreciably increase its capacity, for it 
would ob\4ously be undesirable to have the 
cathode focusing-device giving off Roentgen- 
rays imder such bombardment. 

The essential condition to be fulfilled was 
that heat should be more rapidly withdrawn 
from the focal spot. This could have been 
accomplished by water-cooling,^ but this 
method clearly involved undesirable com- 
plications for portable work. Experiment 
showed that the most effective simple method 
consisted in providing a target having a large 
heat capacity and high heat conductivity, 
and then in arranging to effectively cool this 
mass of metal daring the interval between 
radiographic exposures. The importance of 
having the target cold at the start is shown 
by the following experience with a tube 
having a 3.2 mm. focal spot and a solid 
tungsten target: With the maximum allow- 
able energy input, it was possible when 
beginning with the target at room tem- 
perature to run four times as long before 
"inverse" current appeared as when the 
experiment was started with the target at 
dull red heat 

Now in the case of the ordinary Roentgen- 
ra}' tube, the cooling of the target from dull 
red heat to room temperature is an exceeding- 
ly slow operation. The heat can get out only 
(1) by radiation, which, with small differences 
in temperature between the hot body and its 


The type of tube described in this article 
was developed specifically for military use in 
the portable Roentgen-ray outfits at the 
Front. Its characteristics are such, however, 
that it seems ultimately destined to supplant 
the earlier type of hot-cathode tube for all 
diagnostic work. 


A study of the situation had shown that 
the electrical efficiency of existing portable 
Roentgen-ray generating outfits was low,^ 
and that it could be very greatly increased if 
a suitable tube could be developed for opera- 
tion directly from the secondary of a high- 
tension transformer, without the use of any 
auxiliary rectifying device. As the portable 
apparatus was intended for diagnostic work, 
it was highly desirable that the focal spot in 
such a tube should be as small as possible for 
handling the required amount of energy. 


The earlier fonn of hot-cathode tube 
having a solid tungsten target is capable of 
rectifying its own current; but only for such 
amounts of energy as do not heat the focal 
spot to a temperature approximating that of 
the cathode spiral. As soon, however, as any 
part of the focil spot is heated to a suffi- 
ciently high temperature, it emits electrons 
copiously, and, therefore, when supplied from 
a source of alternating potential, it permits 
so-called "inverse" current to pass. The 
"inverse " cathode-ray stream comes out from 
the focal spot in a direction perpendicular 
to the face of the target and proceeds, in 
the form of a narrow pencil, straight to the 
glass wall of the bulb close to and slightly 
behind the cathode. The glass at this spot 
fluoresces vigorously, becomes locally heated, 
and usually cracks. As air enters the bulb, a 
spark discharge passes through the opening 
and it is then easy, for one who has not studied 


surroundings, takes place at a very low rate, 
and (2) by conduction through the small 
lead-in wire and through the glass. 

The Anode 

The considerations which have been de- 
scribed finally led to the anode design shown 
in Fig. 1. The anode stem consists of a 
solid bar of copper 1.6 (^ in.) in diameter 
which is brought out through the glass of 
the anode arm to a copper radiator. The 
head of the anode consists of a mass of 
specially purified copper which is first cast in 
vacuimi onto a tungsten button and is then 
electrically welded to the stem. The tungs- 
ten button, which is destined to receive the 
cathode ray bombardment is 2.5 mm. (0.1 in.) 
thick and 9.5 mm. (^g in.) in diameter. 

tube the greater part of the energy it receives. 
As a result, the glass becomes strongly heated. 
In the new radiator type of tube, by far the 
greatest part of the energy imparted to the 
target is conducted to the radiator. It, there- 
fore, becomes possible to make the glass bulb 
very small. For portable work, a diameter 
of 9.5 cm. (3^ in.) has been standardized. 

The Exhausting of the Tube 

The exhausting of a hot-cathode tube, 
containing the anode which has been de- 
scribed, to such a point that the tube could 
be sealed off from the pvunp appeared at 
first to be an impossibility. A point was 
finally reached where after sealing the tube 
off and allowing it to stand overnight, the 
vacuum was good. Upon operating such a 
tube for a few seconds, however, the vacuum 
rapidly deteriorated until the tube showed a 

Fig. 1. Special Self-rectifying Roentgen-ray Tube 

The complete target, with radiator, weighs 
860 gm. and has a heat capacity of 81 calories 
per degree Centigrade; while the present 
standard solid tungsten target, complete with 
molybdenum stem and iron supporting tube, 
has a heat capacity of less than 10 calories. 
Because of its greater heat capacity, it takes 
much longer to heat the radiator type of 
target to a given temperature than it does 
the solid tungsten target. What is much 
more important, however, is the fact that 
between radiographic exposures the target in 
the new tube cools comparatively rapidly 
owing to the large^copper stem and the 

The Cathode 

The cathode in'this tube has been designed 
to give a focal spot 3.2 mm. (J-^ in.) in dia- 
meter with a very uniform energy distribu- 

Size of Bulb 

In the standard hot-cathode tube with the 
solid tungsten target, the target gets very 
hot and radiates through the glass walls of the 

Geissler glow. After a second exhausting, 
covering a period of several hours, the ex- 
perience mentioned was duplicated with 
this difference : the tube operated successfully 
for a somewhat longer time. A third exhaust- 
ing, again extending over a period of several 
hours, finally resulted in a good tube. Since 
that time it has developed that the exhaust 
is made much easier by first filling the tube 
with purified hydrogen and then heating it 
strongly. It is still a very serious operation, 
however, when compared with even the 
exhausting of the hot-cathode tubes of the 
earlier type. 


In the radiator type of tube, the passage 
of "inverse" current is avoided by a construc- 
tion which removes heat from the focal spot 
so rapidly that, in normal use, it never reaches 
the temperature at which an appreciable 
thermionic emission of electrons can take 
place. In testing the first tubes of this type, 
it was found that some other ven,- powerful 
cause was acting to prevent electron emission 
from the focal spot. It developed that, in 

58 January 191S 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 

this tube, the temperature of the focal spot 
could be raised to that of the cathode spiral 
and even brought to the melting point, while 
the tube was operating on alternating current, 
without having the tube allow any appreciable 
"inverse" current to pass. 

The most probable explanation of this 
phenomenon appears to be as follows: The 
thermionic emission of electrons from a heated 
tungsten surface is very greatly reduced by 
traces of ox^'gea. Now in the case of the solid 
tungsten target, the oxygen which is originally 
present in the metal is removed during the 
exhausting of the tube by maintaining the 
target for a considerable time at intense 
white heat while the tube is connected to the 
pump. Under these conditions oxide of 
tungsten dissociates, and the oxygen is re- 
moved from the tube by the pump. In the 
radiator type of tube the conditions are verj' 
different. There is, at the beginning of the 
exhausting process, a large amotmt of oxygen 
both in the tungsten button and in the copper 
of the target. During the exhausting, the 
temperature of the target must at all times 
be kept below the melting point of copper. 
As a result, there is probably sufficient oxygen 
left in the target to account for the observed 
phenomenon. The oxygen in the tungsten 
at the focal spot would be liberated by the 
heat produced by cathode ray bombardment. 
This oxygen would then be chemically re- 
moved from the surrounding space by the 
hot copper of the target. Other oxygen in 
the metal layers just behind the focal spot 
would then diffuse to the focal spot ; and this 
cycle of operations would go on indefinitely, 
the trace of oxygen in the tungsten at the 
focal spot always greatly reducing the electron 

With a tube containing such a target, heat 
is conducted away from the focal spot so 
rapidly that the tube could satisfactorily be 
used to do the work for which it was intended 
without the help of the phenomenon men- 
tioned. The latter furnishes a factor, however, 
which strongly safeguards this type of tube 
when rectifjdng its own current. 




The first model of the radiator type 
tube was designed to carry 10 milliamperes at 
a 5-in. parallel spark between pointed elec- 
trodes for the time required for making the 
most difficult radiographs, and to carry a 
fluoroscopic load of 5 milliamperes at a 5-in. 

parallel spark continuously for an indefinite 

Under abuse, its behavior is as follows: 
When operated continuously with 10 milli- 
amperes at a 5-in. parallel spark and with a 
constant heating current in the filament 
spiral, the milliamperage may gradually 
drop. If the experiment is continued until 
the anode is red hot, and this will take about 
23-4 minutes, the current may drop to as low 
as 6 milliamperes. (The amount of this 
drop depends upon the degree of the exhaus- 
tion, being greater the poorer this is.) Upon 
cooling the anode, the vacuum immediately 
returns to its original condition, as shown by 
the fact that, with the same filament current, 
the milHamperage returns to 10. It is sur- 
prising to see how quick this recovery is; it 
has been found to take place even in the short 
time that it takes to cool the anode by holding 
the radiator under a cold-water faucet. This 
recovery is doubtlessly due to gas absorption 
by the anode. 


Upon operating a tube, which rectifies its 
own current, directly from the secondary of a 
transformer, the "inverse" voltage is always 
higher than the "useful" voltage. Conse- 
quently, the measurement of tube voltage 
by a parallel spark-gap used in the ordinary 
way would, in general, be very misleading, 
for the observed spark length corresponds 
to the "inverse" voltage and not to that 
which produces the Roentgen-rays and hence 
determines their nature. A simple and very 
satisfactory method of dealing with this 
difficulty consists in connecting an alter- 
nating-current voltmeter across the primar\- 
of the transformer and then calibrating once 
for all this combination of transformer and 
voltmeter. The calibration can be conven- 
iently made with the help of a kenotron 
connected in series with the Roentgen-ray 
tube. The two tubes should be so connected 
that current can pass through the Roentgen- 
ray tube in the right direction. If now a 
spark-gap is connected across the Roentgen- 
ray tube terminals, it measures the useful 
voltage (and this is essentially what it would 
be if the kenotron were not in the circuit, 
for the voltage drop in a suitable kenotron is 
not more than one or two hundred volts and 
can hence be neglected). If the spark-gap 
were connected directly across the transformer 
terminals it would measure the "inverse" 
voltage. The difference between the two will 



depend upon the load and hence it is necessary 
that the caHbration should be made for every 
load which it is desired to use with the tube. 
Unless appreciable changes take place in 
the wa\-e form of the current supply, a single 
calibration suffices, and this can be made by 
the manufacturer of the transformer. Unless 
otherwise specified, the voltage referred to 
in this article is always the "useful" and not 
the "inverse" voltage. 


In the first radiator type tubes made, the 
radiator was soft-soldered to the copper stem 
of the target. It was later found that the 
tube would stand almost as hard abuse if the 
solder was omitted and the radiator was sim- 
ply sHpped on over the stem and held in place 
by a thumb-screw. This has made it possible, 

protective glass with which the author is 
familiar does not have as high a lead content 
as seems desirable. The best samples which 
he has tested ha\e to be used in layers 10 to 
12 times as thick as metallic lead to give the 
same protection as the latter. Experiments 
made by Dr. G. Stanley Meikle of this labor- 
atory showed that glass could be made experi- 
mentally which contained so much lead that, 
for the same protective effect, the glass layer 
had to be only 1.4 times as thick as sheet 
lead. Such glass when melted attacks the 
glass-pot quite readily and may, therefore, 
be difficult to manufacture. However, the 
author has recently been able to obtain 
glass* containing enough lead that, for the 
same protective eff'ect, the glass layer has to 
be but 4 times as thick as sheet lead. 

The properties of this glass are such that 
it cannot be readilv blown into thick-walled 

Fig. 2. Tube in Lead-Gla 

for some applications, to adapt a simple close- 
fitting two-part lead-glass shield to the tube. 

As such a shield is, in some cases, a matter 
of considerable importance, it is perhaps well 
to discuss briefly a form which seems very 
satisfactory. It is evident that there will 
be some applications where the tube shield 
ought, for a given amount of protection, to 
be as light as possible. In these cases, it 
should obviously have the same form as the 
tube and should fit closely to the latter. 
Furthermore, it should let the heat energy 
of the cathode-spiral radiate through it, as 
otherwise both the shield and the tube would, 
wth prolonged filament excitation, get very 
hot. The ideal light-weight shield will then 
be a non-conductor of electricity, to permit 
of its being closely fitted to the tube, and 
will be transparent to ordinary- light radia- 
tions. Glass containing sufficient lead would 
be a satisfactory material from which to 
make such a shield. The ordinary X-ray 

* From the Corning Glass Works. 

bulbs, but it can be pressed in moulds. Fig. 
2 shows a picture of a tube surrounded by 
such a shield which is made in two parts 
bolted together in the middle. A hole in 
one side permits egress to the desired bundle 
of Roentgen-rays. 

Two portable Roentgen-ray generating 
units have already been built around the 
first model of this tube. These are the "U.S. 
Army Portable Unit" and the "U.S. Army 
Bedside Unit." In both of these outfits, the 
tube is operated directly from a high-voltage 
transformer wnth no auxiliary rectifying dex-ice. 
This model of the tube should also be use- 
ful for general fluoroscopic work and for all 
radiographic work which can be done with a 
focal spot as small as 3.2 mm. {}^ in.) in 
diameter. (This means an amount of energy 
not in excess of that corresponding to 10 m.a. 
at a 5-in. parallel spark between pointed 

For more rapid radiography, other models 
\\-ill be developed with larger focal spots, but 

60 January 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 

probablj- with the same external tube dimen- 


The advantages which the new type of 
tube possesses over the earlier type for diag- 
nostic work are the following : 

{1) It can be used to rectify its own current 
under conditions of service which are 
much severer than would be permis- 
sible with the earlier type of hot- 
cathode tube having the same size 
of focal spot. 

{2) The bulb can be smaller than is permis- 
sible with the earlier type handling 
the same amount of energy. 

(S) On either alternating- or rectified-cur- 

rent it will carry the maximum allow- 
able energy for a much longer time. 
(4) It can have,' even for heavy duty, a 

close-fitting tube shield. 
The author desires to express his thanks to 
George HotaHng, C. N. Moore, and Leonard 
Dempster for their assistance in carrying out 
the work which has been described. 

. I The electrical efficiency of Roentgen-ray apparatus has 
usually been comparatively unimportant, but as efficiency de- 
termines the weight and bulk of the entire generating outfit, it 
is obviously a very important factor in the design of portable 

outfits. , r v ■ T- - 

: Under these circumstances, the fact that the Itube is being 
overloaded is shown by a sudden vigorous local heating of the 
focusing device. In case the area heated in this way becomes 
sufficiently hot. it becomes a third source of cathode rays. These 
last cathode rays focus on the target at a point somewhat removed 
from the original and legitimate focal spot. This can be very easily 
observed and confirmed by the pinhole-camera method. 

' CooUdge. Am. J., of Roentgenology, pp. 7-8 (1915). 

* For the method of developing a suitable cathode design, see 
American Journal of Roentgenology, pp. 5-6 (1917). 

» I. Langmuir, Phys. Rev. pp. 465-466 (1913). 

A Portable Roentgen-ray Generating Outfit 

By W. D. CooLiDGE and C. N. Moore 
Research Laboratory, General Electric Company 

The following article is descriptive of the development of a complete portable Roentgen-ray generating 
outfit for military service in the field. The essential features of the resulting unit are its simplicity, com- 
pactness, portability and unusually high efficiency. Seventy per cent of the generated energy is utilized in 
the generation of Roentgen-rays. The tube has been especially developed for use in this outfit and is fully 
explained on page 56. — Editor. 


When it appeared that this country 
might become involved in the European war 
various Red Cross Units were formed, and 
some of these instituted inquiries concerning 
Roentgen-ray apparatus suitable for war 
needs. It was through such inquiries that 
the authors became interested in the problem 
of a portable Roentgen-ray generating outfit. 

The problem as it first presented itself 
appeared rather indefinite, as but little was 
generally known concerning the degree of 
portability required, the current and voltage 
needed to operate the tube, the amount of 
service which would be required of the ap- 
paratus, the question as to whether power 
could usually be had from existing electric 
circuits, etc.* Existing outfits apparently 
left much to be desired. The best way of 
attacking the problem seemed to be to in- 
vestigate the various possible systems, so as 

* Among others, the following excellent papers bearing on the 
subject were read with great interest. 

The X-ray equipment and work in the Army at the present 
time, by Capt. William A. Duncan, American Journal of Roentge- 
nology, 268-275 (1914). 

The Electrotechnical Problem of the Production of Roentgen- 
rays in the present War, by Dr. Umberto Magini, L'Electro- 
technica. Vol. Ill, No. 7, March 5, pp. 126-133 (1916). 

to determine which was best ada'pted for 
development into a generating outfit of con- 
siderable portability and sufficient output. 


The various systems wliich the authors seri- 
ously considered for the purpose were : 

(1) A gasolene-electric set furnishing low 

voltage direct ctirrent to a rotary 
converter, with a step-up transformer 
and a mechanical rectifier attached to 
the shaft of the rotar3^ 

(2) A gasolene-electric set furnishing alter- 

nating current to a step-up trans- 
former and with a mechanical recti- 
fier driven from a small synchronous 

(3) The same as (2), except for the sub- 

stitution of a kenotron for the syn- 
chronous motor and mechanical recti- 

(4) A gasolene-electric set furnishing alter- 

nating current to a step-up trans- 
former, with a self-rectifying Roent- 
gen-ray tube operating directly from 
the latter. 



(5) A storage battery operating an induc- 

tion coil through a mechanical inter- 
rupter or a mercury-turbine inter- 
rupter with suitable gas dielectric. 

(6) A storage battery operating a motor- 

generator and so producing alternat- 
ing current to be 
fed to a step-up 
transformer and 
thence to a self- 
rectifying Rop nt- 
gen-ray tube. 

An investigation of these 
separate methods led to 
the elimination of all ^but 
(4) for the following rea- 

With (1), to avoid the 
use of long high-tension 
leads, it appeared neces- 
sary to locate the gasolene- 
electric set close to the 
Roentgen-ray table, and 
hence to make the operat- 
ing room noisy. Further- 
more, the efficiency of a 
small rotary is very low for the size in ques- 
tion, perhaps 25 per cent, and this would 
necessitate the use of a relatively large and 
heavy gasolene-electric set. 

There were numerous objections to (2). 
It practically necessitated placing the rectifier 
near the operating table where the noise was 
undesirable; the use of the synchronously 
driven mechanical rectifier involved the loss 
of a considerable amount of energy (the small 
one wliich we tried consumed 350 watts) ; the 
behavior of this rectifier on the current sup- 
pUed by a dynamo driven by a small single- 
cylinder, 4-cycle engine was not good; and 
finally, the rectifier looked like a serious com- 
plication provided it could be dispensed with. 

While (3) was good, it was clearly not as 
simple as (4). 

It developed that the electrical efficiency 
of both (5) and (6) was very low, probably 
less than 25 per cent. This meant that, for 
the production of any reasonable Roentgen- 
ray intensity for any considerable length of 
time, either of these systems would lead to 
a relatively heavy outfit. 


System (4) , consisting of a gasolene-electric 
set furnishing alternating current to a step- 
up transformer, and with a special self-recti- 
fying Roentgen-ray tube operating directly 

from the latter, was finally chosen. The ad- 
vantages of this system when compared with 
the others may be briefly summarized as 
follows : 

It is simpler. 

It is more efficient electrically. 

' mi9m 

Fig. 1. Separate Units Comprising Portable Roentgen-ray Outfit 

It is lighter in weight for a given output, 
and hence n:ore portable. 

It does not involve the care of a storage 

It involves the use of no moving parts other 
than the gasolene-electric set. 

The outfit is self-contained, requiring mere- 
ly gasolene to run it, and hence can be 
operated anywhere at any time regardless 
of the presence or absence of electric 
supply circuits. 

The one member ha^'ing moving tarts, 
namely the gasolene-electric set, can be 
located at any desired distance from the 
Roentgen-ray room. 

Separate Elements Comprising the Outfit 

Having settled upon the system, it became 
necessary to get the component parts. The 
exigency of the case made it desirable to use, 
in so far as possible, apparatus which was 
already in production and hence readily 
available. For this reason, apparatus was 
borrowed from many different manufacturers 
and tested for its fitness for the particular 
purpose in question. The elements which 
were finally chosen are shown in Fig. 1. A 
description of each of these elements, together 
with the reasons for choosing it, is given 
in the following: 

62 January 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 

(A) Gasolene-electric Set. 

Various single- and multiple-cylinder en- 
gines of the 2-c}'cle and -l-cycle type were tried 
out, and the conclusion was reached that the 
one which was best adapted to the purpose 
was the Delco-light engine made by the 

Fig. 2. Special Self-rectifying Roentgen-ray Tube 

Domestic Engineering Company of Dayton, 
Ohio. This engine was already direct-con- 
nected to a dynamo. 

The Delco-light set was originally built for 
direct current at 40 volts, but by a change in 
armature- and field-windings and by the 
addition of a pair of slip rings and brushes it 
was adapted to furnish alternating current at 
the desired voltage. The engine was also 
provided with a special throttle-governor for 
regulating the generator voltage. This gover- 
nor consists of a solenoid (a) mounted above 
the carburetor, the movable core of the sole- 
noid being connected to the butterfly valve 
of the throttle. The solenoid is operated by 
direct current taken from the commutator 
of the generator. A variable resistance (b) 
is placed in series with the solenoid, and by 
means of this resistance any throttle opening 
and hence any desired engine speed and alter- 
nating current voltage may be obtained. 
The alternating-current voltage is indicated 
by the voltmeter (c). 

The reasons for choosing the Delco-light 
outfit in preference to others were ; 

It has a single cylinder engine with cor- 
responding mechanical simplicity. 
The engine is of the 4-cycle type and hence 

easy to start and flexible in operation. 
The engine is air-cooled, and this does 
away with the possibility of having water 
freeze in the jackets in cold weather. 
The armature of the dynamo is mounted 
directly on the crankshaft of the engine 
and the crankshaft has but two main 
bearings. This effectively does away 
with coupling troubles and with lack of 
It is self-lubricating. 
It is self-excited. 

It is of suitable capacity. 
It has been developed for long continued 
service with a minimum amount of at- 
At great expense, it has been thoroughly 
standardized, and this means inter- 
changeability of parts, 
and that all sets will 
have essentialh' the 
same characteristics. 
The workmanship is ex- 
It is available in any de- 
sired quantity on very 
short notice. 

(B) Roentgen-ray Trans- 
A small transformer, made by the Victor 
Electric Company of Chicago, for their dental 
radiographic outfit, was chosen for the follow- 
ing reasons: 

It is an oil-insulated closed-magnetic cir- 
cuit transformer of the proper capacity. 
It is oil-tight. 

Its design is such that, with the load in 
question, the "inverse" voltage is not 
prohibitively high. 
It was available on short notice, as only 
two minor changes were required. These 
changes consisted in adapting the pri- 
mary winding to the voltage of the gener- 
ator and in bringing out leads for the 
milliammeter (d) from the grounded 
middle point of the secondary (this makes 
the milliammeter a low-tension instru- 

(C) Filament-current Transformer. 
Here again it seemed imperative that an 

oU insulated transformer should be used, and 
that this should be electrically efficient, of 
light weight, and oil tight. 

The Victor filament-current transformer 
appeared to fulfill these conditions better 
than any other which was available at the 

(D) Filament-current Control. 

That manufacttu-ed by the Wappler Elec- 
tric Company was chosen for this outfit be- 
cause of its small size, fineness of regulation, 
and the fact that the setting, once made, 
was not easily dist\irbed. 

(£) Booster. 

The line voltage drops considerably' when 
the full load is thrown on the generator. 



To prevent the lowering of the filament-cur- 
rent which would result from this, a small 
transformer was designed, the primary of 
which is inserted in the primary circuit of the 
X-ray transformer and the secondary in the 
primary circuit of the filament-transformer, 
as shown in the wiring diagram (Fig. 3). 

(F) Operating Switch. 

A single-pole single-throw switch of sub- 
stantial construction was chosen. 

(G) Special Self-rectifying Tube. 

There was no tube suitable for diagnostic 
work and capable of rectifying its own current, 
for frequent long exposures, with as much 
energy as that available from the Delco-light 
set. It, therefore, became necessary to under- 
take its development, and the result is seen 
in Fig. 2. This tube is fully discussed in a 
separate paper published in the current num- 
ber of the Review by one of the authors. 
Briefly, it is a hot-cathode tube with a 9.5 
cm. {3% in.) bulb. The cathode has been 
especially designed to give a focal spot 3.2 
mm. (Js in.) in diameter and with a very 
uniform distribution of energy. The target 
consists of a small wrought -tungsten button 
set in a solid block of copper, and this block 
is electrically welded to a solid copper stem 
l.(i cm. (5'8 in.) in diameter which extends 
out through the anode arm to an external 
radiator. A platinum sleeve is silver-soldered 
at one end to the copper stem and attached 
at the other end to the glass of the anode arm. 
The target, complete with stem and radiator, 
weighs 860 gms. and has a heat capacity of 81 
calories per degree centigrade. The present 
standard solid tungsten target, complete with 
molybdenum stem and iron supporting tube, 
has a heat capacity of less than 10 calories. 
Because of its greater heat capacity, it takes 
much longer to heat the radiator type of 

target to redness than it does the solid tungs- 
ten target. Unlike the latter, the target in 
the new tube, even at relatively low temper- 
atures, cools rapidly in the interval between 
radiographic exposures, and, therefore, per- 
mits of starting each exposure with an 





Fig. 3. Complete Wiring Diagram 

essentially cold target. As a result the 
focal spot, even though small, is kept from 
reaching a temperature high enough to allow 
"inverse" current to pass tlirough the tube. 
Furthermore (and this serves as an additional 
safeguard), this type of tube does not allow 

Fig. 4. Complete Portable Roentgen-ray Outfit 

64 January 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 

an appreciable amount of inverse current to 
pass even though it is so badly overloaded 
that the focal spot becomes heated to the 
melting point. A probable explanation of 
this striking fact is given in the companion 
article on the tube. 


This is shown in Fig. 3. and needs no further 


The complete outfit is shown in Fig. 4, in 
which the gasolene-electric set is seen at the 
left. The Roentgen-ray and filament-cur- 

nently located in the movable tube-box 
under the table.* 


The outfit as described lends itself readily 
to a very simple technique. Experience 
extending over several years has convinced 
the writers that it is very convenient, for 
experimental work, to have extreme flexi- 
bility in a Roentgen-ray generating outfit, so 
that the penetrating power of the rays can 
be varied at will between wide limits. It has 
also convinced them, however, that Roent- 
genologists would get better average results 
in diagnostic work if their outfits were made 
much 'ess flexible, so that the Roentgen-ray 

Roentgen Ray Tube 


■Filament Control 

Fig. 5. Transformer and Instrument Box 

Fig. 6. Wiring Diagram for Outfit Operated Directly from 

Existing Alternating Current Mains (when 

Gasolene Electric Set is not needed) 

rent transformers, the filament current con- 
trol, and the booster are in the lower part of 
the box at the end of the table (see Fig. 5, 
which shows the inside of this box). On a 
shelf in the top of this box are a voltmeter 
for showing line voltage, the adjustable 
rheostat for controlling line voltage, a 
milliammeter for indicating the tube cur- 
rent, and the operating switch. (There is 
a cover for this box which is screwed on 
for shipment.) The X-ray tube is perma- 

* The table, tube box, and shutter were all developed by the 
co-operative work of others, including Major Shearer. Major 
Geo. Johnston, and the Kelley-Koett Company. 

f These rays are not homogeneous, but the mixture is always 
the same. 

tube could be used more, for example, as the 
ordinary incandescent lamp is. When such 
a lamp is lighted on the ordinary constant- 
potential circuit, it gives always the same 
kind and the same amount of light. It is 
entirely practicable to operate a Roentgen- 
ray tube in this same manner. It is merely 
necessary to see that the filament current is 
always the same and that the high-tension 
voltage impressed upon the tube terminals 
is always the same. Under these circum- 
stances the tube always gives out Roentgen- 
rays of the same penetrating powerf and of 
the same intensity. More artistic radio- 
graphs can be made by adapting the penetrat- 



ing power of the rays to the thickness of the 
part to be radiographed, but experience shows 
that with a suitable compromise voltage (we 
have adopted that corresponding to a 5-in. 
spark between pointed electrodes which is 
equal to 57,500 volts effective, as actually 
measured by a sphere gap) excellent radio- 
graphs can be made of all parts of the human 
body, and with a great simplification in appa- 
ratus and technique. The time factor becomes 
the only variable and this is adapted to the 
thickness of the part to be radiographed. 

With 57,500 volts (effective) and 10 mil- 
liamperes and a distance of 45.7 cm. (18 in.) 
from focal spot to plate, the writers have 
found that for Seed plates and the average 
adult subject, the following table of exposures 
gives good results: 

Exposures 18 in. distance 

Sec. Sec. 

Hand 1 Chest 10 

Elbow 2 Hip 20 

Ankle 2 Head-lateral ... 25 

Knee 4 Frontal sinus ... 50 

Shoulder 8 

Too much weight should not be attached 
to this table, as it is based on a relatively 
small amount of work. It is merely given to 
show in a general way how the time of ex- 
posure varies for different parts of the body 
when the intensity and penetrating power of 
the rays are held constant. 

The compromise voltage used for radiog- 
raphy appears well suited to fluoroscopy, 
and at this voltage a current of 5 ma. appears 
to give sufficient illumination. 

The reason for adopting for radiography 
the amount of energy corresponding to 10 ma. 
at a 5-in. spark was that it was the maximum 
amount available in the tube when operating 
from the Delco-hght generator. 

This energy could, of course, have been 
taken at any desired potential, as this was 
merely a matter of transformer design. The 
reasons for choosing the potential correspond- 
ing to a 5-in. spark were: Given a certain 
amount of energy to work with, the Roentgen- 
ray intensity, as measured bj^ the illumination 
of the fluorescent screen or the action on the 
photographic plate, goes up rapidly with the 
voltage. This is obvious from the well known 
fact that Roentgen-ray intensity', measured 
as above, increases with the first power of 
the milliamperage and iftdth the square of the 
voltage, while the energy delivered to the 

* It should subsequently need to be changed only when^tubes 
are changed. 

tube is proportional to the product of the 
first power of the current and the voltage. 
This, then, was an argument in favor of high 
voltage. On the other hand, contrast, in 
both radiography and fluoroscopy, decreases 
with increasing voltage. This is an argument 
against the use of too high voltage. The volt- 
age corresponding to a 5-in. spark between 
points appeared to be a good compromise. 

The authors have adopted the following 
general method of using the outfit. 

After starting the engine, the resistance (b) 
is all cut out. This causes the engine to idle 
at its lowest speed. 

For radiographic work, the resistance of 
(b) is raised until the line voltage indicated 
by (c) is about IGO. The filament current is 
then adjusted once for all* by means of the 
control (D) until, upon closing the X-ray 
switch, the milliamperemeter registers 10. 
As the X-ray switch is closed the line voltage 
is seen to drop. The resistance of (b) should 
be changed until the line voltage, with the 
10 ma. load, is 122. The line voltage is now 
observed when the load is taken off, and is in 
future work brought to this point before 
closing the Roentgen-ray switch. The impor- 
tant point is that the voltmeter reading when 
the 10 milliampere load is on shall always be 
122. If this condition is fulfilled, all radio- 
graphic work will be done with a tube voltage 
corresponding to a 5-in. spark between points. 

For fluoroscopic work, it is not necessary to 
touch the filament current control. This 
should be left just as it was for radiographic 
work. After closing the Roentgen-ray switch, 
the rheostat (b) is so adjusted that the tube 
carries 5 milliamperes. The tube voltage 
will then be the same as it is with the 10-ma. 
setting for radiographic work. 


{1) Electrical Efficiency 

Wattmeter measurements taken at various 
points in the circuit showed that, with the 
radiographic load of 10 ma. at 57,500 volts 
(effective), the alternating-current generator 
was delivering 820 watts, and that this energy 
was consumed in various parts of the outfit 
as follows: 


Main line loss 10 

Booster loss 12 

Filament-current control loss 14 

Filament-current transformer loss . . 5 

Energy consumed in filament 43 

Energy delivered to Roentgen-ray 

transformer 694 

Total 778 

66 January 191S 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 

The difference of 5 per cent between this 
total and the 820 watts measured directly 
at the brushes of the generator is doubt- 
less to be explained in part by experi- 
mental error and in part by distortion of 

From the above, it is seen that 85 per 
cent (694 watts) of the energy from the 
generator is delivered to the Roentgen-ray 

The energy in the high-tension discharge 
passing through the tube was not measured 
directly. (If time had permitted, it would 
have been determined by thermal measure- 
ments of the heat generated in the_target.) 
It should be approximately equal to 575 watts 
(the product of tube current and voltage, or 
0.010 by 57,500). According to this, the Roent- 
gen-ray tube gets, in the form of high-tension 
discharge, 83 per cent of the energy delivered to 
the Roentgen-ray transformer and 70 per cent 
of the total energy delivered by the alternating- 
current generator. 

(2) Gasolene Economy 

This was determined for various Roentgen- 
ray loads. In the following table, the first 
column gives the number of the experiment, 
the second the load, the third the engine 
speed in revolutions per minute, the fourth 
the dynamo voltage, and the last the economy 
expressed in hours of operation per gallon of 
gasolene consumed. 


Roentgen-ray Load 












In Experiment 1, the engine was idling at 
its lowest speed and the Roentgen-ray switch 
was open. In Experiment 2, the engine speed 
was that required for radiographic work, but 
the Roentgen-ray switch was open. In 
Experiment 3, the radiographic load is on for 
15 seconds and then off for the remaining 45 
seconds of each minute. (This particular 
schedule was chosen as representing _ the 
severest radiographic service which was likely 
to be required of the outfit.) The fourth 
experiment was with a fluoroscopic load kept 
on continuously. 

(3) Weights 

The weight in pounds of the different parts 
of the outfit is given in the following table: 

Engine and generator, with wooden 

base 377 lbs. 

Tube-box, and shutter HO lbs. 

Table 164 lbs. 

Transformer and instrument box 

with contents 244 lbs. 

Total 895 lbs. 


The advantages of the complete outfit, as 
described above, may be summarized as fol- 

(1) SimpUcity of apparatus. 

(2) High efficiency with consequent light 

weight and portability. 

(3) No moving parts other than the gaso- 

lene-electric set. 

(4) Control of Hne voltage, making it pos- 

sible to duplicate electrical conditions 
and X-ray results very accurately. 

(5) The tube has been designed to carry all 

of the energy that the generator can 
deliver. For this reason no harm can 
be done to the tube by raising the fila- 
ment current too high. Under such 
conditions the miUiamperage will go 
up, but the voltage will decrease so 
that the energy delivered to the tube 
will not go up appreciably. 

(6) The gasolene-electric set can be placed 

at any desired distance from the 
high tension part of the outfit, so as 
to avoid noise in the operating room. 

(7) No storage battery to get out of order. 

(8) Engine can be made to idle at very low 

speed, conducive to long life. This 
advantage comes from the use of the 
voltage governor instead of a speed 

(9) An accidental short circuit of the gen- 

erator does no harm ; it simply lowers 
the line voltage to such an extent 
that the field excitation goes down, 
the ignition fails, and the engine 

The outfit described was developed pri- 
marily for army use, and the exigency of the 
case made it necessary, in so far as possible, 
to make use of parts which were already in 



production and hence readily available. It 
could be further simplified and imijroved by 
special design. 

The greatest improvement would come 
from a reduction in the "inverse" voltage. 
By proper electrical design of the dynamo and 
the high- voltage transformer, this "inverse" 
voltage could readily be reduced to a point 
where it would be but slightly in excess of the 
"useful" voltage. 

This would make it practicable and easy 
to work with a high-tension system grounded 
on one side. The cathode of the tube would 
then be connected to the lead covering of the 
tube box, and through this and the supporting 
mechanisms to the grounded metal frame of 
the table. There would then be only one 
high-tension terminal to the transformer and 
only one high-tension wire going to the tube 
(to the anode) . The grounding of the cathode 
end of the tube would make it possible to 
dispense with the relatively bulky filament- 
current transformer insulated for high poten- 
tial and to replace it with a very small ordi- 
nary low-voltage transformer. It would also, 
for the following reasons, increase the allow- 
able tube travel: first, the grounded end of 
the tube could safely be moved to the 
extreme end of the table; and, second, owing 
lo the reduction in inverse voltage, the 

length of tube and tuVje-box could be 
materially reduced. 

The set described is intended to be used 
as a unit; but it would be a simple matter 
to so modify it that it could be operated 
from existing electric circuits without run- 
ning the gasolene-electric set. The wiring 
diagram (Fig. 6) shows the simplicity of such 
a system. Where different line voltages are to 
be encountered, the Roentgen-ray and fila- 
ment-current transformers would have special 
primary windings with several taps, or with 
several sections which could be connected in 
series or in multiple. Another method of 
accom])lishing the same result would consist 
in using an auto-transformer provided with 
suitable taps to take in current of any com- 
mercial voltage and deliver it at the 122 volts 
given by the Delco-light set. There is already 
sufficient iron in the transformers to take care 
of a wide range of frequencies. For operation 
from direct-current mains, a rotary converter 
would be needed. When operating from exist- 
ing electric mains, with either alternating or 
direct current, the boosterwould not be needed. 

In closing the authors wish to express their 
thanks to the many different manufacturers 
who loaned the apparatus used in the investi- 
gation of the different systems referred to in 
this article. 

68 January 1918 


Vol. XXI. No. 1 

Methods for More Efficiently Utilizing Our 
Fuel Resources 


By H. F. Jackson 

President Pacific Coast Section, National Electric Light Association 


F. Emerson Hoar 

Gas and ELECTRic.'iL Engineer, California Railroad Commission 

The Petroleum Committee of the California State CouncU of Defense has given careful consideration to 
two special reports, by the above authors, treating of the possibilities of further conservation of California 
petroleum by more extensive and efficient utUization of hydro-electric energy. The following article, which 
is an abstract of the reports, views the present oil shortage in a practical manner, and concludes that the earliest 
possible relief would result from a greater use of the hydro-electnc power that can be made available by the 
interconnection of the more important transmission systems. — Editor. 

require the annual consumption of not less 
than 19,000,000 barrels of fuel oil. 

Water-power Resources of the Pacific States 

The minimum potential water-power re- 
sources of California, according to estimates,! 
is 3,424,000 horse power; and the minimum 
combined resources of the five states men- 
tioned is reported to be 12,619,000 horse 
power, or 45 per cent of the water power re- 
sources of the entire country. Of these 
potential resoiu-ces, approximately one-third 
can be developed as required at an average 
investment cost which will permit of success- 
ful and profitable operation under present 
conditions of the western power market. 

Information on this subject, segregated by 
states, is given in Table I. 

The vast water-power resources of Cali- 
fornia, and those other states which are now 

Owing to the limited extent of the coal 
deposits in California, Oregon, Washington, 
Nevada, and Arizona, these states are large 
users of California petroleum as fuel for in- 
dustrial purposes. However, the conservation 
of this fuel by the substitution of water-power 
has been practised in California and the other 
Pacific coast states, as will be apparent from 
the fact that the hydro-electric development 
in California has increased SOO per cent in the 
last fifteen years. It is interes ting to note that 
during the same period, the production of pe- 
troleum has increased less than 700 per cent. 

The total installed capacity of existing 
hydro-electric plants in CaHfornia, Wasliing- 
ton, Oregon, Nevada, and Arizona is about 
1,288,600 horse power, of which 731,000 
horse power or 56.8 per cent is in California. 
The combined output of these hydro-electric 
plants, if reproduced by steam power, would 









Minimum potential 
water power resources 

Estimated practical 
developments under 
present conditions. . . . 

Installed capacity of 
hydro-electric plants: 































1917 (estimated)... 




* From the Journal of Electricity. October 1, 1917, p. 299. 

■f Made by the U. S. Geological Survey in 1908, revised by the Commissioner of Corporations 
Agriculture in Senate Document No. 316, Sixty-fourth Congress, first session. 

1912 and by the Secretary of 


consuming California petroleum, are of 
particular interest at this time because of 
the present critical situation affecting the 
supply of liquid fuels. The only relief, how- 
ever, which may be anticipated from these 
resources during the war will come from^a 
more complete and efficient utilization 
of existing hydro-electric capacity. 

9,770,000 barrels per year, of which amount 
some 3,950,000 barrels are consumed in Cali- 
fornia outside of the oil fields. ■, , 
Railroads at the present time consume ap- 
proximately 33,996,000 barrels of CaUfomia 
fuel oil per annum, of which amount about 

191 i 

c/iete Oei^pT 

Interconnection of Power Systems 

At the present time over 21,.j()0 
horse power of developed hydro-elec- 
tric plants in California are not avail- 
able for use in the industrial centers 
of the state, because of inadequate 
Une capacities and lack of proper 
interconnections between the systems 
of the larger producing companies. 
The annual output capacity of this 
excess power is equivalent to about 
668,500 barrels of fuel oil. In addi- 
tion to the unavailable actual excess 
capacity in hydro-electric plants of 
the individual companies operating 
in California, the failure to take 
advantage of the diversity between 
the system peak loads of these vari- 
ous companies and the inability at 
the present time to fully utilize the 
stream flow at the separate plants, 
because of the lack of interconnec- 
tions between the individual trans- 
mission systems, represent a waste of 
electric energy which is equivalent to 
not less than "1,100,000 barrels of fuel 
oil annually. Adequate and proper 
interconnections between the larger indepen- 
dent transmission systems would remedy this 

Existing Steam Plants 

The present installed capacity of public 
utility and industrial steam-power plants in 
the five Pacific coast states mentioned is 
shown by Table II to be about 1,729,600 
horse power, of which total approximately 
804,900 horse power is installed in California. 

The present fuel oil consumption of these 
steam-power plants is at the rate of about 

Hrofo Euc.Poive/l 


CABLe Ocir'PT 




FVTVH£ f/tACn 


c/ieie £>i-y'fr 


CABLC Pfy'pr 

Hydro-electric i 

ToT/iL F/fcific CoAsrSTATes 

3 4. 

MiiLiOMS aF House Powei? 

Qd Steam Power Development ; 
Pacific Coast State; 

nd Water-power Resources, 

24,790,000 barrels are consumed^by railroads 
in California and other Pacific coast states. 

Internal Combustion Engines 

In addition to the steam plants consuming 
California fuel oil, stationary internal combus- 
tion engine plants are relatively large users of 
gasolene and distillates. The capacity of the 
engines installed in manufacturing establish- 
ments in the five Pacific coast states is at the 
present time approximately 1 7 .980 horse power. 
during the last ten years as shown by Table III. 





W i--hinRton 





















1917 (estimated) 


70 January 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 

Railway Electrification 

While the greatest individual saving in fuel 
oil would be attained through the electrifica- 
tion of the mountain divisions of steam rail- 
roads in California over the Siskiyou, Sierra 
Nevada, and Tehachapi grades, this is a mat- 
ter for the future rather than one which can 
be counted upon to relieve the present day 
shortage. Such a comprehensive plan for the 
substitution of hydro-electric energy for fuel 
oil could not be carried out immediately; and 

accessible to existing electric distribution 
lines in California would, in all probability, 
effect an annual saving of about 550,000 
barrels of gasolene and engine distillate. In 
order to accomplish this result fully, however, 
it would be necessary to develop considerable 
additional power, which presumably will not 
be practicable during the war because of the 
impossibility of obtaining immediate delivery 
of equipment and of the time required to 
develop hydro-electric resources. 





























1912 . 


1917 (estimated) 


the benefits resulting from such a change 
wotild, if immediate steps were taken to begin 
construction, not be realized for two and a 
half to three years. The saving in fuel oil by 
the electrification of the mountain divisions 
of the principal railroads wotild be from 
3,200,000 to 3,800,000 barrels per year. The 
expense involved in making the change would 
be from $17,500,000 to $20,000,000. 

Conservation of Oil 

The substitution of electric power for that 
produced by internal combustion engines 

Viewing the matter from a practical 
standpoint, the only relief which can be 
anticipated from a greater use of hydro- 
electric energy will result from the intercon- 
nection of the more important electric trans- 
mission systems, thus making usable a larger 
proportion of the available developed water 
power. This additional energy, if utilized for 
power purposes by the present public-utility 
and industrial users of fuel oil, wotild permit 
the almost immediate conservation of ap- 
proximately 1,500,000 barrels of fuel oil per 


By W. A. Williams 
Assistant General Manager, Empire Gas and Fuel Company 

In this article the author discusses the sources of our future supply of gasolene and states that a very 
important source of future supply is in the tremendous latent reserves of petroleum in oil shales. In limited 
areas, it is estimated that there is available more than fifteen times the past and future production of 
petroleum; but the cost of production will prevent the use of oil shales until the price of petroleum products 
increases owing to the law of supply and demand. — Editor. 

Since the discovery of oil by Colonel Drake, 
in 1859, we have produced to January 1, 1917, 
3,944,000,000 barrels of oil and we are today 
producing at the rate of 300,000,000 barrels 
of oil per year, or approximately two-thirds 
of the entire world's production of crude 
petroleum. Will we be able to increase this 
production to meet increased future demands 
for petroleum products, and if so, how? WUl 
we be able to maintain our present rate of 

* From the Doherly News. September, 1917. p. 9. 

production for any considerable peiiod? Will 
domestic production, supplemented by foreign 
production, meet future demands? What 
other supplies are available to supplement 
our present sources of petroleum products r 

Our Petroleum Resources and Production 

Probably the most reHable estimate of our 
future petroleum resources was made by the 
United States Geological Survey in February, 
19 1(). The estimate of our future supplies of 


petroleum, from both the known and the 
prosjjective fields, was approximately 7,00(j,- 
00[),()0() barrels, which at the present rate of 
production would be sufficient to last a little 
less than twenty-five years. 

Table I is a resum^ of the Survey's estimate, 
showing the past production, the estimated 
future production, and the estimated per- 
centage of exhaustion of the different fields. 

Since this estimate was prepared, drilling 
has been extremely active in all fields, 25,000 
wells being completed in 191G as against 
15,000 in 1915; also, during this period the 
application of geology to oil finding has 
become general. Prior to 1915 very few 
companies employed trained geologists, while 
today most of the large companies and a 
majority of the independent producers are 
following the advice of the geologists in the 
search for new fields and production. Still 
the new production developed during the past 
year was little more than sufficient to offset 
the normal decline of production of the older 
fields. On the whole the Geological Survey 
estimate appears to be liberal, especially so 
in the states of Montana, Wyoming, Cali- 
fornia and Oklahoma. 

Unqualified the above statement would 
reflect upon the stability of the oil industry; 
but when carefully analyzed in the light of 
the laws of supply and demand it cannot but 
impress one with the soundness of this 
industr}'. The production of all our pe- 
troleum within the next twenty-five years 
would be an absolute physical impossibility. 
From year to year it becomes increasingly 
more difficult to find new fields; oil reserves 
must be maintained, and the physical laws of 
drainage must run their course. We will prob- 





in Fields 





of Total 






North Texas 

Northwest Louisiana. 

(nilf Coast 


Wyoming and Mon- 





















ably be producing oil and opening new fields a 
hundred years from now. In the meantime, 
the demand for petroleum products is increas- 
ing by leaps and bounds, due to the increased 
use of the automobile and to our general 
industrial growth, while our crude oil produc- 
tion has remained approximately stationary. 

More EflScient Methods for Production and Utiliza- 

Many of the leading authorities believe 
that we have about reached the crest of our 
crude oil production in this country, and that 
the inevitable decline must set in within the 
near future. The effect of this decline will be 
offset temporarily, at least, by more efficient 
methods of production and more efficient 
utilization of our available supplies. The 
present methods of mining oils are wastefid 
and leave more than 50 per cent as unrecover- 
able oil in the ground, half of which, authori- 
ties state, can be considered as possibly 
recoverable oil. 

We efficiently utilize less than 40 per cent 
of our present production. The remaining 
GO per cent is being sold, in most cases, at 
less than cost in order to market accumulated 
distillates, for which the demand is limited, 
necessitating their sale in unnatural com- 
petition, such as with coal for fuel purposes. 
Our future supplies of coal at the present rate 
of production have been estimated to be 
adequate for some 3000 years, whereas our 
oil supplies have been estimated to be 
adequate for less than one-hundredth of 
this time. Our first problem will be to convert 
into more valuable and necessary products 
that portion of our petroleum which is not being 
efficiently utilized. This may be accomplished 
by the development of successful "cracking" 
processes which will convert the heavier 
distillates into much needed motor fuels. 

Refiners throughout the entire country 
have been concentrating their attention for 
the last year and a half on the development 
of such processes, with a result that there are 
a large number of patented "cracking" and 
conversion processes on the market today, 
only one of which (the Burton process) is in 
general commercial use. 

The Rittman process, which must still be 
considered as undeveloped, promises im- 
portant results within the next year, as it has 
certain latent advantages over the Burton 
process, due to flexibility of temperature 
and pressure control. 

The "cracking" processes developed to 
date can be di\-ided into two classes. One, the 

72 January 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 

two-phase system, in which "cracking" takes 
place in the presence of both liquid and 
vapor, as in the Burton process, and in 
which the pressure and temperature are inter- 
dependent, high temperature being accom- 
panied by correspondingly high pressure; 
and second, the one-phase system, in wlxich 
"cracking" takes place in the presence of 
vapor only, as in the Rittman process, 
the temperature and pressure being inde- 
pendent, high temperatures favorable in 
"cracking" being attainable without the cor- 
respondingly high pressures. The commercial 
advantage of the one-phase system over the 
two-phase system is that kerosene can be 
"cracked" in the one-phase system without 
the excessive pressure which makes its use 

decidedly promising, but it is doubtful if 
South Ameiica as a whole will ever become 
an important factor in the world's production 
of petroleum. 

Mexico, on the other hand, is the most 
promising and dependable of aU foreign 
countries. The information available to date 
as to Mexico is altogether too limited for one 
to even hazard a guess. Most of the past 
prodtiction of Mexico has come from two 
wells, notwithstanding the fact that more 
than 700 wells have been drilled to date. 
Considering future possibilities, one is likely 
not to give sufficient consideration to this 
fact. Mexico undoubtedly contains a large 
future supply of petroleum, the natural 
market for which is the United States. We 

30000,000 £,000000 

5 4-0000,000 4;000,000 
h 30000.000 %3,00 0,000 


20,000,000 ^ zpoqooo 

■ 10000, OOO /,000 000 




nC.^' A 

nCS-' ^- 

. S>L . . / . 

<f>>' y 

^rpy. ^ - 

ini4^ / 

,AyU J 

f,ni<] 1 .,.„ '^ 

'ir\ 1 ,', prnduotion ^ . - 

'■Zn"^l^'r^ V 

,-■' SPry T / 

,---""-^- -T,-=''^ 

-^' .-' ^Sjii^" 

-^ ■ mftj<^ 

._--' r,n^ 

- hi"''^ 

. ,tn(n'J^' 

--'■'"" 1 


- _ _ ± . . - - 

400,000,000 "^ 


.^-■- 300,000,000 ^ 
200,000,000 \ 


/00,000,000 :g 

1910 J9II BIZ /9/2 /9I4. 1915 /9I6 1917 J9I8 

Fig. 1. Curves showing Crude Oil Production, Number of Automobiles, and Gasolene Consumption 

in the Burton process prohibitive. Further- 
more, temperature control, independent of 
pressure, is an important advantage in the 
manufacture of many possibly valuable by- 
products. With the large amount of attention 
that is being directed on "cracking" today, 
it will not be long before we are efficiently 
utilizing the larger portion of our production. 

Sources of Petroleum in Latin America 

Our most available sources of production 
from foreign countries would be Central and 
South America, and especially Mexico. The 
general opinion of those best informed is 
that while there are certain favorable surface 
indications in Central America, there is little 
likelihood of the production of these countries 
becoming an important factor in the pro- 
duction of petroleum. South America, 
especially Colombia and Venezuela, are 

are even now importing more than 75 per 
cent of this production. Relief from this 
source, while material, will not probably be 
sufficient to maintain our increased require- 
ments for any considerable period of time. 

Collecting Distillates from Coal and Wood 

Germany today is supplying her army and 
aeroplane motor fuel requirements largely 
from coal. We could do a lot if we more 
efficiently utilized our coals. By doing this, 
and by scrubbing our artificial gas, and 
collecting such distillates as can be utilized 
for motor fuels, it would be possible to add 
considerably to om- motor fuel requirements, 
at the same time improving the coal for fuel 

Some progress is being made in the distilla- 
tion of alcohol from wood, which might supple- 
ment the use of petroleum, as motor fuel for 


some purposes, but it is doubtful if it ever 
would be produced in sufficient quantities to 
justify its universal use in automobiles, unless 
some modification of the engine would readily 
permit switching from one fuel to the other. 
The curves of Fig. 1 show the rate of 
increase in the consumption of motor fuels, 
the increased number of automobiles in 
service January 1st of each year, and the 
crude oil production of this country to date. 

Our Oil-shale Resources 

Our most important source of future 
supply is in the tremendous latent reserves 
of petroleum in oil-shales. The United States 
Geological Survey and Bureau of Mines have 
investigated limited areas of these shales 
in Colorado and Utah; and from an area of 
some 3000 square miles, which they estimate 
is underlaid by more than 50 feet of workable 
shale beds of more than three feet in thick- 
ness, the average yield determined by test was 
over twenty gallons per ton. It is estimated 
that this area alone contains in excess of 
150,000,000,000 barrels of oil, or more than 

fifteen times the past and estimated future 
production of petroleum. 

When it is considered that future investiga- 
tions will undoubtedly reveal other important 
oil-shale deposits throughout the country, 
these figures cannot but help to lend stability 
to the oil industry; and if our demands for 
motor fuel= continue to increase at the present 
rate, it will only be a comparatively short 
time — five to ten years — before we will have 
to depend on oil shales, as well as foreign 
oil to supplement oui domestic supply. 

The important question is asked, how is the 
production of petroleum from shales going to 
aftect the production from present sources 
of supply? The present source is, or will 
shortly be, inadequate to meet our future 
requirements, and we must rely upon other 
supplies. The cost of mining, transporting, 
and retorting shales makes the working of 
these deposits prohibitive today. Petroleum 
must increase in value before shales can be 
economically worked, and consideiing the 
ever increasing demands for petroleum pro- 
ducts it must necessarilv increase in value. 


By Milton A. Allen 

In the preceding'article it was stated that the amount of petroleum which has'been mined in the United 
States and that which has been rendered unavailable by inefficient mining methods totals one-third of the 
initial supply. Petroleum, therefore, is a very limited natural resource. In the future we shall have to obtain 
the greater portion of our oils and gasolene by the distillation of cannel-coal, lignite, oil-shale, and natural 
bitumen. This article reviews the products which may be obtained from these substances. — Editor. 

A shortage of gasolene has been threatened 
recently and it has been announced that, if 
the consumption was not reduced voluntarily 
during the War, legislative regulation would 
be necessary. 

Prior to the War the United States pro- 
duced 65 per cent of the world's petroleum. 
Since then the supplies of Russia, Rumania, 
and Austria have been cut off, thereby placing 
the burden of production upon the United 
States. Besides this there is the ever-increas- 
ing domestic demand. 

In 1914 the marketed production of Ameri- 
can petroleum was 250 million barrels and 
this increased to 281 million barrels in 1915. 
Our estimated resources are 5,500 million 
barrels, or 20 years' supply at the present 
rate of consumption. The future source of 
gasolene to supply the increasing consump- 

♦From Western Engineering, November, 1917. p. 436. 

tion and to take the place of our depleting 
resources is a serious problem. Most of the 
crude petroleum yields only a small proportion 
of gasolene and burning naphtha or oils that 
lend themselves readily to being manu- 
factured into gasolene by cracking. The 
Mexican, Californian, Texan, and some mid- 
Continental oils are of this class. Gasolene 
must therefore be supplied by the high-grade 
paraffin-base oils. The best of these yields 
only 15 to 25 per cent of refined gasolene and 

The Appalachian and parts of the mid- 
Continental fields yield the bulk of these 
paraffin oils, but this represents less than 
40 per cent of the total crude petroleum out- 
put in the United States. From this it is seen 
that our gasolene supph' is limited and re- 
stricted. During the year ended June 1915, 
the United States exported 244 million gal- 

74 Januar}' 19 IS 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 

Fig. 1. Well No. 1, Henry Talkinton Lease, Fulsom, W. Va 

One of the first electrically operated oil wells 

in America 

Fig. 2. One of the Heaviest Derricks in the World, in the 

Coalinga Field. California. Height 106 ft. 

Depth of well 4200 ft. 

Fig. 3. Rotary Drilling Rig and Crev 
Midway Oil Field, California 

Fig. 4. C.qblc T.iol Drilling with Motor in the 
McKittrick Oil Field. California 


76 January 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 

Ions of gasolene and naphtha that could have 
been diverted to home consumption. It will 
be interesting to consider the possible sources 
of gasolene other than crude petroleum, 
casing-head gasolene, and cracked gasolene. 

Natural Bitumen, Coal, and Shale 

The sources from which oil can be obtained 
in quantity for making motor-spirit are 
natural bitumen, highly volatile coal (lignite 
and cannel), and shale. 

Prior to the discovery of oil in this country 
in the 'fifties, the cannel-coal deposits of 
Kentucky were mined and the coal distilled 
as it is in Scotland today. The oil yielded 
excellent lighting-oil or kerosene, lubricating 
oil, and tar. Similarly the albertite deposits 
of Canada were worked and distilled. Both 
these industries were forced out of the market 
when natural petroleum was produced in 

For many years the Scottish oil-shales have 
been distilled at low temperatures (1000 F.). 
The richer shales, from which as much as 40 
gallons per ton was obtained, are now ex- 
hausted; the average 3'ield is now between 
20 and 25 gallons only. In the process of dis- 
tillation used, a large yield (45 lb.) of am- 
monium sulphate is obtained. The small 
yield of gas is scrubbed and used in the dis- 
tillation process and for power. The crude 
oil is refined, yielding naphthas, burning-oils, 
gas-oils, lubricating-oils, and paraffin-wax. 
In spite of the increased price of chemicals, 
the improvements in retorts and in recovery 
together with the installation of electric power 
have enabled the industry to operate at a 
profit. It is a fact, however, that at greater 
depths the Scottish shale yields less oil. 

Large quantities of natiu^al bitumen, simi- 
lar to albertite, are found in Utah, Oklahoma, 
and Colorado. It is estimated that there are 
32 million tons of uintaite in the known veins 
in Utah alone. Analyses of albertite and uin- 
taite follow: 

Albertite Uintaite 

Per Cent Per Cent 

Volatile 60.0 56.5 

Fixed carbon and ash.. 39.5 43.0 

Sulphur 0.5 1.5 

Experiments made in Scotland under 
working conditions showed a yield of 134 gal- 
lons of oil per ton of albertite. The yield of 
uintaite should approach that of albertite. 


The market demands for cannel-coal are 
limited, hence the present output is small; it 
is used to enrich gas in gas-works and as a 

grate coal in some localities. For this reason 
large areas of cannel-coal in Ohio, Kentucky, 
West Virginia, Indiana, and Tennessee have 
not been developed. These coals vary in 
volatile content from 35 to 54 per cent, and 
in many instances they approach 60 per cent. 
It is estimated that there are millions of tons 
of workable cannel-coal in Kentucky alone. 
An analysis of a typical Kentucky cannel- 
coal shows the following content: 

Per Cent 

Moisture 2.4 

Volatile 50.3 

Fixed carbon 43.3 

Ash 3.4 

Sulphur 0.6 

This coal holds considerably less ash than 
the European cannels, hence the greater 
possibilities of disposing of the coke by-pro- 
duct if the coal is distilled like the Scotch 
shale. The coal residue could also be burned 
in producers and electric power generated as 
a by-product. 

Experiments in distillation at low tem- 
perature of high volatile cannel-coal show that 
it 3'ields from 35 to 60 gallons of dry tar-oil, the 
amount depending on the percentage of 
volatile matter in the coal and the temper- 
ature at which the destructive distillation is 
conducted. These cannel-coal tar-oils are 
high in paraffin, and the heavier fraction 
could readily be cracked to yield a high 
percentage of motor-spirit. 

For many years in England cannel-coal 
was used in gas-works as an enricher; but if 
large quantities were employed the tar by- 
product was difficult to sell to the tar-distillers 
because of its high percentage of paraffin. 
This bears out recent experiments, except that 
the percentage of paraffin hydro-carbons is 
considerably increased when the coal is treat- ■ 
ed at a low temperature as in the Scotch shale 
distillation. The advantages of cannel-coal 
distillation for tar-oils over the Scotch shale 
would be that the residue or coke could be 
used for power purposes on a large scale, be 
sold directly, or be ground and made into 
briquettes. Ammonium sulphate wotild be 
a by-product as in the Scotch shale industry 
and the yield would probably be large. 
Experiments on albertite yielded 65 lb. am- 
monium sulphate per ton. 

Apart from the tar-oils the gas when scrub- 
bed yields benzene and toluene and some 
light oils. The benzene and toluene could be 
mixed with some of the light oils and used 
for purposes similar to those to which casing- 
head gasolene is put. Benzol has been used 
in France as a motor-spirit for many years. 



In many of our central, northern, and wes- 
tern states there are hundreds of square miles 
of lignite. Canadian lignite deposits, it seems, 
are inexhaustible. Lignite is useless there as 
a fuel because of its low heating value. If 
the lignites are subjected to low-temperature 
distillation they will yield from 30 to 40 gal- 
lons of dry tar-oils, depending on the volatile 
content of the lignite and the temperature of 
the destructive distillation. The residual coke 
can be used similarly to that from cannel-coal. 
American Oil-shales 

In Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and in 
our western states are large areas in which oil- 
shale is known to exist. These shales resemble 
the oil-shales of Scotland. Experiments made 
on shales from Nova Scotia and New Bruns- 
wick yielded from 40 to 65 gallons of oil pei 
ton, the ammonium sulphate by-product 
varying from 67 to 110 pounds. The follow- 
ing is an analysis of these shales: 

Per Cent 

Moisture 1.00 

Volatile 45.32 

Fixed carbon 1.29 

Ash 50.69 

Sulphur 1.70 

In the carboniferous system of Kentucky 
above the cannel-coal deposits are bands of 
shale similar in composition: also there are 
separate beds of workable shale. These sepa- 
rate shales show the following analysis: 

Per Cent 

Moisture 0.9 

Volatile 43.0 

Fixed carbon 13.1 

Ash 42.5 

Sulphur 0.5 

A yield of 75 to 85 gallons of oil has been 
obtained from French shale deposits having 
the following analysis : 

Per Cent 

Volatile 44.4 

Fixed carbon 25.0 

Ash 30.6 

No sulphur exists in the oil. This resembles 
a high-ash cannel-coal. 

From the results given, it will be seen that 
the shales in almost all cases give a high 
yield of oil. Prior to the War the oil from the 
Scotch shale was not cracked for motor- 
spirit, but there is every reason to believe 
that this is now being done. 

Cracking of Tar-oils and Shale-oils 

In crude experiments in the cracking of 
lignite tar-oils, after the extraction of the 
hght naphthas, a yield of 40 per cent of motor- 
spirit has been obtained. It can be expected 
that the tar-oils of cannel-coal and the shale 
oils, which carry a larger percentage of paraf- 
fin oil, will yield a larger percentage of motor- 
fuel on cracking, and will be more amenable 
to such treatment. The processes now being 
used in the cracking of petroleum in this 
country are the Burton, Hall, and Rittman. 
The Hall process is being applied successfully 
in England and Russia. 

The War has created a demand for benzol 
and toluol that did not exist before. There- 
fore, they were not recovered in the by- 
product plants. It is doubtful if these 
products will fall below the price of gaso- 
lene after the War because of their value 
as motor-spirit. Gasolene will probably not 
go lower. 

Considering the low costs of mining and 
treatment of the Scotch shales by the un- 
economical method practiced, it is difficult 
to see why the shales, natural bitumens, 
cannel-coals, and lignites would not yield 
large quantities of gasolene profitably at the 
present price and at the same time develop 
resources that are idle for want of profitable 
use by the adoption of a modification of the 
most recent continuous retorts of the type 
suitable for low-temperature work, together 
with a modern cracking plant. 

7S January 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 

\.2. 6/--^ 

Electrical Laboratory Apparatus for 
Educational Institutions 

By J. J. Lamberty 

Lighting Department, General Electric Company 

For the instruction of engineering students, college laboratories should be equipped with practically all 
types of electrical apparatus, but the cost of separate units of each type is prohibitive for most institutions. 
This difficulty has been largely overcome by the apparatus described in this article, which incorporates in one 
design, by substitution in some cases of interchangeable rotors, a great variety of machines. For instance, the 
alternating-current generator may be operated as a synchronous motor, a squirrel-cage induction motor, a 
phase- wound induction motor, or a frequency changer Ijy using the proper one of three rotors. Similarly the 
synchronous converter may be used as a direct-current generator, an alternating-current generator, a direct- 
current motor, a synchronous motor, or an inverted converter. — Editor. 

President Wilson, in a recent letter to 

Secretary of the Interior Lane, emphasizes 

the need for engineers after the war by saying : 

"There will be need for a larger number 

of persons expert in the various fields of 

applied science than ever before. Such 

persons will be needed both during the war 

and after its close. " 

Secretary of War Baker, in a recent address 
to prominent engineering educators, stated 
the situation clearly when he said: 

" Nobody knows what the world is going 

to be like when the war is over. Nobody 

knows how long this war is going to last. 

But we do know that when this war is over, 

the rehabilitation of a stricken if not para- 

h'zed civilization is going to be a long drawn 

out and uphill task, and there will be need 

on every hand for trained minds, for train- 
ed and schooled men. The day of the 

engineer will be indeed the big day. Men 

should then be present in very great num- 
bers to help bring about the rehabihtation 

of industries, the reconstruction of an earth 

which has been swept by an all consuming 

conflagration. " 

Europe will have to be reconstructed after 
the war and such reconstruction will be largely 

7 mm\ 

Three-phase A 

9 1? 

7 10 

J g 




5i<-pha5C Diametrical 

Fig. 2. Theoretical Diagrams and Terminal-board Connections 
for Alternating-Current Generator. Dotted Lines Repre- 

Fis. 1. 4 pole. 15 kv 

p.m., 220-volt, 60-cycle Alternating 
with Extra Rotors 

sent Winding Coils 



Kv-a.,12.phase diamet- 
rical 110 volt 



Kv-a.. 6-phase diamet- 
rical 220 volt 


Kv-a., 3-phase"Y" ..381 volt 



Kv-a., 3-phase delta.. 220 volt 


Kv-a., 2-phase 311 volts 

t Generator 


Kv-a.. single-phase. . .381 volt< 
Kv-a., single-phase. . .311 volt" 


Kv-a., single-phase. ..220 volt 


directed by engineers. Europe herself cannot 
be expected to supply the demand for engi- 
neers as she will have suffered enormous losses 
in this field, not only through death and dis- 
ability, but through the inactivity of practi- 
cally all of her technical schools. 

Our European allies are now reaching to 
America for engineers, but in America the 
volunteer and conscription force have materi- 
ally reduced the supply of available men. 
Recent graduates are now in great demand 
by our manufacturing industries; when the 
war is over they will be in even greater de- 
mand. The call will be strongest for young 
engineers, willing to travel and eager for 
experience. The young electrical graduates 
who are familiar with the modern types of 
commercial apparatus will be the better fitted 
for the work. 

Some types of modern commercial ap- 
paratus are directly available for use in a col- 
lege laboratory, but electrical lighting and 
power machinery of today is built in sizes 
too large and too costly for the laboratory. 
Accordingly, a line of small machines has been 
designed that incorporate the general charac- 
teristic features of large commercial units, but 
of dimensions, capacities, and interchange- 
ability of parts adapted to experimental and 
instruction purposes. These machines enable 
educational institutions to equip their electri- 
cal laboratories through a comparatively small 
investment of capital. 

4pole. 10-kw., 1800-r.p.m., llOvolt Shunt-wound 
Synchronous Converter 

The alternating-current belt-driven gencra- 
tor'shown in Fig. 1 will operate as a genera- 
tor, a synchronous motor, a squirrel-cage 
induction motor, a phase-wound induction 
motor, or a frequency changer. The com- 

plete set consists of a stationary armature 
with a sliding base, a revolving salient-pole 
field, a squirrel-cage induction motor rotor, 
a phase-wound induction motor rotor with 
drum controller and resistor and other acces- 

Three-phase Voltages. 71-100. 142; 

Rings. 1-3-5 

Corresponding d-r. Voltages, 

110-160. 220 

Two-phase Voltages. 82-115. 16 

Rings. 1-4. 2-6 

Corresponding ri-c. V^oltages. 

110-160, 220 

Single-phase Voltages. 82-1 15. 164; 

Rings. 1-4. 2-6 

Corresponding d-c. Voltages, 

110-160. 220 

Single-phase voltages. 71-100. 142; 

Rings. 1-5. 3-5. 1-3 

Corresponding d-c. Voltages. 

110-160. 220 

The three rotating elements of the set, 
namely, the salient-pole generator field, the 
squirrel-cage rotor, and the phase-wound 
rotor are interchangeable. If the squirrel- 
cage rotor is substituted for the revohdng 
field, the machine will operate as a 15-h.p. 
constant-speed induction motor; if the phase- 
wound rotor is used it will operate as a 15-h.p. 
var\nng-speed induction motor. 

Using che ]5hase-wound rotor the set will 
also operate as a frequency changer by im- 
jiressing voltage on the armature circuit and 
driving the rotor, the frequenc>" and second- 
ary collector ring voltage depending on the 
impressed voltage, the speed, and the direc- 
tion of rotation of the driven rotor. For 
example, if the rotor is driven at nomial 60- 
cycle speed in the opposite direction to which 
it would revolve as a motor, and if normal 
voltage at normal frequency is impressed on 
the armature, approximately 210 volts at 120 
cycles is obtained. 

The alternating-current generator is also 
built for 110 volts. 

The phase-displacement set comprises two 
of the similarly rated generators, direct con- 

80 January 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 

nected and mounted on a common base. A 
spacing ring in the coupling pro\4des for the 
indi\ddual operation of the machines. Each 
stator is provided with a shifting device so 

Figs. 5 and 6. Core-type, 60-cycle, 5-kv-a., 220-voIt:Primary, 

82-volt (Two-phase) 71-volt (Three-phase) Secondary 


that it can be adjusted through an angle of 
forty-five mechanical degrees, or ninety 
electrical degrees. 

synchronous motor, or an inverted converter. 
The outfit consists of a stationary salient 
pole field frame with a cast-iron base and 
rails, a revolving armature, a speed-limiting 
device, an endplay device, and other acces- 

The synchronous converter is also built for 
220 volts but is not designed for such a wide 
voltage range as the 110-volt converter. The 
alternating-current and the direct-current vol- 
tages for the different connections are given in 

Fig- 4 ... 

The regulating-pole converter is similar to 
the synchronous converter, except that the 
field is divided in two sections, namely, the 
main field and the regulating field. A rheo- 
stat is provided for each section of the field; 
one rheostat is of the ordinary type used in 
the shunt-field circuits of small converters, 
and the other of the double-dial type arranged 
to secure a gradual change in excitation of the 
regulating-field circuit from maximum lower to 
maximum boost without opening the circuit. 

The machine will operate single-phase, two- 
phase, or three-phase within the voltage limits 
of the synchronous converter. It will also 
operate as a regulating-pole converter at 100 
to 125 volts direct current, impressing 80 
volts three-phase alternating current on rings 
1, 3, and 5. 

U 82V. H h—zzov: »j 

Two-phase Voltage. 82; Rings. 1-4. 2-6 
Corresponding Direct-current Voltage. 110 

l-i — azv—i^ '[- ZZOV.—*\ 

Two-phase Voltage, 82; Rings. 1-4, 2-6 
Corresponding Direct-current Voltage, 110 



I U 71 V-^ I |^_Z20V .^ 

f- &ZV. — H 

.4\ IN 

/ |-^\ i^ZZOV. 

71V. I 7iy. ^ I \ 

/ (f)l_ ' ■^'f'* \ 

l-t— SZV -J I- 2EOV— 1-1 

Three-phase Voltage. 71 ; Rings, 1-.3-5 
Corresponding Direct-current Voltage, 110 

Fig. 7. Connections of Synch 

Converter with Core-type. Two-phase, 

: Transformers 

The synchronous converter shown in Fig. 
.3 is designed to operate either as a synchro- 
nous converter, a double-current generator, 
a direct-current generatoi, an alternating- 
current generator^ a direct-current motor, a 

To operate as a double-current generator, 
an additional field rheostat wdth two settings 
is required in the regulating-pole field circuit ; 
one setting to be used when operating as a 
regulating-pole conveiter, and the other when 


operating as a double-current generator. 
The equipment for this rheostat includes an 
interlocked concentric operating mechanism, 
so that both the regulating field and the main 
field rheostats can be adjusted by one handle. 

Core-type oil-filled self-cooled transformers 
(Figs. 5 and 6) are designed to be used with the 
110-volt converters. Two transformers 
with a combined output of 10 kv-a. are re- 
quired. The units, with main and teaser 
interchangeable, have the necessary 
taps to operate on either a two-phase, 
or a three-phase 220-volt primary 
circuit, and in either case may be con- 
nected to deliver to the converter 82 
volts (two-phase), or 71 volts (three- 
phase). Fig. 7 shows the \-arious trans- 
former and converter connections and 
their respective voltages. 

Similar transformers are built for use 
with the 220-volt converters. 

Commercial types of switchboards are 
furnished to control the sets which have 
been described. Panels of natural black 
slate with dull black finished instruments 
are mounted on 90-inch pipe frame- 

Varied arrangements are employed to take 
care of the different voltage and current 
conditions. Many of the instruments have 
several windings to provide for the various 
combinations, for instance, the wattmeter 
has two current coils which can be connected 
either in series or in parallel. 

Laboratory Alternating-current Generator, University of 
Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Laboratory Synchronous Converter, Y. M. C. A., 23rd St., 
New York City 

Laboratory Alternating-current Generator, Cooper Union, 
New York City 

S2 January 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 

Life in a Large Manufacturing Plant 


By Chas. M. Ripley 

Publication Bureau, General Electric Company 

The difficulty of obtaining men with the proper training for performing the exacting work demaniJed by 
many of our modern industries has led to the institution by some of the larger concerns of special training 
courses for boys and young men. These courses comprehend instruction ranging all the way from strictly 
shop training to that involving higher mathematics, physics, and applied mechanics. In most cases students 
are paid a nominal sum for their time, and through the existence of these apprenticeship courses many young 
men have been able to obtain the rudiments of a college education and acquire a trade, who otherwise could 
not aflford to employ their time in non-remunerative work. What the General Electric Company has to offer 
young men through its apprenticeship courses is briefly described in this article. — Editor. 

One of the problems facing most boys of 16 
who are trying to choose a profession is : 

1st. If I start work now I cannot get a 
good education. 

2nd. If I get a good education I cannot 
start work now. 

As a matter of fact, they can do botli. 

Many boys feel discouraged because they 
cannot go to college for four years. It is a 
mistake for them to think that such an educa- 
tion is absolutely necessary in order to get 
along well in the world. 

Thomas A. Edison, the greatest inventor 
of all time, and a man whose inventions and 
engineering work represent nearly eight billion 
dollars invested capital in this country, never 
went to college. 

Herbert Spencer, one of the greatest 
scientists that ever lived, and the greatest of 
all philosophers, was a practical mechanical 
engineer and inventor, but he was not a 
college man. 

Also, the following world-famous in^'entors, 
engineers, and scientists were not college men : 

Sir Henry Bessemer, inventor of Bessemer steel 

Benjamin Franklin. 

Robert Fulton, inventor of the steamboat. 

Sir Hiram S. Maxim, explosives and firearms. 

Hudson Maxim, explosives and firearms. 

Henry L. Doherty, power plant financier and 

Michael Faraday, scientist and early electrical 

Alessandro Volta, scientist and early electrical 
experimenter. . 

Elihu Thomson, electrical inventor. 

James Watt, steam engine inventor. 

James Bucjianan Eads, builder of the great bridge 
at St. Louis. 

Isaac M. Singer, sewing machine inventor. 

Elias Howe, sewing machine inventor. 

William Herschel, famous scientist and astron- 

Thomas H. Huxley, scientist. 

Samuel Colt, inventor of the Colt system of fire- 

Henry Ford, intensive manufacturer. 

Cyrus Hall McCormick, inventor of agricultural 

Edward Weston, electrical instruments. 

Alfred Bernard Nobel, inventor of dynamite. 

John Tyndall, scientist. 

Richard J. Catling, inventor of the gatling gun. 

John Ericsson, inventor of torpedoes, submarines 
and monitors. 

In this chapter we will describe how boj's 
may obtain a fotir-year job now, and at the 
end of the term, in addition to having received 
a good practical education, will have earned 
approximately $3,000. What is perhaps more 
important still, they will have learned three 
important things which are not taught in 
college, viz.: First, the value of a dollar; 
second, the independence which comes from 
earning one's own living; and third, the 
strength of character developed by working 
with men. 

The usual college student does not receive 
pay while he is being educated, but the 
members of the General Electric apprentice 
courses are regularly paid while they are being 
educated. In these courses the j'oung boys 
of America have had created for them a 
superb opportunity to learn to do by doing, 
and at the same time learn to do by being 
taught. It is not generalh- known that the 
General Electric Company has spent on its 
apprentice departments in six factories, east 
and west, close to $750,000 in buildings, 
machinery, tools, instruments, class rooms 
and laboratory equipment, where boys 16 
years and up are initiated into the wonderful 
electrical manufacturing industry. 

Boys should appreciate that what they 
learn in practical work the}- can use right 
away, and at the end of the four-year course, 
in addition to .haA-ing earned between $2100 
and $3200, they \\-ill be full-fledged journey- 



84 January 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 

men, possessed of a trade. The present 
graduates not only are capable of earning, 
but are actually employed in positions now 
paying not less than $0.40 an hour — a mini- 
mum of $3.20 per day. 

We will describe point by point the value 
to a youth of establishing relations with a 

















































































" 1000 ZOOO 3000 -rOOO 

/annual £'arnir7g5 /n Do/Zans 

Curve Showing Present Earnings of G-E Apprentice 

great company, his pay and his play, the 
class roona instructions, the homework which 
is expected of him, the practice afforded him 
by which he learns to make drawings and 
read blue prints, and the shop work which he 
does — the great variety of processes he learns 
to carry on, upon a great variety of machines, 
and with a great variety of tools. 

Schenectady Works 

Of the 66 boys graduated in 1916 from the 
apprentice course at the Schenectady Works, 8 
entered the service of the U.S. Government and 
50 are still working for the General Electric 
Company at not less than $0.40 — and most 
of them are earning $0.50 to $0.55 per hour, 
and working nine hours a day. Think what 
it means to these boys, who in 1912 had no 
trade or profession and only a grammar 
school education, and yet who today are 
making $4.50 a day as established journey- 
men, all-around machinists, special tool 
makers, expert moulders, full-fledged pattern 
makers, and technical draftsmen! Even as 
important as this is, a further veiy significant 
fact is that they are in line for promotion to 
positions of foremen, bosses, or other execu- 
tive positions. 

The record of all the j'oung men who were 
graduated at Schenectady shows that 65 

per cent of them are now employed by the 
General Electric Company. 


Up to the Fall of 1917 

Schenectady 980 

Lvnn .' 502 

Pittsfield 80 

Erie 28 

Ft. Wayne 8 

Total 1598 

Comparison of Earnings 

The following table, copied from a trade 
journal published just before the war, shows 
the average wages in cents per hour in various 
countries in Europe. A careful study of 
this will prove the phenomenal opportunity 
which now exists in the General Electric 
Company for boys of 16 years to earn $0.50 
to $0.55 per hour and to become well educated 
technical men in a period of only four years. 



Italy 8 to 13 

Switzerland 12 to 17 


Bavaria 13 to 15 

Saxony 13 to 16 

Berlin 17.5 to 20 

Magdeburg 14.5 to 19 

Great Britain 16 to 19 

Belgium 11.5 to 18 

On piecework these rates may be increased 
30 to 50 per cent. 

What Four Years Will Do 

As someone aptly remarked: "Four years 
is a long while for a boy to look forwaid to, 
but it is a mere trifle for a man to look back 

How true this is will be emphasized by 
considering the results of four years of com- 
bined work and instruction : 

Lynn Works 

Of the 502 graduates from the Lynn Works 
apprentice course, the majority of them are 
still known to their instructors, and accurate 
records are kept of their present earnings. 

Of these graduates : 

1 is earning $4,000 per year. 

7 are earning between $3,000 and $4,000 per year. 

15 are earning between $2,000 and $3,000 per year. 

38 are earning between $1,500 and $2,000 per year. 

137 are earning between $1,200 and .$1,500 per year. 

63 are earning between $1,000 and $1,200 per year. 

2 are earning less than $1,000 per year. 
239 — location and salary unknown. 




86 January 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 

Pittsfield Works 

An investigation of the 82 graduates from 
the apprentice course from that factory since 
1911 discloses the fact that the earnings of 36 
who are working there vary from $1150 up to 
$1650 per year. 

Fort Wayne Works 

The Fort Wayne apprentice system began 
in 1913, and of the first eight students who 
were graduated this year, one is with the 
United States Navy, and seven are employed 
as tool makers with an income of between 
$1300 and $1400 per year. 

Erie Works 

The apprentice system at the Erie Works 
was established and standardized about 1910, 
and has graduated 28 young men. Of these, 
seven have left, six others are employed in 
the U. S. Army or Navy, and 15 are with 
the Company earning from $4 to $6 per 

We have considered only the wages or 
salaries of the graduates, but to obtain a better 
comprehension of the standing of these young 
men the positions held with the General Elec- 
tric Company should be pointed out. 


4 are managers or superintendents. 
35 are foremen. 

18 are instructors. 

15 are division leaders or assistants. 

13 are tool designers. 

5 are inspectors. 

4 are commercial engineers 
3 are assistant engineers. 
2 are designing draftsmen. 
2 are gang bosses. 
1 is a supervisor. 
1 is in charge of a section. 
1 is a designing engineer. 
102 are in the U. S. Government service, mostly in 

arsenals and navy yards, serving as skilled 


From this it might be reasonably con- 
cluded that these young men, who but a few 
years previous were in the grammar school, 
are now well established in the great electrical 
manufacturing business as the result of their 
industry and their ability to grasp the oppor- 
tunity afforded them. 


Professor Robert G. Wall, in a recent 
address, said: "Imagine one hundred men, 
all twenty-five years old, and all fully equipped 
mentally and physically. Tell them to seek 

their fortunes in the world and report back 
to you at the age of sixty-five. In forty 
years' time thirty-four of these men will be 
dead, fifty-six will be dependent upon rela- 
tives or charitable organizations, five will 
still be earning their daily bread, four will 
be wealthy, and one will be rich. These are 
facts, statistics compiled by the insurance 

It is quite probable that among one hundred 
average men, many of them never thoroughly 
learn any one trade; some of them probably 
learn a trade which will become obsolete, 
such as truck driving, a "trade" which is 
being displaced by the automobile; or the 
operation of steam pumps, a trade being 
rendered obsolete by the general use of elec- 
tricity. Among other obsolescent trades are 
horse shoeing, the trade of the cobbler, and 
those connected with kerosene, gasolene, and 
gas lighting. It is dangerous for the future 
of a young man to learrt a trade which will 
practically cease to exist during his lifetime. 
For instance, no one would think of learn- 
ing the trade of grinding wheat by hand 
or setting type by hand, as automatic 
machines do this kind of work far cheaper 
and better. 

If the horse, the steam engine, and the 
steam locomotive were to vanish from the 
face of the earth we could rest assured that 
some kind of machinery would do the work 
of transportation for the world — and it is not 
dangerous to prophesy that machinery in one 
form or another will not only carry on our 
transportation, but will become more and 
more used in industry, commerce, and in the 
home. For this reason the boy who becomes 
a mechanic or engineer, whether electrical 
or mechanical, can rest assured that that 
trade will not become obsolete during his 
life time — nor for that matter, during the 
life time of his great-great grandchildren. 

For example, should all transportation of the 
future be conducted by airplane, mechanics 
would be needed to build air craft by the 
miUion, and probably electrical engineers 
would build their motors, even though the 
power would be supplied to them by wire- 
less. So no matter how great the progress 
the world may make along these lines, a young 
man is making no mistake in learning the 
mechanical or electrical trade, both of which 
will be needed to turn the wheels of industry 
and commerce in the future. 

Hence, the young man who enters the 
electrical profession has a better opportunity 
of being self-supporting at the age of sixty- 





SS January 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 1 

fi\'e than in almost any other ])rofession 
imaginable, because America, and, in fact, the 
entire world, is entering upon an electrical 
epoch comparable in significance with the 
stone age, the bronze age, the iron age, and 
the steam age, through which it has passed 
successively up to the present. Therefore, 
our apprentice gradtiates need have little 
fear of being classed as ' ' dependent ' ' if they 
studiously pursue the fascinating work of 
electrical engineering and production. 

Class Room Instruction 

From the illustrations it will be seen that 
these apprentice courses include class room 
instruction and practical work with intricate 
machine tools in modern machine shops, 
foundries, pattern shops, drafting rooms, etc. 
There is nothing more fascinating to the 
growing youth than to see this practical work 
link up with the theoretical class room instruc- 
tion and vice versa. There is no joy in a 
student's life greater than an appreciation of 
the fact that what he learns in the class 
room — algebra, plane and solid geometry, 
logarithms, trigonometry, descriptive geom- 
etry, etc., is of direct assistance to him in 
shop practice. Here is that union between 
the work of the head and the work of the 
hand which makes for great industrial 
nations a place in the commerce and in- 
dustry of the world, and which, moreover, 
has been found so necessary in carrying on 
the great war. 

Home Work 

The home work of the apprentice pattern 
maker and machinist consists in making 28 
complete mechanical drawings, including let- 
tering, dimensions and details; and they must 
solve mathematical problems in order to be 
able to recite in the class rooms. The drafts- 
man apprentices have more home work than 
either of the two mentioned, as they are not 
only required to prepare the 2S drawings, 
but have to go into higher mathematics, 
which is necessary for the calculations of 
designing engineers. 

The apprentice boys in the moulders 
course may be considered as the highest paid 
of all, because in their fourth year they 
receive the regular's wage, which 
at the present time is $0.50 per hour for 
an eight-hour day. There is no home work 
in (his course, but the class room work is 
after working hours, which, in a measure, 
equalizes their advantages in the higher rate 
of wages. 

Personal Instruction 

The element of personal instruction in these 
apprentice courses is carefully provided for 
in three ways: 

1. Class Room Instruction — The classes are 
kept small, generally not exceeding twenty in 
number, and some classes have less than twelve 
students. Considerable latitude is allowed in 
the asking of questions and the explaining of 
possible obscure points. In some courses the 
class room instruction is 10 hours in every 50 
hour week. 

2. Personal Attention in Training Shops — 
For all beginners in the trades — ^moulder, pat- 
tern maker, draftsman, and machinist — there 
are provided special training shops where they 
are given individual instruction under compe- 
tent men engaged for that purpose. 

3. Personal Attention in the Shops — As the 
students become more advanced they are trans- 
ferred to the regular shops where their educa- 
tion is continued under the direction of the fore- 
man of that department and his assistants. 

Mastering the Use of Tools and Machinery 

At the end of the course in the machinists 
trade the boy, who slightly over four years 
ago was in the grammar school, has become 
a full-fledged journeyman and is fully com- 
petent to operate the machinery found in the 
ordinary machine shop, such as drill presses, 
lathes, planers, shapers, boring machines, 
universal grinders, gear cutters, and threading 
and milling machines. In addition to these 
machines, the boy is able to work successfully 
on the bench with file, hammer, and chisel. 

Equally skilled in the use of the tools of 
their trade are the graduates from the 
moulder's course, pattern maker's course, 
draftsman's course, and blacksmith's course. 
Thus men are trained to design machinery 
and perform the necessary calculations; 
others to make the patterns and the moulds 
in the foundry and pour in the molten metal, 
to machine the castings to dimensions 
accurate within one-thousandth of an inch; 
while still others are working the steam ham- 
mers for making forgings, or delicately 
tempering certain parts, or making tools for 
turning out other parts. Such is the complete 
scope of the training of apprentices in elec- 
trical manufacturing. 

We will omit a detailed description of the 
practical shop work and the class room 
instruction, as this can be supplied to all 
inquirers in the form of a separate illustrated 
booklet exhaustively treating the different 
courses in detail and showing photographs 






t-^f*^: . 




90 January 1918 GENERAL ELECTRIC REVIEW Vol. XXI, No. 1 

of the work which the apprentice boys turn the new system he is enabled, if ambitious, to 
out before their graduation. ' reach any position in the engineering depart- 
ment. This work brings the student in con- 
Special Courses tact with the problems associated with the 

In addition to the apprentice courses transmission of power for long distances at 

mentioned there are, at the Lynn Works, high voltage, 
other training courses for electrical test men, 

technical clerks, cost accountants and engineer- PRESENT NUMBER OF APPRENTICES 

ing courses of a special nature. These are December, 1917 

maintained to train young men for efficient Lynn 335 

service in the various branches of the Com- Schenectady 302 

pany's complex activities, or in power and Pittsfield 113 

lighting stations, transportation companies, p"^^- ^^^^'^^ ........ 82 

and other industrial establishments using Harrison. ..'.................'...'. 20 

electrical machinery and steam apparatus. — 

There is also a course for those desiring to Total 937 

learn the business of installing and erecting 

electrical and steam machinery. These latter Equipment and Facilities 

apprentice courses last but three years and a There has been invested in buildings, 

complete high school education is necessary machinery, tools and classroom equipment, 

in order to be eligible. The graduates of the over $650,000 to provide for the training 

electrical testing course are eligible to a special of apprentices. This investment has been 

student engineering course of two years — divided between the six different factories 

amounting practically to a post graduate named in the table. The most elaborate 

training. facilities are found at the Lynn Works, where 

A novelty in apprentice training has been the machinists' training room alone occupies 

introduced at Lynn, known as the co-opera- 3600 sq. ft. in one building, a space 80 ft. 

tive course with the Massachusetts Institute wide by 450 ft. long. An avenue block in 

of Technology, in which the students alter- New York City is only 200 ft. long, and from 

nate three months with the "Boston Tech." this fact and the view shown in Fig. 10, a 

and three months in the apprentice shops. conception may be gained of the importance 

This course has been arranged to cover a which this work occupies in the General 

period of two years. Electric organization. This section is filled 

At the Erie Works, which speciaHzes in the with intricate machines of all kinds, many of 

manufacture and design of electrical railway them automatic, and all with individual 

equipment, considerable stress is laid in the electric motor drive. To the average citizen 

apprentice courses on railway equipment; the operation of any one of these machines 

and in the mechanical and electrical class would be considerably more baffling than a 

rooms, in addition to the regular equipment, Chinese puzzle, and yet the graduates master 

are air compressors, cylinders, safety valves, their every detail, and soon learn to turn out 

motorman's valves, air tanks, strainers, finished machinery with only 0.7 of 1 per cent 

mufflers, etc., all to familiarize the apprentice spoilage. They leam to shape cast iron and 

with the operation and fundamental prin- wrought iron, steel, brass, copper, and even 

ciples of electric passenger and freight loco- cotton compressed into gear blanks — all of 

motives and trolley cars. these materials are milled, tunaed, cut, ground. 

At the Pittsfield Works a new course of a threaded, polished, and scraped by boys in 

post graduate nature has recently been insti- their teens. 

tuted in which young men graduating from At Fort Wayne, where the apprentice 

the regular apprentice courses may take up course is a comparatively new institution, 

advanced work and enter the transforrrier there are already installed 14 lathes, 3 milling 

engineering department and the testing machines, 2 shapers, 2 grinders, 1 planer, 1 

department. The advantage of this graduate gear cutter, 3 bench lathes, 5 drill presses, 

course is that it covers a gap which formerly and 1 arbor press. 

existed between the apprentice course and At Erie the drawing class room is provided 

the course given the test men. With the with machine parts of every description, 

former system it was impossible for an ambi- which are cut in many different ways showing 

tious young man, unless a college graduate, cross-sectional views, and also a complete 

to enter the engineering department. With 1-kw. gasolene generating set. 



The mechanical and electrical class rooms 
are equipped with a machine board arranged 
with levers, pulleys, scales, and beams, an 
electrical table with switchboard on which is 
a lamp bank, resistance coils, voltmeters 
and ammeters, rheostat, and a mercury 
arc rectifier: and a mechanic's table with 
apparatus illustrating an inclined plane, a 
platform scale, etc. All electrical, air, water 
and steam apparatus is connected up, with 
all pipes painted standard colors. 

The Schenectady Works has a slightly 
different scheme for handling the apprentice 
students, as they are more rapidly sent into 
the shops. All classrooms have equipment 
similar to that which is found in the labora- 
tories of many technical schools. Hoists, 
inclined planes for demonstrating the prin- 
ciples of friction, weighted cords for studying 
the principle of the resolution of forces, 
sections of steam engines for studying valve 
systems — all these are part of the class room 


There is much to be said regarding the 
personal life of the boys in the apprentice 
courses, and the character of the cities in 
which the factories are located. 

Schenectady, a city of 97,000 population, 
has no "red light district." On the contrary, 
it has plenty of good entertainment, which is 
more available here than in larger cities. For 
instance, the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers has meetings twice a month, which 
are addressed by prominent men such as Simon 
Lake the submarine inventor, Samuel Insull, 
Alex Dow, W. L. R. Emmett, Chas. P. Stein- 
metz, and other national authorities on elec- 
trical and mechanical subjects. There is a Y. 
M. C. A., Apprentice Alumni Association, Ath- 
letic Association, Mutual Benefit Association, 
a band and other musical organizations, and 
social opportunities exclusively for General 
Electric Company employees. The appren- 

tices are eligible and welcome to most of the 
entertainments arranged. 

Lynn, Mass., has a population of 102,000 
and is a "dry " city. A rifle club, bowling club, 
coin and stamp club, as well as the General 
Electric A pprentice Fraternity .theY.M.C.A., 
the Apprentice Alumni Association and band 
- — all afford ample opportunities for social life 
among the young men. 

Pittsfield, Mass., has a population of 38,000 
and is located in the Berkshire Mountains. 
The climate is ideal. Various entertain- 
ments are provided by the Mutual Benefit 
Association, such as amateur theatricals, 
field days, picnics, electrical fairs, etc. 

Fort Wa>Tie, Ind., has a population of 
90,000 and is approximately 100 miles from 
Chicago, 111., and Detroit, Mich. 

Erie, Pa., is located on Lake Erie and has 
a population of 75,000. Both Erie and Fort 
Wayne apprentices have a Club, an Alumni 
Association, and an annual picnic. All of the 
Clubs mentioned above are composed exclu- 
sively of General Electric Company men. 

Thus, in these five cities, distributed along 
a distance of 8S0 miles in almost a straight 
line, there are opportunities for boys in the 
Middle West, along the Atlantic Seaboard 
and in New England, to work their way 
through these educational courses and yet 
not go too far from home. Lynn is prac- 
tically on salt water; Pittsfield is in the 
Berkshire JNIountains; Schenectady, amid the 
hills of the Mohawk Valley, lies close to the 
beautiful Hudson River and between the Cat- 
skill and Adirondack Mountains; while the 
city of Erie is situated on Lake Erie, and Fort 
Wayne is not far from Lake Michigan. 

In all of the Works one or more complete 
libraries are available to the apprentices. 
Opportunity for baseball and boating in 
summer, football in the fall, skating and skiing 
in the \\-inter, and track meets in the spring 
— all are open to all apprentices with athletic 


Sales Offices 
of the General Electric Company 

This page is prepared for the ready reference of the readers of the General Elec- 
tric Review. To insure correspondence against avoidable delay, all communica- 
tions to the Company should be addressed to the Sales Office nearest the writer. 

Atlanta. Ga.. Third National Bank Building 

Baltimore. Md., Lexington Street Building 

Birmingham. Ala.. Brown-Marx Building 

Boston. Mass., 84 State Street 

Buffalo. N. Y.. Electric Building 

Butte, Montana, Electric Building 

Charleston. W. Va., Charleston National Bank Building 

Charlotte, N. C, Commercial National Bank Building 

Chattanooga. Tenn.. James Building 

Chicago, III., Monadnock Building 

Cincinnati, Ohio, Provident Bank Building 

Cleveland, Ohio. Illuminating Building 

Columbus, Ohio, The Hartman Building 

*Dallas, Texas, Interurban Building 

Dayton, Ohio, Schwind Building 

Denver. Colo., First National Bank Building 

Des Moines, Iowa, Hippee Building 

tDETROlT, Mich.. Dime Savings Bank Building 

DuLUTH, Minn.. Fidelity Building 

Elmira. N. Y.. Hulett Building 

*El Paso. Texas, 500 San Francisco Street 

Erie, Pa.. Marine National Bank Building 

Fort Wayne. Ind.. 1600 Broadway 

Hartford. Conn.. Hartford National Bank Building 

*Houston. Texas. Third and Washington Streets 

TvniANAPOLis. Ind.. Traction Terminal Building 

Heard National Bank Building 

;' Bank Building 

Dwight Building 

New Ori bans. La.. Maison-Blanche Building 

New York, N. Y.. Equitable Building. 120 Broadway 

Niagara Falls. N. Y.. Gluck Building 

♦Oklahoma City. Okla.. Terminal Building 

Omaha. Neb.. Union Pacific Building 

Philadelphia. Pa.. Witherspoon Building 

Pittsburgh. Pa., Oliver Building 

Portland. Ore.. Electric Building 

Providence. R. I., Turks Head Building 

Richmond, Va.. Virginia Railway and Power Building 

Rochester. N. Y.. Granite Building 

St. Louis. Mo.. Pierce Building 

Salt Lake City, Utah, Newhouse Building 

San Francisco, Cal.. Rialto Building 

Schenectady. N. Y., G-E Works 

Seattle, Wash., Colman Building 

Spokane, W.^sh., Paulsen Building 

Springfield, Mass., Massachusetts Mutual Building 

Syracuse, N. Y., Onondaga County Savings Bank Bull 

Toledo. Ohio. Spitzer Building 

Washington. D. C, Evans Building 

Youngstown, Ohio, Stambaugh Building 

Jacksonville. Fla 

JopLiN, Mo., Mint 

Kansas City, Mo . 

Knoxville, Tenn., Burwell Building 

Los Angeles. Gal.. Corporation Bldg 

Louisville. Ky.. Starks Building 

Memphis. Tenn.. Randolph Building 

Milwaukee. Wis.. Public Service Building 

Minneapolis. Minn.. 410 Third Ave.. North 

Nashville, Tenn.. Stahlman Building 

New Haven, Conn.. Second National Bank B 

4 S. Spring Street 

tGeneral Electric Company of Michigan 
♦Southwest General Electric Company 
For H.\wAllAN business address 

Catton Neill i Company. Ltd.. Honolulu 
For all Canadian business refer to 

Canadian General Electric Company. Ltd.. Toronto. 
For business in Great Britain refer to 

British Thomson-Houston Company.. Ltd.. Rugby, Eng. 
General Foreign Sales Offices: Schenectady, N. Y., 30 

Church St.. N. Y. City.; S3 Cannon St.. London, E.G., Eng. 


Argentina: Cia. General Electric Sudamericana. Inc.. Buenos Aires; Australia: Australi; 

and Melbourne; Brazil: Companhia General Electric do Brazil, Rio de Janeiro; Central Amer: 

U. S. A.; Chile: International Machinery Co., Santiago, and Nitrate Agencies. Ltd.. Iquique 

Shanghai; Colombia: Wesselhoeft & Wisner. BarranquiUa; Cuba: Zaldo & Martinez. Ha 

Co (of New York) London; India: General Electric Co. (of New York). Calcutta; Japan and Korea: General Electric Co 

and Bagnall & Hilles. Yokohama; Mitsui Bussan Kaisha, Ltd.. Tokyo and Seoul; Mexico: Mexican General Electric Co 

Mexico City; New Zealand: The National Electric & Engineering Co.. Ltd.. Wellington. Chi 

land; Peru: W. R. Grace & Co.. Lima; Philippine Islands: Frank L. Strong Machinery Co, 

General Electric Co., Sydney 

i: G. Amsinck & Co.. New York. 

China: Anderson, Meyer & Co., 

England: General Electric 


General Electric Co., Johannesburg. Capetown, and Durba 

General Electric Company 

General Office: Schenectady, N. Y. 

■:..f;ieiu'e on Gooil;". F.' . 




VOL. XXI, No. 2 

Published bu 
General Electric Company's Publicalion Bur 
Schenectady. N. Y. 




Page 110 






For Fractional Horse-Power Motors 

The responsibility resting upon the bearings of small motors up to 1 h.p. is 
extremely heavy. The liability to wear is proportionate to the high speeds in- 
volved. Vibration, and the wear to which it contributes, must be minimized in the 
interest of serviceability and silence. The extremely small air gap in the motor 
necessitates utmost nicety of adjustment, maintenance of true alignment, resistance 
to wear. Since, in these small sizes, friction losses even at best are disproportion- 
ately large, bearing friction must be minimized to keep down mechanical and 
electrical waste of power. As the motor will probably not be in skilled hands, may 
even be neglected, may stand idle for long periods, generous provision for depend- 
able lubrication must be provided. The best bearing made is none too good for the 
fractional horse-power motor. 

" NORfflfl " Precision Ball Bearings have been proved by 
actual performance to possess in highest degree every 
requisite for long-time service at high motor speeds. They 
are in daily use by hundreds of thousands as the standard 
bearings in small high-speed electrical apparatus operating 
under severe conditions. Their superlative speed qualities 
are a matter of daily record. They owe their pre-eminence 
in the speed bearing field to exclusive " NORfflfl " features of 
design and construction which we are ready to explain in 
detail to motor manufacturers seeking to incorporate the 
maximum of value in their machines. 

See that your 

Fractional Horse-Power Motors 

are " NORfflfl " Equipped 

THE wmm c9mpflNy of a^ikka 

17 9 O BRQ<qD\A//qy NEW yORK, 

Ball, Roller, Thrust, Combination Bearings 

"NORfflfl" Engineers — speed bearing specialists offer 
you their services without obligation. 

General Electric Review 

Manager, M. P. RICE 


Associate Editor, B. M. EOFF 
Assistant Editor, E. C. SANDERS 

Subscription Rales: United States and Mexico, $2.00 per year; Canada, $2.25 per year: Foreign. $2.50 per year: payable in 
advance. Remit by post-office or express money orders, bank checks or drafts, made payable to the General Eleclric Remew, 

Entered' as second-class matter, March 26, 1912, at the post-office at Schenectady, N. Y., under the Act of March, 1879. 

Vol. XXI, No. 2 

Copyright. 1918 
by General liUclric Company 

Febriary 1918 


Frontispiece; View of Niagara Falls from Air Plane 

Editorial : The Need for Further Water Power Development 

The Fertilizer Industry and Its Power Requirements 

By J. E. Mellett 

Water Power — Our Electrochemical Salvation . 

By C. A. Winder 

Methods for More Efficiently UtiHzing Our Fuel Resources 
Part XII : Pulverized Coal and Its Future . 

By H. G. Barnhurst 

Part XIII : Fuel Saving in Household Heating 

By Robert E. Dillon 

An Improved System for Lighting Interurban Trolley Cars 

By W. J. Walker 

Some Experiments in the Use of Electric Power for Field Work on the Farm . 
By J. H. Davidson and F. E. Boyd 

Graphical Representation of Resistances and Reactances in Multiple 

By H. C. Stanley 

Electric Cargo Winches 

By E. F. Whitney 

The Suppression of Hysteresis in Iron-Carbon Alloys by a Longitudinal Alternating Mag 

netic Field 

Bv C. W. Waggoner and H. M. Freeman 

Electric Oven for Baking Cores 

Some Factors Affecting the Determination of Maximum Demand 

Bv Chester I. Hall 

Electricity in Logging and Saw Mills 

Bv E. H. Horstkotte 

In Memoriam: John Riddell 
Temperature Sensitive Paints 











By W. S. Andrews 


Apparently it is necessary that something 
startling happen before we are awakened to 
a full realization of the conditions existing 
outside our individual spheres of activity. 
In the earlyfdays of the infantile paralysis 
epidemic, the potato shortage, the sugar 
shortage, etc., the newspaper accounts which 
described the conditions merely excited our 
superficial interest. It was not until the 
conditions became startlingly serious that we 
were aroused to an active participation in 
the public-spirited remedial measures. 

Another such example is working itself 
out at the present time. For weeks past we 
have been informed that the distribution of 
coal was becoming inadequate for the demand. 
In the face of this shortage we went on indi- 
vidually using fuel unrestrictedly, feeling that 
somehow the situation would workout all right. 
It required the unprecedented fuel-saving 
edict of our Fuel Ad:ninistrator to make us 
realize that we, the consumers, are col- 
lectively joint sharers in the responsibility 
for the situation. It was a startling jolt; 
but it awakened us to the fact that we as 
individuals cannot day after day continue 
to overlook or to shirk our responsibility in 
matters of collective welfare. 

Are we going to profit by these lessons? 
Are public-spirited appeals for our collective 
service going to claim only our reading and 
conversational interest until some startling 
fact arouses us to a conscientious realization 
that each and every one of us must help? 

There are now claiming our attention many 
public matters which we are not seriously con- 
sidering because they have not as yet crowded 
everything else from our field of vision. One 
of these iVia'tters is the undeveloped and under- 
developed condition of our water power. This 
subject is treated in this issue with specific ref- 
erence to the electrochemical industry. More 
water power is necessary for the expansion of 
this industry ; and the author makes an earnest 
plea that this development be permitted to 
take place at Niagara because these falls arc 
a readily available source of cheap power and 
are ideallv located. It is estimated that three 

million horse power could be developed with- 
out impairing the scenic beauty of the Falls. 

* * if if i( if 

The products of the electrochemical in- 
dustry are extremely diversified. They 
include aluminum, silicon, calcium carbide, 
cyanimid. ferro-alloys, graphite, carborun- 
dum, chlorine, etc., many of which are in- 
dispensable in the arts and in manufacture. 
Without aluminum the modern high-speed 
scout air plane would not exist; without 
electrochemical abrasives and ferro-alloys 
manufacturing processes would be lengthened 
many fold. Our industrial supremacy in times 
of peace is dependent upon these products to 
a very considerable extent; in the fulfillment 
of our stupendous war program they are vital. 

One of the most important electrochemical 
processes is the fixation of nitrogen, and while 
we are not aware that any plants of this kind 
have so far been put into operation commer- 
cially in this country, they have been seriously 
contemplated, and await only a sufficient 
source of low-price power for realization. 
It is reported that Germany has obtained 
hei entire supply of nitrates by this method 
during the war. 

Cheap power is essential to a development 
of the electrochemical industry, but in order 
that its cheapness may not be nullified it 
must be available near the center of market 
demand for electrochemical products, and 
not too remote from the sources of raw 
material. Hence it is not surprising to find 
the greatest electrochemical industries in the 
world located at Niagara, virtually at the 
center of our material market. 

Much thought has been given to the utiliza- 
tion of the great Western water powers for 
electrochemical purposes, but until the de- 
mand for these products in the Pacific coast 
states is sufficient to warrant the erection of 
electrochemical plants in this section, any 
expansion of the industry wiU be confined to 
the East. The matter of freight rates over 
the long haul ^\'ill forever exclude competi- 
tion in electrochemical products between the 
two sections. 

February 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 2 

The Fertilizer Industry and Its Power 

By J. E. Mellett 
Georgia Railway and Power Company 

The author of this article is in the service of a central station company operating in a section of the 
country where fertilizer plants are numerous, and he has, therefore, been able to give special study to the 
subject of the application of electric drive to this industry. Fertilizer plants range all the way from those 
that merely mix the ingredients to those that manufacture and prepare all of the necessary substances, 
including sulphuric acid and limestone, ochre, or feldspar fillers. The power requirements of the different 
types of plants vary widely, depending on the size and character of the equipment. The author has specified 
the average requirements of^the more common types of fertilizer manufacturing machinery. — Editor. 

The manufacture of fertilizers has kept 
pace with other industries and has experienced 
a wide expansion, showing an increase of ten 
per cent per annum in the five years prior to 
the war. The importance of the industry is 
further indicated by the fact that in the last 
normal year before the war interfered, the 
value of materials consumed in fertilizer 
manufacture was over $150,000,000, the out- 
put for 1914 with its economic disturbance 
totaling 7,500,000 tons. In the mixed ferti- 
lizer business there are about 850 concerns 
operating over 1200 plants, but twelve large 
companies with their numerous subsidiary 
and affiliated concerns control more than 60 
per cent of the total output, and two of them 
30 per cent. Although these large companies 
have the advantage of superior purchasing 
facilities, recent statistics show that the cost 
of manufacturing has increased rapidly with 
a decline in profits. 

In the face of rising costs it is imperative 
that the manufacturer must economize in 
every manner possible, and as he has no con- 
trol over the price of materials that go into 
his product, the only relief must necessarily 
come through the reduction of manufacturing 
costs. The factories that are not using electric 
motors and are not familiar with the advan- 
tages to be secured from purchased service 
have an opportunity to reduce these costs by 
utilizing central station energy, which at the 
same time will eliminate the worries that go 
with the operation of a private power plant, 
and shift the burden and responsibiHty to 

Engineers realize the advantages of elec- 
tric drive and never think of recommend- 
ing the old type of mechanical drive. All 
plants that are erected today adopt electricity 
as the motive power and secure service, if 

possible, from a central station, or if this 
source is not available, make arrangements 
for isolated generation. 

In the past ten years the installation of 
electric motors in fertilizer plants has been 
on a rapidly increasing scale, involving the 
electrification of new plants and the changing 
over of mechanically driven plants, and the 
major portion of the power is being supplied 
by central stations. Nevertheless, there are 
a number of isolated electrically and 
mechanically driven plants which, if shown 
the way, would adopt central station service 
with much advantage to themselves. For 
the power man looking for new business and 
the fertilizer plant trying to generate power 
there should be a field for collaboration. 

While only a limited nirmber of fertilizer 
plants operate at capacity all the year with 
high load factors, the majority have fairly 
good load factors during the spring, fall, and 
winter, with Hght operations in the summer 
months; and from the central station point 
of view this business should prove attractive 
as it can be obtained at a fair rate. On the 
other hand, the manufacturer has no real 
arguments against purchased power, whether 
he is manufactming his own acid and using 
steam for spray purposes and office heating, 
or whether he is buying acid. A close analysis 
will show that he may retain equipment for 
steam spray and heating, and still profit in a 
number of ways by buying service. 

Nearly all central stations have a few 
isolated plants scattered over their territory 
that they have been trjang to connect to their 
lines for years, and the old bug-bear of "steam 
required for other purposes" has killed a 
number of lucrative prospects in normal 
times. But conditions have changed in the 
last year, and the occasion is peculiarly fit- 
ting to begin a new drive at this time, when 



embargoes are the order, freight cars are be- 
ing requisitioned, and fuels are away above 

If the central stations do not exert special 
effort to secure these plants now, it may prove 
a* difficult matter to interest them when con- 
ditions again reach normal. 
I The plant that turned down the central 
station proposal a few years ago may now be 
awaiting a new proposition, but is too proud 
to bring up the subject even though it may 
be advantageous to do so. 

Old customers should receive first considera- 
tion under the present pressure, but the fact 
should not be overlooked that good business 
can be obtained now for the future by spend- 
ing a little more money than would be spent 
normally, in order to get such plants as have 
not been open to conviction in the j^ast. 

Fertilizers: Their Function and Constituents 

While it is not necessary for the power 
engineer or salesman to know all the intrica- 
cies of fertilizer manufacture, nevertheless 
experience has shown that it is much easier 
to arouse a manufacturer's interest if the 
engineer indicates that he is at least familiar 
with the fundamental principles of the busi- 
ness. Therefore, it might be well to state 
briefly the purpose of the fertiHzer industry, 
and to describe the product and its manu- 
facture. The object of applying fertilizer to 
the soil is primarily to secure a greater yield 
per acre, or to maintain the present yield by 
adding constituents that replenish the soil 
with that which is taken away by crop suc- 
cession. The material requirements for 
healthy plant life and growth may be listed 
under two heads; viz., organic and inorganic 
matters. Nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and 
oxygen are classed under the first head; 
phosphorous, iron, potassium, sulphur, cal- 
cium, and magnesium under the second. 

Each of these elements has a definite func- 
tion to fulfill in the growth of the plant, vari- 
ous types of plant life requiring more or less 
of each constituent. Nitrogen has a tendency 
to strengthen the growth of the fiber; phos- 
phorous and potash, or potassium oxide, as- 
sist the fruiting; magnesium and lime act 
as reagents sweetening the soil; and iron as- 
sists in the leaf coloring. 

The earth and the stirrounding air con- 
tain all the elements which are necessary 
to plant life, but in order to produce intensi- 
fied growth, commercial fertilizers containing 
potash, nitrogen, and phosphorous are gene- 
rallv used. 

Potash (K2O) is found in several forms, as 
muriate of potash and carbonate of potash. 
Muriate and sulphate of potash were mostly 
drawn from the German mines prior to the 
war; but they are also obtained from other 
sources, such as wood ashes, tobacco dust, 
cotton seed meal, saHne deposits from the 
Nebraska and California brine lakes, Cali- 
fornia seaweed and kelp beds, and alunite. 
Several methods of securing potash are being 
tried out and a considerable investment has 
already been make in plants on the Pacific 
coast. The Nebraska borings show as high 
as 28 per cent potash, and the kelp beds of the 
Pacific coast bid fair to supply large quanti- 
ties; but cheaper methods of extracting have 
yet to be found. Numerous experiments have 
also been made for the extraction of the small 
percentage of potash from feldspar and other 
minerals. It has been recently reported that 
large deposits of potash salts, averaging not 
less than 50 per cent, have been discovered 
in Abyssinia. 

Of the total cost of materials in the average 
complete mixture, nitrogen constitutes 53 
per cent, or approximately 25 per cent of the 
total deUvered cost, and is by far the largest 
single element of expense in fertilizer. It is 
derived principally from nitrates of soda from 
the great beds in Peru and Chile; the fixation 
processes largely coming into use; coal tar 
and coke oven products; guano, and tankage 
and cotton seed. Nitrogen as embodied in 
commercial fertilizers is combined with other 
elements in the form of organic matter such 
as blood, tankage, cotton seed meal, and in 
other forms as guanos, sulphate of ammonia, 
nitrates of soda, nitrate of lime, calcium car- 
bide, or cyanimide, and products from nitro- 
gen fixation processes. 

Detailed statistics of imports of nitrates 
from Chile to this country are lacking at 
present, but official publications show that 
we imported 13,000,000 quintals, or approxi- 
mately 1,430,000 tons, in 1916, which indicates 
the im]3ortance of nitrates to the fertilizer and 
our dependence on foreign fields. 

The fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, or 
the extraction of nitric acid from the svir- 
rounding air, has been carried on by various 
methods for some time, the more common 
being the Birkland-Eyde, cyanimide, and 
Badische aniline processes. It is estimated 
that the atmosphere surrounding the earth 
contains 31,000 tons of nitrogen per acre of 
earth's surface, or practically four-fifths of 
the surrounding air. Congress has appro- 
priated large sums for the establishment of 

98 February 191S 


Vol. XXI, No. 2 

fixation plants, and no doubt the Government 
will soon begin to draw on Nature's store- 
house through the operation of these plants. 
Phosphoric acid is a combination of phos- 
phorous and oxygen expressed as P2O6 and 
is derived chiefly from phosphatic slag, 

Fig. 1. Phosphate Rock Grinding. 75-h.p., 900-r.p. 

Squirrel Cage Motor Operating 4-ton Pratt Mill 

and Auxiliary Equipment 

animal matter, and phosphate rock which 
contains a high percentage of tricalcium 
phosphate and is secured from the larger 
deposits found in Tennessee, Florida, South 
Carolina, and a few of the Western States. 
The rock is received at the fertilizer plants 
in the form of pebbles and small rocks vary- 
ing in size from 23^ to 6 inches in diameter. 

Phosphatic slag is produced in the manu- 
facture of steel by the basic Bessemer and 
basic open-hearth processes. The phos- 
phorous, in the form of tetra-calcium phos- 
phate, is separated from the iron by the ad- 
dition of lime or limestone, which forms 
phosphoric compounds. These processes pro- 
duce from 10 to 25 per cent phosphoric acid. 
Several methods are being tried out to secure 
a superphosphoric acid by calcining, and 
also by the use of electric furnaces, but up to 
the present time the increased acid content 
secured is not sufficient to warrant the expense 
of the energy cost by the electrical process. 

A ton of commercial fertilizer contains a 
certain percentage of potash, phosphoric 
acid, nitrogen, and filler. These percentages 
vary depending on the purpose for which the 
fertilizer is desired; but the filler constitutes 
the larger percentage, and it may be in the 

form of lime, water, soda, cotton seed meal, 
gneiss, or animal matter. 


The manufacture of so-called commercial 
fertilizers is carried on by plants of various 
types, namely, small dry mixing plants, filler 
plants, combination cotton seed oil and 
fertilizer plants, and acid and non-acid making 
plants. The dry mixing plant may be opera- 
ted in conjunction with a cotton seed oil mill, 
or entirely separate. In the majority of cases 
the distinct small dry mixing plant is located 
in the less populous sections and has most of 
the necessary plant food elements shipped in. 
The mixing is done by hand, or supplemented 
by a batch mixer, the difference being that 
in the former case the elements are placed 
on the floor in layers and mixed by shovels, 
dumped into an elevator pit, elevated to 
screens, and thence to the hopper and sackers. 
In the latter method the constituents are 
carried separately to the power mixer and 
all mixed at the same time. The batch-mix- 
ing process is conducted as follows. 

The quantity of each material necessary 
for a ton of fertilizer is dumped separately 
into a pit and carried by bucket elevator, 
thence by chute into reel, and through a 
screen to hopper. The lumps that do not 
mesh are carried by tailing chute to a clod 
breaker and back to the elevator pit. The 
screened material leaves the hopper and enters 
a revolving mixer where all elements are 
mixed in one batch and emptied by chute 
into a bagging hopper and scales, and sacked 
in 100- and 200-lb. bags. There are different 
types of rotary mixers on the market, some of 
which are sold complete, including elevators, 
screens, clod breakers, hoppers, and scales. 

These equipments are generally driven 
from a main shaft running at 200 r.p.m. The 
elevator shaft is driven from the screen 
countershaft. The mixer and clod breaker 
are driven by belt from the main shaft, the 
former operating at 165 r.p.m. and the latter 
at 400 r.p.m. 

Where the mixing is done by hand 15 to 
20 h.p. is required to run the elevator, reel, 
and screen. The batch, or power-mixing 
process requires from 30 to 35 h.p. As the 
period over which these plants operate is 
comparatively short, starting about February 
1st and operating to May 1st, and intermit- 
tingly through May and June, and possibly 
again in the fall, some type of internal com- 
bustion engine is generally used. These 
plants mix about 100 tons per day. 



Although this class of business is not 
specially desirable, some central stations 
have worked out a system of rates with a 
minimum guarantee that has proven satis- 
factory to both parties. The maximum de- 
mand on the average hand-mixing plant is 
about 15 kw. for a sustained 30-minute period 
with a power consumption of 1.5 to 2 kw-hrs. 
per ton sacked. The yearly load factor, based 
on 24 hours, is about 3 per cent. The batch- 
mixing plant as described has a maximum 
demand of from 20 to 30 kilowatts and a 
consumption of 2.5 kw-hrs. per ton sacked, 
with a load factor on a 24-hour basis varying 
from 5 per cent on the smaller plants to 12 
per cent on the larger. 

A number of so-called filler plants are in 
operation, supplying the fertilizer manu- 
facturers with ochre, feldspar, and crushed 
limestone. The minerals are finely ground 
and utilized as dryers, and contain as well a 
small percentage of plant food. Filler plants 
generally mine decomposed feldspar, or gneiss, 
which runs about 5 per cent unavailable 
potash, that is assimilated by the soil over a 
period of time. 

The process of getting out this type of 
filler consists in blasting the shale, which is 
then carried to the crushers by hoists or 
cars, after which it is passed through drying 
cylinders. The air for drying is heated by 
burning powdered coal and is forced to the 
drying cylinders by fans. After the product 
is dried it is delivered to the pulverizers and 
thence to the screen where it is screened to 
60 mesh and conveyed to storage bins or cars 
and shipped in bulk. 

A specific plant produces about 40,000 tons 
of filler or dryer per year with a power con- 
sumption of 3.3 kilowatts per ton, a 30-minute 
maximum demand of 75 kilowatts, and a 24- 
hour load factor of 20 per cent. Power cost 
averages about 6 cents per ton. The hea\nest 
running is done between January 1st and May 
1st, but weather conditions affect outside work 
and sometimes these plants get out large ton- 
nages during good weather and accumulate 
considerable storage in order to supply the 
demand later on. 

The plant referred to has the folloT;\nng 
equipment: One 25 h.p., 1200 r.p.m., squin-el 
cage motor operating the machine shop and 
coal conveyor; one 75 h.p., 900 r.p.m. squirrel 
cage motor operating two Clark pulverizers, 
conveyors and hoists; and one 25 h.p., 900 
r.p.m., squirrel cage motor operating the dry- 
er. The Clark improved anti-friction pul- 
verizer, \rith a capacity of 15 tons per hour. 

requires 30 h.p., and the 20th Century pul- 
verizer and screen, 20 tons per hour, requires 

25 h.p. to drive. 

The crushed limestone used as a filler is 
generally the fine screenings or by-products of 
crushed limestone plants, and in this case 


















' i 



















/ 1 







































fct) Mar Apr May June July Ajg 5ep Oct, no, Oec. 

Fig. 2. Monthly Power Consumption of 
Typical Filler Plants 

the kilowatt-hour consumption per ton is 

Fig. 2 shows the kilowatt-hour consumption 
by months for two typical filler plants, both 
mining feldspar shale. By referring to the 
performance of these plants between May 
and October it will be noted that they do not 
cease operation at the same time; this being 
due to local conditions and to the fact that 
the fertilizer manufacturers whom they supply 
draw on these plants at different times to 
take care of their demands. 

As the majority of fertilizer plants use 
alternating current, any mention of motors 
or electric power in this discussion will refer 
to alternating current and a-c. equipment 
unless other^\'ise noted. 

Some manufacturers have complete plants, 
including acid chambers for the manufacture 
of sulphuric acid for their own need and for 
sale to plants that require sulphuric acid. 
Other plants may be complete in every detail, 
with the exception of acid chambers, and 
secure the acid from outside sources. Then, 
too, quite a number of plants find it more 
economical to dismantle or discontinue the 
use of their acid-making equipment, due to 
the fact that they may be able to purchase 
the acid and turn out fertilizer at a less cost 
per unit ton than if they maintained the lead 
containers at the present prices of lead acid- 
making equipment. The two types are 

100 February 1918 


Vol. XXI; No. 2 

generally designated as acid-making and non- 
acid-making plants. These facts have little 
or no effect on the final product, and the power 
engineer is only interested to the extent that 
the operating characteristics, power load and 
kilowatt-hour consumption differ for the 
two types of plants. 





























— j 






\ ' 



— H 

































51 eo 

-hour Load Phosphate Rock Grinding, Operating Pratt Mill 
Conveyors and Elevator 

This leads up to an analysis of the various 
processes and the application of electric 
motors to the apparatus required in the 
mantifactttre of fertilizer. 

Rock Grinding 

The manufacture of superphosphate, or 
the conversion of mineral and bone phos- 
phate, together with sulphuric acid-making, 
are the chief processes in the production of 
fertilizers. The treating of insoluble and un- 
available phosphates with sulphuric acid, 
and changing these into soluble and available 
forms, is called superphosphate manufactur- 
ing, and is the basis of nearly all mixed ferti- 
lizers. In order to receive the proper impreg- 
nation of sulphuric acid the phosphate must 
be ground to a fine dust. 

There are numerous methods and types of 
grinders in use. The first step is to deliver 
the rock to the grinding mills by belt con- 
veyors which run back under the piles of 
phosphate rock. The material is dumped 
into bucket elevator pits and then carried up 
to the rock hopper, from which it falls by 
gravity' through chutes to the grinding mills. 
The rock is ground to a very fine dust and 
screened, from 90 to 96 per cent passing 
through 60 mesh. It is then conveyed by 
bucket elevators or fans to dust bins. 

The conveyors and elevators in the grinding 
department may be operated by individual mo- 
tors, or all equipment for a complete grinding 
imit may be driven in a group from one motor. 

In the erection of a new plant it is a com- 
paratively simple matter to provide _ the 
grinding machinery with the proper indi- 
vidual motors ; but for the plant that has the 
mechanical type of drive already installed, 
many problems may have to be solved before 
the proper motors can be determined. 

The power required to drive 
the grinding department de- 
pends on the type of mill, the 
number of grinders, and type of 
conveying and elevating equip- 
ment. Chains, or link belts, 
should not be used for the main 
drives, as this type of drive is 
positive and in certain depart- 
ments of the fertilizer plant a 
clogging up or choking in the feed 
is liable to occur. The belt is more 
flexible and has a tendency to give 
or slip under sudden strains , which 
fact, of course, affords better 
operating conditions than the 
former method of drive. 
The belt conveyors which carry the rock 
to the elevator pits generally require from 3 
to 73'2 h.p., depending on the number of tons 
of phosphate rock delivered in an hour. 
These conveyors vary in width from 14 in. 
to 20 in. and operate at 200 ft. to 350 ft. per 
minute. The motors are belted to the coun- 
ter-shaft and operate at 170 to 200 r.p.m. 
Bucket elevators require 5 to 15 h.p., depend- 
ing on the quantity of material elevated per 
hour. The elevators usually run at a speed 
of 175 ft. to 250 ft. per minute, the motors 
being belted to the countershaft. In some 
plants the rock is fed into a rock crusher, the 
broken rock passing into a hopper and thence 
to elevator pits, and is elevated to the screen 
and distributed on an IS-in. 5-ply belt with 
J/g in. rubber covering, which delivers the 
rock to another screen and into the mill hop- 
per. This equipment can be operated from 
the main pulverizer group machinery, but is 
usually driven by an individual 25 to 35 h.p. 
squirrel cage motor. 

In the case of group drive one motor may 
be belted to the main line shafting. A typical 
group operated by 75 h.p. motor has the fol- 
lowing equipment; 

One Pratt mill, capacity 4 to 5 tons, 90 per cent 

of phosphate dust passing through 60 mesh 

screen per hour; 
One phosphate rock conveyor, 20 ft. by 16 in. ; 
One phosphate rock elevator, 45 ft. with 6 in. 

by 10 in. buckets using single chain drive 

from counter-shaft; 
One screw dust conveyor, 14 ft. by 10 in. 



Friction and full-load curve-drawing charts 
on this mill covering a period of one hour 
showed an input of 36 kw. when grinding 
at the rate of 4 tons per hour, and energy con- 
sumption of 9 kw-hr. per ton. This chart is 
shown in Fig. 3. It was expected that other 
machinery would be added to this motor 
which accounts for the over-motoring of this 
group. The power required to drive the 
Pratt mill runs from 10 to 15 h.p. per ton of 
90 per cent, 60 mesh dust per hour. 

This mill is made in different types. For 
reasonably fine grinding the separation is 
done inside the machine, no outside separa- 
tors being used, and for very fine grinding 
the product is separated inside and the final 
separation made by outside separator. These 
mills are furnished for either rope drive with 
vertical rope pulley, or belt drive with hori- 
zontal or vertical pulley. 

Distinct separators are sometimes used, 
depending on the type of pulverizer, or grind- 
er. These separators require from 2 h.p., 
when driven individually, to 5 h.p. in pairs. 
A pair of Newago screens are usually driven 
by a 5-h.p. motor and may be used for screen- 
ing rock, fertilizer, bone, or cotton seed meal. 
Other screens requiring about the same power 
are the Stedman, Jeffrey, and Pratt. 

The Sturtevant mill is made in several 
sizes and requires 10 h.p. for the 24-in. ring 
to 90 h.p. for the 44-in. duplex. This mill is 
driven by a countershaft at 290 to 310 r.p.m., 
with one gear reduction to the grinding ring. 
On a mill grinding 6 to 8 tons per hour of 90 
per cent, 00 mesh dust, tests show a consump- 
tion of 10 h.p. per ton. 

The Bradley mill requires approximately 
50 h.p., and is constructed similarly to the 
Pratt mill, a vertical motor being belted to the 
main vertical shaft of pulverizer. 

The Kent mill requires from 35 to 50 h.p., 
the motors being usually equipped with ex- 
tended shaft for double belt dri\'e. With all 
makes the amount of rock fed to the mill, 
the degree of fineness to which it is ground, 
and the condition of the rock aftect the power 
consumption. Average conditions require 
about 8 to 11.5 h.p. per ton of 90 per cent, 
60 mesh dust. 

In the manufacture of fertilizer, as in most 
other industries, improvements and new proc- 
esses are eagerly tried out with the hope that 
a better product, or a lower cost per ton, will 

The Raymond mill embodies somewhat 
different if eatures from the mills mentioned 
above, in that the pulverized rock or dust is 

elevated to the dust bin or hopper by suction, 
and no internal, or external screens are used. 
The air is admitted underneath the grinding 
surface taking the finished material away by 
air current as quickly as it is reduced by the 
rolls, thus keeping the mill free of fine 

The coarse material carried up by the air 
current is separated from the fine, the latter 
being carried directly to the cyclone collector 
by the air current and the former being re- 
turned to the mill in a continuous stream 
from the edge of the revolving spider, over 
which a thin sheet of air at high velocity is 
constantly passing. 

To drive the entire unit, including fan and 
mill, 100 to 125 h.p. is needed. Tests show 
a power consumption of 15 to 16 h.p. per ton 
of 95 per cent, 90 mesh dust. 


The next process following the grinding 
and storage of the phosphate dust is to mix 
the dust with sulphuric acid to secure an acid 
phosphate which is called acidulating. As 
the process of manufacturing sulphuric acid 
is a \-ery important one, we will discuss it in 
more detail later, assuming for the time being 
that the acid is already in the proper con- 
tainers and ready for use. The quality of 
acid phosphate depends on the accuracy of 
weighing and the care taken in mixing. 
Approximately the same weight of 50 deg. 
Baume sulphuric acid is used as phosphate 
dust. The mix^s vary from 32 ton to 2 tons, 
the one ton being the most popular. Nearly 
all of these mixers are constructed of iron 
throughout and are mounted in a standard 
having the form of a ring which encircles and 
supports the pan. Ball bearings are used 
and the pan is driven through a circumferen- 
tial gear. 

Many types of stirrer blades are in use, but 
the most common is the plow t}"pe, with the 
plows revoh-ing in opposite directions. The 
charge of dust and acid is run into the 
machine where the motion of the revolving 
pan and stirrers thoroughly impregnates the 
dust with acid, causing the decomposition of 
the tricalcic phosphate into monocalcic phos- 
phate. After the charge has been mixed for 
some 3 to S minutes, the discharge plug is 
raised by a lever from the outside, the mixture 
(acid phosphate) dropping directly into "hot 
den-" storage rooms, or into automatic dump 
cars which convey the material to storage. 
These mixers have a countershaft and pulle\- 
and can be readily driven by a motor. Power 

102 February 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 2 

requirements run from 8 h.p. on the one-ton 
to 12 h.p. on the two-ton mixer. A number 
of plants use one motor to drive mixers, car 
puller and conveying machinery. 

A very high temperature prevails when the 
dust and acid are mixed, resulting in the 

Acidulating Department. 25-h.p., 1200-r.p.m. Squirrel Cage Motor 
Driving 1-ton Mixer. Car PuUer, and Fan for Removing 
Chlorine Gas Fumes 

generation of carbon dioxide, chlorine, and 
fluorene gases which are both obnoxious and 
injurious to the workman. These gases are 
removed by exhaust fans having flues con- 
nected directly to the top of the mixing pans 
and to the hot dens, thus allowing the acid 
phosphate to drymore quickly. As these gases 
pass through the flues, they are absorbed by 
a spray of water which is drained to retainers 
and used for the manufacture of by-products. 
The power required to operate the fans de- 
pends on local conditions, the outfit for one 
mixer showing a consumption of 73^2 to 10 
h.p. Water spray for fluorene discharge flues 
may be secured from a plant water tank, or 
small pump. The power required to operate 
the acidulating department therefore depends 
on a number of factors and the kilowatt-hour 
consuimption per ton of acid phosphate varies 
materially with each plant. Figures obtained 
from a number of plants show a consumption 
as low as 5 kw-hr. per ton for coarse grinding, 
and as high as 20 kw-hr. per ton for very 
fine grinding, including the fluorene gas scrub- 
bing equipment, and an average of 7 to 8 kw- 
hr. per ton for all types. 

Fig. 5 shows the variation by months of 
kilo watt-hoursj per ton of wet acid phosphate. 

The average for this plant is 11.6 kilowatt- 
hours per ton. 

Table I shows tonnage of phosphate rock 
ground, and tonnage, kilowatt-hours, and cost 
per ton of acid phosphate made in another 
plant covering a period of one year. The 
cost per ton of acid phosphate, as 
indicated by this table is consider- 
ably higher than the average. This 
plant uses the Raymond system of 
pulverizing and has several fans for 
fluorene gas scrubbing. As claimed 
for the Raymond system of pulver- 
izing, the average consumption of 

1>-« sulphuric acid per ton of acid phos- 

1 phate is less than 50 per cent, and 

\ actually rims 39.5 per cent acid to 

\ 60.5 per cent phosphate rock. 

The dump car system may be 
operated by an individual 15 h.p. 
motor, or from the acidulating 
group. This drive is designed for 
the handling of dump cars to and 
from any desired point in the 
dumping or storage shed. The 
drive usually consists of steel cable 
passing over a rubber lined sheave 
at one end and a plain sheave 
attached to an adjustable take-up 
at the other end, and supported at 
the intermediate points by idler sheaves. 
The drive sheave is gear-driven by a clutch 
shaft having two clutches mounted on it, one 
for direct and the other for reversed operation. 

Acid Making 

Sulphuric acid plays an extremely impor- 
tant part in the manufacture of fertilizers. 
At the outbreak of the European war the" 
United States had an annual output of sul- 
phuric acid aggregating 4,000,000 tons. The 
production for 1916 was 5,500 000 tons — an 
increase of more than thirty-five per cent. 

Many acid plants closed down in the fall 
of 1914 because of the anticipated greatly 
decreased demand for fertilizer owing to the 
cotton situation and general economic de- 

After the situation had improved a number 
of acid plants resumed operations. The war 
situation created a shortage of vessels, how- 
ever, and as the fertilizer industry depended 
on sulphur, or pyrites, which were mostly im- 
ported from Spain, the price of sulphuric acid 
rose rapidly. The sulphur ore shortage start- 
ed the mining development in this country, 
and today large quantities of sulphur are being 
supplied from the Texas and Louisiana open- 



ings. Lump and fines pyrites are also secured 
from the North Carolina and Georgia mines. 

Sulphuric acid may be considered a com- 
pound of sulphur, oxygen, and water. When 
sulphur is burned it unites with two atoms of 
oxygen, forming a sulphur dioxide compound. 
In order to fonn sulphuric acid, however, 
anotlier atom of oxygen must be forced into 
this compound, giving a product known as 
sulphur trioxide, which unites readily with 
water to form sulphuric acid. The main 
purpose is to effect the combination of sulphur 
dioxide with the third atom of oxygen. In 
most cases in actual practice it has been found 
more convenient to bum pyrites instead of 
sulphur. Pyrites, known also as fool's gold, 
contains iron and sulphur, which bums as 
readily as coal and yields sulphur dioxide. 
This gas is forced by air through a series of 
large lead chambers, over which water or steam 
is sprayed. The necessary chemical actions 
take place at this point, and sulphuric acid is 

This process is carried on night and day, 
unless the plant has to be shut down for 
repairs, or owing to power stoppages affect- 
ing the fans and spray pumps. 

There are twomethodsof burning employed. 
In the first method, revolving furnaces of the 
wedge or Herresshof type are utilized. A back- 
geared motor is usually used for driving. 

The fines pyrites is fed in at the top through 
a hopper. The ore bums continuously and is 
carried down by revolving raker arms through 

a series of shelves to the slag pit. Sulphur 
dioxide gas is given ofl as the ore is burned, 
which is removed by a fan connected to an 
opening at the top of the furnace. Another 
opening is also provided in the bottom of the 

















7Annn ^ 





















































, ^ 



s it 







' 1 1 _ 

















^ Ju/y ^ug Sep Oct 

Fig. 5. Curve showing tons Wet Fertilizer mixed and tons 
Sulphuric Acid made for each month and power con- 
sumption per month for each operation 












per Ton 



Cost per 

Ton Acid 

















Total for 12 

Average for 12 



























104 February 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 2 

furnace, which allows the necessary oxygen to 
be drawn in, to complete proper combustion. 
The sulphur dioxide passes through an oven 
charged with nitrate of soda, where it comes 
in contact with oxides of nitrogen, and then 
passes through a Glover tower. A weak acid 

Fig. 6. Acid Making Department. Fan Removing Sulphur 

Dioxide from Ovens to Towers Operated by 5-h.p., 

1800-r.p.m. Squirrel Cage Motor 

is introduced at this stage, which tends to 
cool the gases before they enter a series of 
chambers, where a spray of water, or steam 
at 70 to SO lb. pressure is used. The sulphur 
dioxide, oxygen, and water in these chambers 
combine with the aid of nitrogen trioxide 
which is liberated and carried to a Gay-Lussac 
tower for use again. Tests show that one ton 
of 50 deg. Baume sulphuric acid as made con- 
tains 33 per cent water. 

The fans required to handle these corro- 
sive gases have a displacement of 5000 cubic 
feet per minute against a 2 oz. pressure, and 
usually require a 5 h.p. motor. Power re- 
quirements, however, depend on local con- 
ditions, and the size of fan may vary up to 
22,000 cu. ft. per minute, requiring 35 h.p 
Where a water spray is used instead of steam 
the spray pump may be of either the duplex, 
or centrifugal type, requiring from 5 to 15 h.p. 
Compressed air is used to force the acid Lom 
the storage tanks under the lead-lined cham- 
bers to storage tanks in the acidulating de- 
partment. As no pump has been designed to 
withstand the corrosive effect of the acid, the 
displacement method is stiU in use. The 
compressor for this purpose usually runs from 
a capacity of 70 cu. ft. per min. with 15 h.p. 

motor to 225 cu. ft. per min., 80 to 90 lb. pres- 
sure, using a 40 h.p. motor. As a general 
rule the fan, piunp and air compressor are 
furnished in duplicate in order to prevent any 
possibility of interruption in the process. 
Some plants using electric power have auxi- 
liary gasolene engines for operating spray 
pump, acid fan, and air compressor. 

The other method of securing sulphur 
dioxide gas is to burn the lump pyrites and 
sulphur in ovens, the gases being carried off 
and treated in the same way as in the furnace 
method; the only distinction being that no 
power is used other than for the fan in this 
method. One ton of sulphur produces about 
4% tons of sulphuric acid. 

A manufacturer operating several plants 
using electric power recently stated that any 
interruptions in the power supply were 
injurious in many ways, and that it was 
almost impossible to figure the losses from 
this scource. From his experience the fur- 
naces, fans and sprays could be shut down 
for two hours and then started again; but 
that any longer interruption resulted in a 
serious loss of production, and a damaging 
effect by the corrosive gases on the lead lin- 
ings. However, he has received such good 
all-round service from the power companies 
that he never thinks of installing auxiliary 
motive power to operate the acid-making 
equipment. His greatest worries are with 
the mechanical and not the electrical equip- 

A plant in Canada recently secured as low 
as 6^2 cu. ft. of chamber space per pound of 
sulphur burned per day. The cubical content 
of chamber space for the average plant runs 
from 8 to 15 cu. ft. per pound burned. It 
can be readily seen, then, that the plant 
utilizing a lower cubical content in chamber 
space per potmd will require less investment 
in lead containers with less fixed cost per ton. 

Fig. 5 shows the typical variation in kilo- 
watt-hours per month per ton of acid made 
on a plant turning out 30,000 tons of complete 
fertilizer per year. Table 2 shows the varia- 
tion in power cost per ton over a period of 
twelve months for another plant. Results 
secured from tests and observations covering 
several years on several acid-making plants 
show a minimum consumption of 4 kw-hr., a 
maximum consumption of 18 kw-hr,, and an 
average of 9 kw-hr. per ton of sulphuric add 

The plants that do not make their own 
acid purchase it from acid-making plants or 
topper companies. The acid is shipped in 



tank cars, and on arrival is delivered to the 
acid chambers by compressed air or syphon 
method, and forced by air up to the acid tanks 
in the acidulating department in the same 
manner as in the acid-making plant. 

Bagging and Dry Mixing Department 

The equipment in this department is 
practically the same as that used for the dry 
mixing plants described above, with the 
exception that auxiliary machinery is operated 
in order to grind, or put in proper shape, 
certain materials supplying potash, nitrogen, 
or ammonia to complete the proper elements 
which constitute a ton of fertilizer for ship- 

The number of bagging machines in any 
plant of course depends on the output, and 
may vary in number from two to ten. The 
smallest bagging machine requires 15 h.p. 
and the largest 75 h.p. In the latter case it 
will be found that a number of auxiliary con- 
veyors and elevators are included in this 
drive, the average outfit requiring 35 h.p. 
The squirrel cage motor has proved very 
satisfactory, but in rare cases it has been 
found advisable to install the slip ring motor 
on the larger machines driving elevators 
and screw conveyors, as the starting con- 
ditions are very severe, especially if a power 
outage occurs when the machines are fully 

The first step is to bring the acid phosphate 
from the storage to the elevator pits of the 

various mixing and bagging machines. After 
the acid phosphate in the storage has become 
properly dried, it is dug out by pick axes, 
dropped on to apron conveyors, and distribu- 
ted close to the machines. These conveyors 
require from 3 to 7}^ h.p. 






^^^^^I^L^^I^^^9^ '^S 

Fig. 7. Two 15-h.p., 1200-r.p.m. Squirrel Cage Motors 

Driving two 90-cu.-ft.-per-min. Air Compressors. 

Elevating Sulphuric Acid 

An item of interest to the power engineer 
is the fact that the acid phosphate can be 
carried from storage to the mixing and bag- 
ging machines by electric trucks. The plants 
which do not use the conveyor type of dis- 





Month ' .^cid 




Monthly Cost 
Power per Ton 
Cost Acid Made 






$286.00 $0.23 


26,000 38.8 

296.00 .385 















9,000 ' 11.8 
25,000 13.9 
24,000 16.3 
31,000 14.7 

30,700 19.2 
25.800 15.5 
26,000 17.0 
30,000 16.4 
21,000 i 16.1 


110.00 .145 
270.00 .15 
264.00 .18 
330.00 .167 

330.00 ' .206 
270.00 .162 
275.00 , .18 
320.00 1 .175 
210.00 1 .161 

Total for 12 Mo. 

Average for 12 


282,200 1 $3,041.00 ' 


23,517 17.5 $253.41 $18.9 

i 1 

106 February 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 2 

tribution have found that the introduction 
of these trucks has cut in half the labor 
cost per ton mixed. These trucks are generally 
of two-ton capacity. The charging outfit is 
ini tailed in the shipping department. To 
assist in loading the electric truck an elec- 
trically operated shovel may also be used, 
which requires about TH h.p. 
I* In addition to the machinery already men- 
tioned for the manufacture of fertilizer, a 
number of plants use attrition mills for grind- 
ing leather scraps, tobacco stems, and cotton 
seed meal, and other mills for grinding bones, 
oyster shells, tankage, and fish scraps. Bone 
mills grind from 8 to 10 tons of tankage per 
hour and usually take 4 to 5 h.p. per ton. 
Forty to 50 h.p. motors are belted to a hori- 
zontal shaft which also has a flywheel on the 
opposite end. 

Power tests taken on two 30-in. Foos at- 
trition mills, single belt drive, one disk sta- 
tionary and the other revolving, driven by a 
30-h.p., 1200-r.p.m. squirrel cage motor, 
showed the following results : 

Each mill grinding 3001b. of tobaccosteras per hour. 
Mill No. 1. MiU No. 2. 

Empty 6.2 h.p. friction 6.3 h.p. friction 

Loaded] Ji* 24.1 h.p. 28.1 h.p. 

Each mill grinding 200 lb. leather scraps per hour. 
Empty 3 h.p. 3.44 h.p. 

Maximum 28 h.p. 28.3 h.p. 

Average 16 h.p. 16.2 h.p. 

Minimum S^h.p. 8.5 h.p. 

These attrition mills are also used for grind- 
ing Nebraska potash ore, which takes con- 
siderably less power per ton as compared to 
leather scraps or tobacco stems. 

The materials from the various auxiUary 
mills and equipment are brought to the vari- 
ous bagging and dry mixers by barrows or 
conveyors, and the proper quantity of each 
element is carefully weighed so that the 
right percentage of potash, ammonia, or 
other constituent is included in each ton of 
finished product. 

Mixing, bagging, and shipping consinne 
from 0.8 kw-hr. per ton for the plant deliver- 
ing goods direct from bagging machine to 
freight cars by hand truck, to 2.2 kw-hr. per 
ton where power apparatus is used to convey 
the finished product to the cars. The con- 
stmiption per ton on five plants shows an 
average of 1 kw-hr. per ton over a period of 
several years. Table III shows costs and 
kilowatt-hour consimiption per ton for mixing, 
bagging, and shipping on an up-to-date plant.* 

In figuring the total kilowatt-hoiirs con- 
stnned per ton, it will be noted that consider- 
able difference exists between the sum of the 
individual kilowatt-hours consumed per ton 
per department, and the average consumptiop 
per kilowatt-hour per ton of goods shipped. 

This diflierence is due to the fact that in the 
final process of mixing and bagging consider- 
able tonnage ofother materials is added with 



E- Month 



Kw-hrs. . Monthly 
per > Power 
Ton Cost 






















v.ioo , 

105 $115.00 



25 10.00 .20 

3 11.00 .0366 


22.00 .0220 








70.00 i .0437 

140.00 .1750 


24.00 .0285 


90.00 .0257 


200.00 .0256 

110.00 .0077 

82.00 .0105 

75.00 .1070 

Total for 12 Mo. 




Average for 12 






* The power cost per ton 
shipping department. The ^ 
months auxiliary machinery i 

in all departments will vary more or less from month to month, but not to the extent that it does in the 
ride variation in cost for June, July, and May. as shown in this table, is due to the fact that in the dull 
i sometimes operated which consumes power while a small tonnage is bagged. 



the acid phosphate to produce a unit ton of 
the proper formulae, thereby increasing,' the 
gross tonnage wliile the total kilowatt-hours 
consumed remains the same. 

Percentage of power requirements for each 
department for plants making acid: 






Rock Grinding and 
Wet Mixing 

Acid Making 

Mixing, Bagging, and 

Lighting and miscel- 

















100 100 




Figures obtained from a plant using 
electric power and buying acid show that 81 
per cent of the total power was required for 
the rock grinding and acidulating department. 
Included in this percentage is the power used 
for operating the air compressor which ele- 
vates the acid from the storage tanks to the 
acid phosphate mixing machines. In this 
instance 12,770 tons of acid phosphate were 
made ; the air compressor showing a consunip- 
tion of 1 kw-hr. per ton. The commercial 
department of this plant, which includes dry 
mixing, bagging, and shipping, turned out 
19,150 unit tons of complete fertilizer, and 
consumed the balance, or 19 per cent, of the 
total power. As a general rule, the plants 
securing acid from an outside source divide 
the power consumption under these two 
heads. Each plant uses its owti methods of 
charging power percentages to the various 
departments, some manufacturers distribut- 
ing general expenses that cannot be readily as- 
certained over the other departments; this 
method, of course, has a tendency to swell 
other department percentages. 

When electric drive is installed each depart- 
ment can be metered and reUable manu- 
facturing cost data thus secured. 

Comparative Power Cost 

The amoimt to be saved, or the return on 
the investment necessary to change over 
the mechanically or electrically driven plant 
to central station service, depends of course 
on a number of local factors, such as the 
amount of the investment for electric equip- 
ment, price of fuel, and labor conditions. 
If the present prices of coal are taken into 

account there is really no need for compara- 
tive figures, as a glance at the plant's operating 
costs will immediately show there is no ques- 
tion but that purchased service is more 
economical; and if the proper equipment 
could be installed in a reasonable time, the 
saving of purchased service over isolated 
operation would pay for the new equipment 
in a comparatively short time. 

This large saving is further illustrated by 
the following average departmental power 
costs covering the past six years, as compared 
to costs for the fiscal year ending June 23, 
1917, on an isolated electrically operated plant 
utilizing up-to-date direct-current equipment. 

Cost per 

Ton. 6 Yr. 



Cost per 
Ton. Year 


June. 1917 


Acid made $0.3377 

Acid Phosphate made. .2478 
Dry Mixed, bagged 

and shipped .0510 

Tons oC 
' Material 

tured Year 

June. 1917 



.072 34.540 




These power costs show an increase of 
over seventy per cent for the last fiscal 
year's operation as compared with the six-year 
average. While this plant was securing coal 
at $2.50 per ton laid down at the boilers, it 
was a difficult matter to interest the manage- 
ment in purchased power, even though a sav- 
ing could be effected by adopting central sta- 
tion ser\nce. But recent fuel conditions have 
resulted in the management deciding to invest 
appro.ximately S20,000 for 550-volt alternating- 
current motors, salvaging the entire direct cur- 
rent motors and power plant equipment. 

The following comparative power costs on 
a mechanical driven plant which was later 
electrified is especially interesting, as it re- 
quired about five years of missionary work to 
convince the management that electric drive 
should be used. 

t Year 
' Ending 



Power Cost at 

Cost per Coal per 

Ton Ton 

Mechanical 1915 $4590 12,100 '$0.3793 $2.45 
Mechanical 1916 5500 11,611 0.4741 2 70 
Electric 1917 31S2 11,440 0.2780 

108 February 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 2 

For the fiscal year ending June 1917, the de- 
partmental electric power costs were as follows : 

Acid phosphate made 

8.095 tons at 17.29 cents per ton 
Sulphuric acid made. 

5,800 tons at 20.38 cents per ton 
Dry mixing, screening and bagging 

11,440 tons at 5.26 cents per ton 

The saving through the use of electric 
power for 1917 over mechanical drive for 
1916 shows a gross return of over thirty per 
cent on the investment of $6,300 required to 
equip the plant electrically. 

Fertilizer plants as a rule demand power at 
about the same season as will be observed by 
referring to Fig. 8. Curve A shows the total 
kilowatt-hours used by one plant, and curve 
B the average monthly consumption of seven 
plants. These curves follow each other very 
closely from month to month. A typical 24- 
houT load curve is shown in Fig. 9. 

Motor Equipment 

A number of plants are using 220 voltb and 
a few 2300 volts, but experience has proven 
that 440 or 550 volts works out to the best 
advantage. While 2300 volts admits of smaller 
copper, the wiring and protective features 
are more complicated, and then, too, the 
insulation of stator coils is a serious problem, 
as, the fumes generated in fertilizer plants are 
very injvuious to the motor windings; 2300- 
volt motors, therefore, are less desirable for 
this reason. Motor windings of 220 volts are 
mot so susceptible to insulation break-downs 

due to these fimies, but where large motors are 
scattered over wide areas the cost of heavy 
copper must be considered. It appears, then, 
that the 550-volt motor will give the^^best 
all-round service. 







S, 1 













































Fig. 8. Monthly power consumption of a Specific Fertilizer 
Plant and the average of seven plants 

While it has been found that the windings 
on the standard 550-volt motor will stand up 
reasonably well in the bagging and grinding 
departments, it is recommended that all 
motor windings be specially impregnated to 
withstand the fumes, especially those motors 






5 6 7 8 9 10 It 12 I 2 3 
Noon PM — ' 
Fig. 9. Typical Load Curve of a Fertilizer Plant 










9 W It 12 1 

MUrit AM.-*- 




driving fans removing corrosive gases, and 
operating the mixing machinery in the acid- 
ualting department. All motors should be 
equipped with dust-proof bearing, as the 
phosphate and other dusts contain acid, and 
permeate everything within a considerable 
distance of the machines. It is not necessary 
to have speciaU)' treated coils in motors 
operating pumps and air compressors in de- 
tached buildings. Motors should be equipped 
with overload and no-voltage release attach- 
ments, and be installed in a foolproof manner, 
as the labor handling the electric equipment 
from day to day is usually unskilled. 


The type of wiring to be used in any plant 
will, of course, depend on the location, city 
ordnances, and underwriters' requirements. 

with dust, no attention being paid to renewals, 
efficiency, or proper illumination. 

The constant hammering of Mazda lamp 
publicity, however, is having its effect, and of 
late a sUght improvement is noted. A certain 
plant manager states that fewer accidents 
occur, production is increased, and less con- 
fusion results since proper illumination of his 
plant has been provided. 

The power engineer can spend time very 
advantageously in studying illumination, 
knowing that any improvement in this respect 
will do much to crystallize opinion in favor of 
purchased service. The intensity of illumina- 
tion required for these plants varies from 1 
to 3 foot-candles, depending on the distri- 
bution of machinery and materials. 

In changing over a plant to central station 
service it is seldom necessary to change the 


Capacity in tons per year i 100,000 

Manufacturing, or buying acid mfg. 

Connected horse power 550 

Maximum kilowatt demand (30 min.).. . 300 

Maximum mothly consumption 61,000 

Average monthly consumption 43,500 

Minimum monthly consumption 16,000 

Load Factor — 8760 hrs. per year 20'7 

Fire Pump gnl. per min.. ' 1,000 

Kw-hrs. per ton acid phosphate II 

Kw-hrs. per ton acid made 10 

Kw-hrs. per ton, mixed and bagging .... I 1.65 


























29.2 <;, 












20,000 I 
150 I 
26,600 ■ 
II. 7 















No calculations have been made for the number of kilowatt-hours consumed per ton of goods shipped, as this tonnage shows a wide 
variation due to the elements that are added to the acid phosphate to complete a unit ton. 

Three-conductor lead-covered cable, properly 
supported or covered wnth wooden motilding 
or galvanized conduit, is used in some plants. 
The most poptilar method, however, is to 
run heavy main and branch lines of triple 
braid weather-proof ^'ire on poles or attached 
to buildings, entering the btiildings where 
service is required with 30 per cent rubber- 
covered wire treated with acid-proof paint. 
This type of ^^■iring, installed in 1910-1911 in 
several plants, is in excellent condition today. 


From the writer's experience, there is prob- 
ably no type of plant so poorly lighted as 
the average mechanicalh^ driven or isolated 
electrically driven fertilizer factory. The 
illimiination for the yards may be in the form 
of the antiquated open arc; while the interior 
is usually lighted by carbon lamps covered 

existing wiring, with probably the exception 
of re-arranging the lighting switchboard. 
Single-phase transformers in capacity equiva- 
lent to 3 to 4 per cent of the maximum demand 
are usually sufficient. 

Advantage of Electric Drive 

The advantages to be derived from the use 
of electric motors and central station service 
may be stunmed up under the heads of ef- 
ficiency, utilization, and production. The 
electrically operated plant with motors prop- 
erly distributed can mantifactiu-e a ton of 
fertilizer more economically than the me- 
chanically operated plant with its attending 
long line shafts. If an outside soiurce of power 
is available, boilers, feed water heaters, steam 
engines, generators, and other equipment 
chargeable to isolated generation can be 
salvaged; or if a new plant is being erected, 

110 February 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 2 

this investment required for power plant can 
be directed to more useful channels, thereby 
lessening the fixed charges and permitting a 
lower cost per unit of product. From a piu-ely 
dollars and cents comparison, with fuel at nor- 
mal prices, electric power at a fair rate is de- 
cidedly more economical than steam power. 

Individual motors permit the placing of 
machines wherever they can be most efficient- 
ly used, eliminate friction losses of line shaft- 
ing, and allow the machines to be brought 

closer to the work. During certain seasons 
of the year only certain departments are 
required to operate; therefore, by using 
motors to drive this section, power consump- 
tion is in proportion to the work done. Then, 
too, special electrically operated labor-saving 
devices may be used, such as electric trucks, 
shovels, cranes, and car systems. 

Each department may also be metered, 
which will indicate the exact power cost per 
ton of material produced. 

Water Power — Our Electrochemical Salvation 

By C. a. Winder 
Member of A.E.Ch.S. and N.E.L.A. Joint Committee on Power for the Electrochemical Industry 

Few of us are aware of the great number of substances that are dependent upon electrochemical methods 
for quantity production. Some of our most important industrial materials are among them. To produce 
these substances enormous quantities of electric power are required, which fact indicates water power as the 
only economical source of energy; and therefore we are not surprised to find the center of this industry located 
in the vicinity of Niagara Falls. The author undertakes to show that at least 50 per cent of the water now 
passing over Niagara Falls could be quickly and cheaply diverted for power purposes, without in anyway 
detracting from the natural beauties of the cataract, and that in view of the serious shortage in coal and the 
urgent need of electrochemical products by the government, it is the duty of Congress to enact legislation at 
once which will make available the great quantity of energy that is now being wasted. — Editor. 

class would then include the nitrogen-fixation 
industry and possibly others for making prod- 
ucts we know little or nothing of at this 
time, there being no power consumed within 
our botmdaries for products of this class. 

It is in the industries of the second class 
that we are mainly interested at present. 
Their products are absolutely indispensable 
to the arts and manufactures. For instance, 
without ferro-alloy and aluminum a 2200-lb. 
automobile would weigh more than 4000 lb. 
Without the latest grinding devices made of 
artificial abrasives and high-speed tool steel, 
a factory producing 500 cars a day could not 
produce 100. Without caustic and bleach, 
the latest improvements in the textile and 
paper industries would be impossible. Chlo- 
rine is used in piu-ifying the water supply of 
a thousand cities and every camp of the 
American Army, is employed in the manu- 
facture of intermediates for dyes, is greatly 
used as a poisonous gas in modern warfare, 
and is consumed in enormous quantities in 
the manufacture of high explosives. With- 
out chlorates and phosphorus we would lack 
matches and perhaps have to return to the 
"flint-and-steel" age. In fact, practically 
every industry is in some way dependent 
upon electrochemical products. 

Enormous quantities of power are required 
in the production of these electrochemical 

Now that the visible coal supply is rapidly 
diminishing and water power stands largely 
undeveloped, what chance has the electro- 
chemist — the greatest user of power — to ex- 
pand to meet the increasing demands of the 
present day? The electrochemical industry 
is vital to the success of the great world war; 
that water power is vital to this industry will 
be shown in the following paragraphs. 

^ consideration of the facts will be facili- 
tated by a division of the electrochemical 
industry into three classes: 

1. Those that cannot be moved from the 

country by any means and will stay 
regardless of the cost of power. 

2. Those that exist at present and to a 

greater or lesser extent depend upon 
natural conditions for their existence 
and growth. 

3. Those that have no footing in this coun- 

try or are not as yet in existence. 

The first class includes the industries of cop- 
per, zinc, and rare-metal refining and electric- 
steel production and is, perhaps, as a group, 
the largest user of power. The second class 
includes the following industries in the order 
of their importance: Aluminum, ferro-alloys, 
carbide, artificial abrasives, alkali, chlorine, 
phosphorus, sodium, carbon disulphide, 
graphite, and similar products. The third 




substances. Single plants in some communi- 
ties consume sufficient electrical power to 
furnish the domestic needs of a city of half 
a million. Before the great world war, this 
industry as a whole required close to half a 
million horse power. These requirements 
will continue during the present period, 
together with an enormous increase due to 
the war. It is this war demand that is the 
serious consideration now. 

Not a shell is made that is not shaped by 
electrically made abrasives. The electric fur- 
nace from which the armor plates are poured 

more, our military preparations are already 
calling for very consideraVjle quantities of 
many electrochemical products for which 
ordinary industrial demands are small or 
non-existent; and therefore these products 
were not produced at aU or were produced 
in extremely small quantities. The increased 
demand for our vast army will be enormous. 
England, for instance, always a larger user 
of sulphuric acid, increased its demand fifteen 
times normal since the beginning of the war. 
Where will this important industry' obtain 
the power necessary to meet this vast demand 

Fig. 1. Map showing the Comparatively Rapid Recession of tlic Horseshoe Falls i^f Niaga 

uses electrodes made from coal by the aid 
of electric power, the resisting power of this 
same steel is given by electrically made ferro- 
alloys. Merchant vessels are now using smoke 
buoys in which quantities of phosphorus and 
other electrochemical products are burned 
emitting large quantities of smoke to protect 
the boat from the submarine. High explo- 
sives utilize chlorine, aeroplanes aluminum. 
and obser\'ation balloons hydrogen produced 
by the aid of silicon. In fact, every tool of 
the modem army is in some way dependent 
upon the electrochemical industrj\ Further- 

for its product? Electric jiower enters into 
the cost of these products in amounts varying 
from two per cent to sixty per cent. The cost 
of ferro silicon, for example, is about fifty per 
cent power; hence power cost must be kept at 
a minimum. It must be kept at a minimum 
because we are in direct competition with 
foreign countries where the Governments 
insist on a complete development of the water 
power resources. 

The two principal sources of power are 
coal and water. Daily we read headlines 
complaining of the "Shortage of Fuel. " The 

112 February 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 2 

most optimistic prognosticators tell us that 
the coal mines will disgorge but little over 
their usual amount this year. The decreased 
labor supply is not the only cause of the short- 
age. It is well known that every ton of steel 
requires a ton of coal in its manufacture. 

Fig. 2. Photograph of the Horseshoe Falls Taken in 

The production of steel is without precedent 
and so is industry's consumption of coal. 
Our national effort should be to prevent addi- 
tional uses of coal and, in fact, to diminish the 
domestic consumption in favor of the steel 
industry. Even if it were possible to obtain 
coal at prices permitting steam-electric devel- 
opments, the apparatus for this purpose 
could not be obtained in less than two to 
three years. The war program of this country 
is such that the total capacity of the manu- 
factiu-ers building this class of apparatus has 
been requisitioned for that length of time 
which may even be extended. The shortage- 
of-power menace must be eliminated in far 
less time than that in order to forestall a 
desperately serious embarrassment in the 
carrying out of our war program. Therefore, 
we cannot look to steam to solve the power 
problem. Evidently our only lasting salva- 
tion is in water power. 

Water power can be divided into two zones. 
Western and Eastern. The bulk of the East- 
ern water power is located at Niagara Falls, 

a potential possibility of perhaps six million 
horse power, three million available without 
affecting its scenic grandeur. Exponents of 
Western power have proclaimed; "If there 
is a shortage of power in the East, come to the 
West where there are some thirteen million 
horse power undeveloped at the 
present time." This power could 
be developed at a cost to per- 
mit a selling price equivalent to 
Niagara power some five or ten 
years ago. Experts state that for 
the manufacture of aluminum for 
instance, Western power, three 
thousand mUes from the center of 
gravity of the alimiinum market, 
must sell at $S a horse power year 
in order to compete with $20 
power near the market's center of 
gravity. In other words, a three- 
thousand-mile haul will consume 
in freight charges $12 per unit of 
aluminum manufactured bj^ a horse 
power year. Aluminum consumes 
the maximum amount of power per 
pound of any of the electrochemi- 
cal products. The next in order 
are artificial abrasives, then ferro- 
alloys, sodium cMorate, and phos- 
phorus. These would have to be 
subsidized varying from $40 to $60 
a horse power year. Caustic soda 
or potash, being the smallest con- 
sumer of power per unit of weight, 
would be the most affected by long freight 
hauls. The power company would have to 
pay the caustic manufactxirer $300 per 
horse power year to locate three thousand 
miles from his center of distribution. The 
reason for this is that it requires twelve times 
as much power to make a pound of aluminum 
as it does to make a pound of caustic. The 
power consideration, therefore, is only one- 
twelfth the value in caustic manufacttire that 
it is in aluminum manufacture or the freight 
increment twelve times the value in caustic 
that it is in aluminum. 

How well are these conditions borne out by 
facts? Aluminum is manufactured entirely 
in the East, very near its center of gravity of 
distribution. Caustic chlorine, or chlorate, 
and like products which are used in the paper 
and textile industries are fairly well concentra- 
ted in the Eastern states. A small quantity 
of electrolytic caustic soda and chlorine is 
manufactured in the West but this is for local 
consumption only, and absolutely proves that 
it would be competitively impossible to ship 




caustic from the East to the Pacific coast 
for less than $300 per unit manufactured by 
a horse power year. The Western caustic 
manufacturer can never compete in the East- 
ern market nor can the East compete in the 
West. The freight haul is a very effective 
barrier. Thus the Western water 
power can never successfully assist 
the electrochemists in meeting the 
increased war demands. That 
power is limited until local markets 
develop to the refining of metals 
and the electrification of local rail- 
ways or domestic uses, and these 
should be developed to the full ex- 
tent of those requirements. 

The water powers of the East 
will, therefore, have to be harnessed 
to meet this demand. Further- 
more, it must be at those sites that 
can be developed the quickest and 
cheapest. Without question Ni- 
agara Falls fulfills these require- 
ments: first, because power there 
can be developed without the use 
of large and expensive dams, and 
secotid, existing power companies 
can enlarge their present plants, 
intakes, and transmission lines 
before a new corporation would be 
able to secure the necessary right- 
of-ways. Furthermore, Niagara 
Falls is ideally located geographi- 
cally — practically at the center of 
distribution of the entire electro- 
chemical industry. Added to all 
of these is the one real big fact, that 
the electrochemical industry is already located 
there and it is an easier matter to increase its 
capacity than to establish new plants in 
localities where the labor is uneducated as to 
its requirements. Railioad facilities are ex- 
cellent and water transportation available. 
Nature seems to have endowed Niagara Falls 
with all those qualifications that would build 
up this industry. It was that very fact that 
caused electrochemistr}' to be born there. 

The electrochemical industries at Niagara 
Falls consumed almost all of the power developed 
on the American side (approximately 250,000 
horsepower) plus approximately 150,000 horse 
power imported from Canada before the out- 
break of the war. Owing to the increased 
activities on the Canadian side, the Canadian 
Government has found it necessary to exer- 
cise certain rights which it retained and, in 
consequence, a large percentage of the power 
coining to this country fro n Canada has been 

cut off. The American industries at the^Falls 
find themselves in the predicament of having 
installed equipment but no power to operate 
it. At the present time, it is doubtful if 
seventy per cent of the installed equipment at 
Niagara P'^alls is in operation. In other words. 

3. Recent Photograph of the Horseshoe Falls Taken from 
Approximately the Same Viewpoint as that of Fig. 2 

the plants are not turning out as much today 
as they were p^e^dous to the war. It was 
found necessary in Buffalo, but twenty miles 
away, to build a steam plant of 120,000 
horse power. This being a public service 
corporation, it was necessary to produce 
power regardless of the cost ; but when . a 
mobile industry is affected, there is nothing 
for it to do but move and this is happening. 
Additions to a large artificial abrasive cor- 
poration are being built at Shawinigan Falls 
in Canada. A large portion of the output 
of its Niagara Falls plant has been transferred 
to the Canadian plant, Niagara Falls, Ont. 
A large percentage of another abrasive com- 
pany's output is coming from its Canadian 
plant. Practically no carbide at all is manu- 
factured in America, the industry having 
been transferred to Canada. Such conditions 
complete the ^ncious circle of increasing the 
demand for power on the Canadian side which 

114 February 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 2 

the Canadian Government sees fit to supply, 
thereby taking power from the American 
side and leaving more plants destitute with 
only one thing to do — emigrate to the oppo- 
site side of the border. In a short time, all 
our electrochemical industries may be expa- 
triated. One of them is going so far as to 
build an enormous plant in Norway because 
the water haul from Norway to New York is 
an inconsiderable feature when considering 
the fact that power can be obtained in 
Norway at one-half its cost in America, due 

the river could be evenly distributed over the 
crest of both the American and Horseshoe 
Falls. This would stop the rapid deteriora- 
tion of the Horseshoe Falls which has been 
brought about by the concentration of large 
quantities of water at the center of the Horse- 
shoe. The crest of this fall is moving back 
at the rate of approximately seven feet a 
year. The total length of the Horseshoe 
Falls in 1842 was two thousand thirty 
feet which has now increased to about three 
thousand twenty feet. At the present rate 

Fig. 4. General View of Niagara Falls 

to a constructive policy of water power 
development on the part of the Norwegian 
Government together with certain natural 
conveniences possessed only by a few of the 
American water power sites. 

The best hydraulic talent in America advises 
us that it is possible to develop at Niagara 
Falls three million additional horse power 
without, in the least, affecting the scenic 
grandeur of the most wonderful cataract in 
the world. By the proper location of sub- 
merged dams about two or three thousand 
feet above the crest of the Falls, the water of 

of erosion the Horseshoe Falls will be com- 
pletely eliminated in the next two or three 
generations and we shall have nothing but a 
rapids to replace them. The installation 
of the above-mentioned dams then would 
permit of the use of fifty or sixty per cent of 
the water, and by spreading the balance of 
the water over the entire cascade, and with a 
much smaller amount of water produce a 
scenic effect equal in grandeur and greater in 
extent than the present one. 

To develop this power would furthermore 
assist in the conservation of coal, which is 



now a very serious matter. Engineers have 
calculated that three million horse power 
developed at Niagara Falls would save for 
posterity a hundred tons of coal per minute 
or fifty-two million tons of coal per year, 
sufficient to change the situation from a 
shortage to a siirplus in the coal industry. 
Furthermore, it would assist in relieving the 
freight car shortage, releasing sixty thousand 
cars for use elsewhere, thereby changing the 
situation again from a shortage to a surplus. 
The United States is now training over a 
million men and will perhaps train millions 
more to be sent to France. These men will 
require guns, shells, powder, gases, and all 

river passes over the American Falls. All are 
agreed that the spectacle is equal to the 
Horseshoe Falls as to beauty. As the span 
of the Horseshoe Falls is but three times that 
of the American Falls, it is a self-evident fact 
that fifteen per cent of the river would create 
a Horseshoe Falls spectacle in every way 
equal to the American Falls. In other words, 
only twenty per cent of the water is 
perpetuate this scenic wonder. If this bejthe 
case, fifty per cent of the water falling over 
this precipice certainly allows a safe margin. 
It has been shown that the Electrochemical 
Industry is essential to the winning of the war. 
It has been shown also that the development 

Fig. 5. View of the American Falls of Niagara 

other accouterments in enormous quantities 
to successfully prosecute their duties. To 
supply the basic material required to fill 
this demand wiU require enormous quantities 
of power but the supply of power is not here, 
and worse, it is not a supply that can be fur- 
nished on a day's notice. It would take over 
a year to develop any considerable quantity 
of power at Niagara Falls and perhaps nothing 
large could be done even in this time. 

The beauties of the cataract will not be 
sacrificed in the de^•elopment of the power 
mentioned. Government engineers under the 
direction of the War Department have shown 
that but five per cent of the water of the entire 

of water power, particularly in the East, is 
necessary to the proper development of the 
electrochemical industry. It is essential, 
therefore, that the people at large interest 
themselves enough in this desperate situation 
to put themselves on record with their repre- 
sentatives at Washington recommending that 
constructive water power legislation be enact- 
ed at the next Congressional assembly. This 
last feature is necessary inasmuch as Con- 
gress legislates in accordance with the wishes 
of the people and it is therefore desirable that 
they express themselves in favor of such legisla- 
tion so as to expedite this matter and avoid an 
embarrassing situation for our Government. 

116 February 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 2 

Methods for More Efficiently Utilizing Our 
Fuel Resources 


By H. G. Barnhurst 
Chief Engineer, Fuller Engineering Company 

Hydroelectric power developments and the establishment of large steam-electric central stations, which 
distribute energy electrically, have done much to eliminate crude and wasteful methods of burning coal. Many 
power stations, however, still depend upon the skill of the fireman for the efficient use of the fuel. The burning 
of coal in pulverized form offers an effective remedy, and puts coal on an equality with liquid and gaseous fuels 
in these respects. A list of previous installments of this series is given at the bottom of page 123. — Editor. 

Oil and gas are the ideal natural fuels. The 
increase in the price of oil has made its use as 
a fuel practically prohibitive. The natural 
gas supply is rapidly being exhausted. It is 
very important, therefore, that we find some 
fuel to take the place of oil and gas; a fuel 
which can be burned imder conditions per- 
mitting close regulation, eliminating to a 
great extent the human equation. 

The Most EflBcient Methods Must be Used for 
Burning Coal 

The increased demand for fuel, due to 
the present unusual conditions and to the 
partial exhaustion of the sources of supply 
of oil and natural gas, has forced the 
Government to establish the prices at 
which coal shall be sold. These prices are 
considerably higher than the average prices 
for past years, and it has become necessary 
for manufacturers and others to investigate 
methods by which the highest possible effi- 
ciency can be attained in the absorption of 
heat from burning coal. 

It can be safely stated that between 30 per 
cent and 40 per cent of the coal which is now 
being mined is practically wasted by careless 
handling and burning, under conditions not 
conducive to high economy. 

A large number of boilers are being installed 
with furnaces improperly designed for obtain- 
ing the best results. A great many of these 
boilers have been installed with practically no 
consideration given to what the operating 
conditions would be after the boilers were in 
use; what kind of fuel was to be used, and the 
rating at which they would have to operate. 

The same statement can safely be raade in 
reference to a great many metallurgical fur- 

* From a paper read by the author at a joint meeting of the 
Engineers' Society of Northwestern Pennsylvania and the Erie 
Section of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, at 
Erie, Pa., November 13, 1917. 

naces. A large number of these furnaces have 
been designed and installed along lines laid 
down by our predecessors and too little at- 
tention has been given to the subject of fuel 

The same statement applies to locomotives 
and steamships. 

Today, the land is covered with smoking 
chimneys, a condition which, though indicative 
of a prosperous condition, is, at the same time, 
a sign of improper installation or inefficient 
operation. There is no question but that the 
human element is responsible to a great extent 
for the poor results obtained, particularly in 
the case where coal is fired by hand. 

If a highly efficient method of burning coal 
is available, it would seem that it is only a 
question of time before the public will demand 
that those responsible for the present smoky 
and wasteful conditions take active measures 
of adopting it, so that the smoke and soot may 
be eliminated. 

It is also of the utmost importance that 
fuel be burned properly. The labor situation 
is such that it is impossible to obtain a suffi- 
cient number of mine operators to supply the 
present unusual demands. There is also a 
shortage of labor affecting a large number of 
our industries, which, in order to keep up their 
production, must be replaced by some me- 
chanical means which will give the same if 
not better results, and thus ease the condition. 
There is no doubt that this labor situation 
will be critical for years to come and will have 
its effect on the fuel situation. 

Large quantities of fuel are lost today 
through wasteful handhng and burning. 
Eight million to ten million tons are annually 
put back into the anthracite mines to fiU up 
old workings. This fuel has a high heat value 
and the only reason for this waste is that the 
coal is too fine to bum on grates. There are 


large deposits of coke breeze in the coking 
districts; this product is the result of a screen- 
ing operation in which the softer particles of 
uncoked coal are separated. There are enor- 
mous deposits of low-grade coal scattered over 
our vast country, some of which have certain 
characteristics which prevent its being used 
with any reasonable degree of economy on 
stokers or on grates. 

Pulverized Coal 

The present status of the development and 
use of pulverized coal indicates that the future 
extended applications and use of this fuel 
will have a materially remedial influence in 
correcting the conditions which have been 

Pulverized coal is coal which is properly 
dried, crushed, and pulverized so that the 
product contains the highest percentage of 
impalpable powder. Merely powdering the 
coal does not fulfill the requirements. Coal 
must be pulverized so that at least 95 per cent 
will pass through a 100-mesh sieve having 
10,000 openings to the square inch, or in 
terms of dimension 9.5 per cent must be less 
than 1-200 of an inch cube. 

The average engineer does not fully realize 
how fine it is possible to reduce coal today by 
pulverization. The proper degree of fineness 
depends upon the type of machine used. To 
give a high percentage of flour or impalpable 
powder in the product the pulverizer must 
have a mortar and pestle action which scours 
the particles and produces a fineness which 
can not be obtained by any other method. 

The finer the coal is pulverized the more 
efficiently it can be burned and the more 
readily it will be diffused when mixed with 
combustion air and fed into the furnace. A 
cubic inch of coal pulverized so that 95 per 
cent will pass through a 100-mesh sieve will 
contain over two hundred million particles, 
none of which will be greater than one-hun- 
dredth of an inch cube, and a large percentage 
will be less than one six-hundredth of an inch 
cube. A cubic inch of coal has a superficial 
area of six square inches, but the combined 
area of these multitudes of small particles 
shows that when the coal is ground to the 
previously mentioned degree of fineness, the 
superficial area will increase to nearly 30 
square feet, or an increase in area of approxi- 
mately 700 times. This increase in area per- 
mits perfect and instantaneous combustion. 
One of the reasons for fine grinding is that the 
irapidity of burning depends directly upon the 
jsurface exposure. 

Applications of Pulverized Coal 

The successful use of pulverized coal was 
originally developed in the cement industry 
to replace the more expensive oil. Pulverizing 
machines were also brought to their present 
high state of development in this industr>'. 
More than ninety million barrels of Portland 
cement are burned with pulverized coal an- 

Recent developments in the application of 
pulverized coal to various kinds of furnaces 
have shown such marked economy over pre- 
vious methods, that this fuel, now that it is 
better understood, will become more widely 

The consumption of pulverized coal today 
in the manufacture of cement, in the iron and 
steel industry, in the production of copper, 
and for power purposes, is approximately as 
follows : 

In the manufacture of cement, six million 

In the iron and steel industry', two million 

In the production of copper, one and one- 
half million tons. 

In the generation of power, one hundred to 
two hundred thousand tons. 

This shows that nearly ten million tons of 
pulverized coal is being used in the United 
States annually. 

In addition to these applications, the 
development of pulverized coal for use on 
locomoti\'es is now under way. Furthermore, 
the conditions for burning pulverized coal on 
the Great Lakes vessels are ideal. Pulverizing 
plants can be located at each port so that a 
supply can at all times be readily obtained. 

It will be noticed that the quantity of pul- 
verized coal used for power purposes is some- 
what sniall. This is due primarily to former 
conditions under which coal could be obtained 
at low cost, and also to the fact that early 
puh'crized coal experiments were not entirely 
satisfactory. Either the coal was not properly 
dried, or was poorly pulverized, and there 
was practically no control of the air supply. 
Furthermore, it was burned in furnaces 
designed and constructed for burning lump 

These facts show that the use of pulverized 
coal has gone far beyond the experimental 
stage, but there will be some development 
work necessary in its application to new opera- 
tions. However, the ability to prepare, handle, 
and deliver the pulverized coal to|,the furnaces 
is beyond question, as there^are hundreds of 

118 February 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 2 

coal-pulverizing plants now operating satisfac- 
torily throughout the country. 

Conditions to be Observed in Burning 

During the last few years a great deal of 
study and experimental work has been done, 
and it has been discovered that there are 
important conditions which must be observed 
if satisfactory results are to be obtained. 
This is true in connection with the use of 
pulverized coal for boilers, and in metallurgi- 
cal furnaces. Favorable conditions are easily 
obtained. Furnace proportion is the most 
important. Destructive conditions and im- 
proper combustion are usually the result of 
trying to burn too much coal in a limited 
space. High surface velocities create erosion ; 
and erosion means destruction. 

Each pound of coal requires a given per- 
centage of air to complete its combustion. 
The products of combustion for each pound 
of coal burned occupy a given volume at a 
given temperature. There are limitations, 
therefore, to the quantity of coal that can be 
burned in a given size of furnace, and the 
feeding equipment should permit positive 
control so that it will be impossible to feed 
more coal into the fiunace than can be 
properly taken care of. 

The limit to the surface velocity has just 
been pointed out as one of the conditions 
which must be considered. There is another 
condition of equal importance; the time ele- 
ment. Ordinary bituminous coal is composed 
of two principal combustible constituents — 
volatile hydro-carbons and fixed carbon. 
The volatile constituents are distilled earlier 
and bvuned with great rapidity; the fixed 
carbon takes a slightly longer time to ignite, 
hence the highest temperatures are not always 
reached in the zone where the hydro-carbons 
are burned, but are developed usually at the 
point where the fixed carbon is consumed. 
This point is some distance from the point of 
entrance, hence the furnace must be properly 
designed not only to prevent erosion, but 
also to assure perfect conibustion. 

Pulverized coal is applicable to any opera- 
tion where heat is required, except where the 
ash of the coal might be detrimental to the 
material being heated. 

It is not always practical to bum pulverized 
coal in the same compartment or furnace with 
the material. The charge of material to be 
treated naturally absorbs heat and, in certain 
cases, it may absorb it with too great rapidity 
thus interfering with proper combustion. In 
cases like this a separate chamber should be 

provided in order that the combustion may 
be thoroughly completed, allowing only the 
products of combustion to come in contact 
with the material being treated. 

Advantages of Pulverized Coal 

There is a thorough distribution of heat 
throughout furnaces using pulverized coal 
which reduces the necessity of over-firing. 
There is ordinarily no concentrated effect 
which is the most desirable condition for 
efficient operation in connection with boilers 
and heating furnaces, etc. A concentrated 
effect can be obtained, however, if desired. 

There are distinct advantages obtained by 
the use of this fuel. Its feed can be regidated 
just as easily as can oil or gas. The intensity 
of its combustion is under absolute control, 
for its intensity depends directly upon the 
percentage of air mixed with the coal. Any 
sort of flame can be obtained, either oxidizing 
or reducing. In fact, for some operations it 
is found that the loss due to oxidation has 
been materially reduced as compared with 
oil firing. 

Pvdverizing does not change the nature of 
the coal. Its form, however, is changed to a 
certain extent in pulverizing it; viz., from a 
solid fuel into one having liquid properties. 
As the coal is pulverized it is mixed with air, 
and when handled in conveyors it flows like 
water; when fed to the furnaces it resembles 
a gas, and the furnaces must be designed to 
bum a gaseous mixture. 

Summary of Advantages 

1. Pulverized coal solves the clinkering 


2. Pulverized coal is smokeless. 

3. A lower percentage of excess air need be 

used thereby reducing the stack losses. 

4. All the combustible in the coal is com- 

pletely consumed, eUminating loss in 
the ash. 

5. Flexibility of operation permits quick 

adjustment to suit any condition of 
underload or overload. 

6. In case of accident, the fuel supply may 

be shut oft" instantly. 

7. It is possible to bum coals of almost any 

grade in pulverized form. Some 
grades such as lignite, however, 
require larger capacity driers. 

8. Coal can be readily burned in pulverized 

form regardless of the percentage of 

9. Pulverized coal can be prepared for a 

reasonable figure, ranging from 60 



cents down to 20 cents per net ton. 
This cost is dependent strictly upon 
the quantity of coal handled and the 
moisture content of the coal as 
received . 
10. Low cost of installation in power plants 
as compared with other means of 
firing, particularly in plants having 
3000 or more boiler horse power. 

By its use in open-hearth furnaces in 
place of producer gas, a saving of 
30 per cent of fuel will be obtained. 
Where the installation is for three or 
more furnaces of 40 or more tons 
capacity, the initial cost of installa- 
tion is much lower. 

A larger number of heats can be 
obtained per week. 




A great many boilers already installed 
could readily be operated economically at a 
higher rating by merely remodelling their 
combustion chambers. This is a valuable 
feature, as many plants do not have room to 
expand and it would be less expensive than 
buying new boilers. 

The use of pulverized coal is based on 
sound scientific principles. It permits the 
utilizing of coal with practically any per- 
centage of ash and the burning out of all the 
combustible content. Thus it will improve the 
conditions of burning fuel, extend the life of 
our fuel deposits, and make useful the vast 
deposits of low-grade fuels, and burn those of 
higher grades with the highest possible effi- 

Fuel Saving in Household Heating 

By Robert E. Dillon 
Edison Electric Illuminating Comp.\ny, Boston, Mass. 

Home comfort, the household expense account, and the national coal predicament, all demand efficient 
management of domestic heating plants. It being an acknowledged fact that the average householder bums 
his coal inefficiently, authoritative instructions as to how to obtain best results from our home plant will be 
of value to most of our readers. — Editor. 

The coal mines of the LTnited States are at 
the present time producing about 597,500,000 
tons of coal per year. It is estimated that 
about 15 per cent of the total production, 
or approximately 89,600,000 tons, is used for 
heating the dwellings of the people. 

If by some means the average family 
could effect a saving of 10 per cent in the 
consumption of its coal, there would obviouslj- 
be 8,960,000 tons of coal saved this coming 
year. At the prevailing price in Massachu- 
setts during the present crisis that would 
mean a saving of $85,200,000. 

From the doUar-and-cent basis it is difli- 
cult to analyze the coal question since the 
monetary figure is distorted by various con- 
ditions due to the times, such as the varying 
value of gold upon which our money is based. 
From the point of view of the economist, 
however, there would be released by such a 
sa\ang the equivalent of 150 3000-ton ships 


> Technical Paper No. 97, Bur 
i.lne and S. B. Flagg. 

University of Illinois, Bullet 
i!t Station. 

The illustrations in this article are reproduced from these 
' publications. 

.u of Mines, by L. 
No. 4, Engineering Experi 

available then for other uses; there would be 
released an army of 6000 miners who could 
then be transferred to other industrial or 
war employment. 

This great economy can be accomplished. 
" Do your bit" has become the motto of the 
country. If each householder will apply this 
motto to the manner and wa\- in which he 
handles his particular furnace, he may ac- 
compHsh something for himself and for the 
country. It should not be understood that 
the object of this article is to advocate less 
heat in the home. How to obtain the max- 
imum amount of heat from the minimum 
amount of coal becomes the "burning" 
question. To accomplish this end, the 
householder must put some study into 
the nature and characteristics of fuel 
and into the characteristics of his heating 

Some valuable investigations of this sub- 
ject ha\-e been made by colleges and by the 
United States Government, and it is upon 
these investigations that the recommenda- 
tions of this article are based.* 

120 February 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 2 

Since very little new building is being 
carried on at the present time, the question 
of selecting the best type of heater will be 
passed over, confining the discussion to the 
operation of heaters already installed, with 
suggestions regarding the selection of fuel to 
use in them. 

We are accustomed to tliink only of anthra- 
cite or hard coal in connection with the home 
heater but, if the present war conditions 
continue over an indefinite period, it may be- 
come necessary to make use of other fuels 
for the purpose. Wood, bituminous coals, 
peat, coke, fuel oil, gas, electricity — all may 
come under consideration by virtue of vary- 
ing price values. 

Table I shows the comparative advantages 
and disadvantages of various fuels for heating, 
but the value of this table has been somewhat 
aflected by conditions prevailing since it was 
compiled. As an instance, gas and elec- 
tricit}^ are sold at the same price as before 
the war, but bituminous coal has advanced 
over 100 per cent, and anthracite has ad- 
vanced over 50 per cent. 

It should be noted from the table that 
electricity furnishes the ideal method for 
heating a house, but on accoimt of the high 
cost as compared with the price of coal pre- 

vious to the war, it has been little used for 
this purpose. 

Anthracite coal is the most desirable for 
household use. The amount of attention 
required by its use is much less than that by 
bituminous coal, and for this reason a higher 
price can be paid for the convenience. Con- 
sidering the various sizes of coal, there is 
very little difference in the heating value of 
one size over another, and if some advantage 
is offered in price, that size should be used. 
The method of handling the different sizes, 
however, is different and requires judicious 

Bituminous or soft coal is not as desirable 
as anthracite for domestic purposes. Before 
the war the public was willing to pay 50 to 
100 per cent more for hard coal than for soft 
on account of the convenience in handling; 
therefore, with both coals at approximately 
the same pi ice it is not probable that the 
public will resort to soft coal unless the hard 
coal supply is cut off. If it does become 
necessary to use soft coal, it will be found 
advantageous to use sized or screened bitu- 
minous coal for the convenience in burning. 

But, there is another factor to consider in 
buying soft coal. The different grades of 
coal vary in heating value to a considerable 



(a) cleanliness, (b) cheerful fire, (c) quick in- 
crease of heat, (d) cheap in some localities. 

.'\nthracite (a) cleanliness, (b) easy control of fire, (c) 

easier to realize heat in coal than is the case 
with other coals, (d) steady heat. 

Bituminous Coal (a) low price, (b) availability (c) high heat 
I value (in the best grades), (d) low percen- 
tage of inert matters (in the best grades). 

Sub-Bituminous (a) relatively low price (b) availability (in 

Coal and Lignite : some regions) , (c) responds quickly to open- 
ing of drafts. 

Peat (a) in general the same as wood. 

Coke (a) cleanliness, (b) responds quickly to open- 

ing of drafts, (c) fairly high heat value. 

(a) high heat value, (b) immediate increase 
of heat, (c) cleanliness, (d) small storage 
space necessary. 

Gas (a) ease of control, (b) cleanliness, (c) con- 

venience, (d) immediate increase of heat. 

Electricity I (a) every advantage . 


(a) low fuel value, (b) large storage space nec- 
essary, (c) labor in preparation, (d) scar- 
city, (e) does not hold fire long, (f) un- 
steady heat. 

(a) price high, (b) difficulty of obtaining, (c) ' 
slower response to change of drafts. 

(a) dirty, (b) smoke produced, (c) more at- 
tention to fire and furnace necessary than 
with anthracite. 

(a) slakes and deteriorates on exposure to air, 
(b) takes fire spontaneously in piles, (c) 
heat values generally low, (d) heat in fuel 
difficult to realize, (e) fires do not keep 
well, (f) gases generated over fire box 
sometimes burn in smoke pipe causing 
excessive heating. 

(a) low heat value, (b) bulkiness. 

(a) bulkiness, (b) liability of fire going out if 
not properly handled, (c) fire requires rather 
frequent attention unless fire box is deep. 

(a) high price, (b) difficulty of safe storage. 

(a) high price in many places. 
(a) high price. 



Fig. 1. 

extent, a factor not present in considering 
the size of hard coaL 

The cost of wood as compared with coal 
must be small before its use would become 
an economy, since the heat available from 
one pound of wood is small. 

Sub-bituminous coals, lip;- 
nite, and peat are very little 
used in this country. The cost 
of preparing these fuels is 
high; but with the mounting 
cost of transportation there 
is a possibility that they may 
soon find a market in localities 
not far from those where they 
are produced. 

Coke is considerably used 
at the ]jresent time for house 
heating. It is a by-product 
of the gas industry, and the 
demand for it has increased 
more than the increased use 
of gas. For this reason coke 
has increased in price at about 
the same rate as coal. 

Fuel oil and coal gas have 
been very little used for do- 
mestic heating purposes and, 
even considering the increased 
cost of coal, it is doubtful whether it 
would be advantageous to install new ap- 
paratus for their use. In addition there 
would be no real economic saving to the 
country in the use of gas since it is a 
product of coal. However, the use of elec- 
tricity, wood, kerosene, or coal gas for 
auxiliary heating, such as for individual 
rooms, fireplaces, bathrooms, etc., would be 
an economic saving under some conditions. 

It is within our power to select the fuel we 
wish to use, but it must be selected for use 
in heaters now installed. The common types 
of heaters in prevalent use are the hot-air 
furnace, steam-heater, and hot-water heater. 

The hot-air furnace costs less to install 
than any other heater, but its life is less than 
(5ne-half that of the others. This heater con- 
veys hot air to the rooms of a house by virtue 
of the fact that hot air is lighter than the 
cold outside air and rises. Air, therefore, 
must be freely suppUed from the outside. 
Moisture must be supplied to the heated air 
since health requires it. Heated air has a 
greater capacity for holding moisture than 
has cold air; and unless moisture is supplied 
the hot air will absorb moisture from the 
skin and, since the process of evaporation 
cools the body, more heat will be required to 

produce the same sensation of warmth. 
Furthermore, furniture and woodwork will 
soon go to pieces if there is insufficient 

The water-pan in a furnace is too often 

Diagram showing Convenient Method of Keeping Water-pan Filled, als; 
Conditon of Ashes which Should Not Exist 

neglected. A convenient method of keeping 
this full is shown in Fig. L 

The first cost of a steam or a hot-water 
system is much greater than that of a hot- 
air system. A hot-water system is more 
expensive than a steam system to install, 
but with regard to their relative economy, the 
reverse is true. Relatively the hot-water 
system is the most economical, the steam 
system the next, and the hot-air the 

The reason that the hot-water system is 
more economical comes from the fact that 
water will circulate under wide variations 
in temperature. Heated air, on the other 
hand, must be hot in order to rise. Steam 
has a constant temperature at about 212 deg. 
F. for low pressure. For these reasons, hot 
water will give a heat more uniform than that 
supplied by the other systems. 

If the heating system pro\ddes for ventila- 
tion from the outside, more coal must be used. 
This is true, not only for the furnace which 
draws air from the outside, but for the other 
systems where the air is changed in the rooms. 
The extra amount of coal required for this 
ventilation wiU depend upon the number of 
times per houi the air of the rooms is changed. 
E\-en at an additional expense it is advisable. 

1221 February 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 2 

from the stand-point of health, to have some 
means of ventilation. 

With any fuel and any system of heating, 
the most important factor in economy is the 
method and care taken in operation. The 
one who pays the fuel bills will imdoubtedly 

Fig. 2. An lagenious Electrical Device for Maintaining an 
Even Temperature in the House 

exercise the greatest care, so that naturally 
the man who attends his own heater obtains 
the best economy if his methods are correct. 

Even regulation of heat is one of the princi- 
pal methods of saving coal. Anticipate the 
cold periods of the day and open the drafts 
soon enough to gradually increase the heat, 
and check the draft before the house becomes 

For complete control of the draft, the 
heater should be eqiiipped with a damper to 
the ash pit, a check damper and a shut -off 
damper in the smoke-pipe. The damper to 
the ash pit allows air to reach the fire. The 
check damper allows the draft created in the 
chimney to draw air from the cellar instead 
of through the fire. The shut-off damper 
allows the fire to be shut off from the chimney. 
This damper should be arranged so that it is 
impossible to completely shut the fire box 
from the chimney, since otherwise explosions 
of coal gas may occur. When soft coal is 
burned, a lift damper on the fire door is also 
necessary to relieve gas explosions. 

The door over the fire should never be 
opened for cutting down the heat unless the 

house becomes uncomfortable. Opening this 
door reduces the heat delivered for the coal 
burned. The check damper should be opened 

If the heater does not biun enough coal to 
produce the necessary heat for the house 
when all drafts are open and check draft 
closed, an inspection should be made of all 
flue passages, the stack, and the chimney to 
see that they are clean and connections tight. 
The chimney should extend above all near-by 
obstructions. The area of a cross-section of 
the chimney should be at least one-eighth of 
the grate area. If these conditions are ful- 
filled the heater should supply enough heat 
unless it is too small for the work it has to do. 

An ingenious device for maintaining an 
even temperature within the house is shown 
in Fig. 2. It consists of a thermostat and an 
electric motor for controlling the dampers so 
that very little personal attention is required. 

Another essential feature in operating the 
heater for maximum efficiency is a method of 
uniformity in firing. If the heater is large 
enough, put the full supply of coal for 24 
hours on at the banking peiiod at night. This 
will cool the heater for the night and will allow 
a gradual ignition. If firing is required more 
than once a day, coal should be put on in the 
morning after the house is warm, but the 
quantity fired at this time should be as small 
as possible. The heavy firing should be done 
at night. 

When firing is necessary in the dajrtime, 
the Uve coals should be pushed back and 
the fresh supply filled in to an even height 
in front. In this manner the live coals at 

Fig. 3. Method of Firing Coal to Bum All Coal Gas 

the back will ignite the gases from the freshly 
fired coal and in addition the house will not 
cool off to so great a degree. Firing in this 
manner is absolutely necessary in soft-coal 
burning. Fig. 3 shows how this method is 
carried out. 




If holes burn through the fire, cold air is 
admitted to the fire box. To prevent this a 
heavy fire should be kept. 

If the heater has proved too small, its 
capacity for heating may be increased by 
using a large-size coal. This allows a greater 
draft through the fire, causes a greater amount 
of coal to be burned, and more heat to be 

The grates should never be shaken at night. 
This should be done in the morning when 
the heat is required. It should be done with 
care, stopping when a small amount of light 
can be seen from the fuel bed. In mild 
weather, by allowing a layer of ashes to 
remain on the grate, the draft may be cut 
down and the heat kept low. Following 
these methods of shaking will cut down the 
loss of coal to the ash pit, and eliminate the 
disagreeable job of sifting ashes. 

Ashes should never be allowed to accumu- 
late under the grates, as they reflect the heat 
and tend to warp and burn the grates. 

Of equal importance to the losses in the 
chimney and ash-pit are those due to radia- 
tion, and another loss which occtirs from the 
decreasing capacity for heat absorption by 
the heater. 

The radiation loss is often as high as fifteen 
per cent. This figure can be cut to five or 
ten per cent by coveiing the pipes and con- 
serving the heat for the rooms rather than 
for the cellar. 

The loss due to the decreasing capacity 
for heat absorption by the heater is frequently 
large and receives little attention. Such heat 
as is not readily taken up by the heater passes 
on to the chimney. This heat may be turned 
into useful heat if the hot smoke flues are 
clean and all heat transferring surfaces free 
from soot. Soot is an almost perfect heat 
insulator, and a layer upon the heating sur- 
faces will cut down heat delivered to the 
heating medium to a very large extent. 

The foregoing recommendations pertain 

principally to the use of hard coal. Hard 

'^"h! will undoubtedly remain the predomina- 

fuel for household uses in this locahty 

-ome time to come. 

■1 is not so much a question of shortage 
' lal as it is lack of transportation facilities, 
umI one coal is as readily transported as 

However, if the situation changes and soft 
1 ";il comes into use, the householder will 

find it necessary to use new methods in hand- 
ling his fire. Frequent firing becomes neces- 
sary. Means must be adopted to reduce the 
excess smoke and to consume the volatile 
gases. For this purpose air must be admitted 
over the fire after a fresh coaling so as to mix 
freeh' with the gases and burn them. 

Coke requires about the same methods for 
burning as does hard coal, but with additional 
attention. It bums freely and burns out 
quickly. It should be well ignited before the 
drafts are closed, for otherwise it will go out. 

Wood is very free burning and difficult to 
control. It also offers no chance for banking. 

In conclusion, it may be noted that a con- 
siderable saving ma>' be effected in the use 
of coal by a methodical procedure and a 
careful watchfulness for deteriorating in- 
fluences. This may be summed up in a few 
suggestions. See that the firing is done at as 
infrequent periods as possible; that the grates 
are not shaken too often; that the temperature 
is kept uniform; that the radiation is small; 
and that the heating surfaces are clean. 


The Use of Low-grade Mineral Fuels and the 
Status of Powdered Coal, by F Parkman 
Coffin, August 1917, page 606. 

Utilization of Waste and Undeveloped Fuels in 
Pulverized Forms, by V. Z. Caracristi, Septem- 
ber 1917, page 698. 

The Fushun Colliery and Power Plants of the 
South Manchuria Railway, bv S. Nakava and 
J. R. Blakeslee, September 1917, page 705. 

Pulverized Fuel in a Power Plant on the Missouri, 
Kansas and Texas Railway, by H. R. Collins 
and Joseph Harrington, October 1917, page 768. 

The Use of Pulverized Fuel for Locomotive Opera- 
tion, by V. Z. Caracristi, November 1917, 
page 853. 

Possibilities of Conservation of Fuel by Railway 
Electrification, by W. B. Bearce, November 

1917, page 859. 

General Utilization of Pulverized Coal, by H. G. 
Barnhurst, December 1917, page 924. 

The Petroleum Industry, by Walter Miller, De- 
cember 1917, page 931. 

Hydroelectric Energy as a Conserver of Oil. by 
H. F. Jackson and F. Emerson Hoar, January 

1918. page 68. 

Our Future Petroleum Industry , by W. A. Williams, 
January 1918, page 70. 

Future Sources of Oil and Gasolene, by Milton 
Allen, January 1918, page 73. 

124 February 19 IS 


Vol. XXI, No. 2 

t February 19 IS GENERAL ELECTRIC KliVmw vui. ^^i, im 

An Improved System for Lighting Interurban 
Trolley Cars 

By W. J. Walker 
Supply Department, General Electric Company 

We are all familiar with the annoying variation in lighting on our interurban trolley cars, ranging all the 
way from blinding brilliance to practically no illumination at all as the result of variations m trolley voltage. 
This condition is not onlv objectionable to the passengers, but where headlights are operated from the trolley 
a very serious element of 'danger is introduced, owing to the inability of the motorman to see along the right-of- 
way, and to the absence of the warning beam of light to automobile drivers and pedestrians at road crossings. 
This condition has been overcome by the development of a motor-generator set, the generator of which is de- 
signed to maintain practically constant voltage over a wide range of speed. On the usual 600-volt system this 
motor-generator will maintain satisfactory illumination over a voltage range of 600 to 200 volts. — Editor. 

The public, educated to a higher lighting 
standard through use of Mazda lamps in 
the home, is demanding an improvement 
in the Hghting of trolley cars. These de- 
mands are in some cases being enforced by 
public service commissions. Furthermore, 
good lighting is desirable on grotmds other 
than that of public convenience — it is good 
business. Leading authorities have proved 
conclusively that better lighting may be had 
in the average car with an increase in operat- 
ing economj'. In fact, experience has shown 
that the installation of the modern reflector 
method of lighting, u,sing Mazda lamps and 
reflectors, with the units arranged in a single 
row in the middle of the center deck, has paid 
from 10 per cent to 35 per cent interest on 
the investment. It is, therefore, not surpris- 
ing that the system is being extensively em- 
ployed in new cars and that many roads are 
changing over existing equipments. 

This improvement, however, leaves some- 
thing still to be desired, especially on the inter- 
urban properties where the voltage variation 
inherent in all trolley systems is at its worst. 
Good lighting here under full voltage condi- 
tions serves mainly to emphasize its absence 
under the voltage conditions usually obtaining. 

With the increasing highway traffic and the 
necassity forced upon the high speed interur- 
ban railways of preventing night crossing acci- 
dents, the headlight problem, too, becomes a 
matter of the gravest concern with varying 
voltage. This is not a problem of convenience 
;— safety itself is involved, and good hcadlight- 
ing must be had at any cost. 

The incandescent headlight equipped with 
parabolic reflectors, accurate focusing devices, 
and the concentrated filament Mazda C 
lamp would easily meet most service require- 
ments were it not for the trolley voltage varia- 

• A fuller explanation of the principles of this xeneratnr will 
appear in an early issue of the Transactions of A. I. E. E in an 
article by Mr. S. R. BcrHman.' 

tion, to which this lamp is even more sus- 
ceptible than the luminous arc now generally 
used. It has not been largely adopted in 
high-speed service principally because there 
are few railways having a sufficiently con- 
stant voltage to permit its use. 

Obviously, the need of the interurban rail- 
ways is some device for controlling the voltage 
of the lighting circuits. Several such devices 
are now offered, but few, if any, of them meet 
all the requirements of intertirban service. 

New Constant Potential Generator 

The General Electric Company has developed 
and recently placed on the market a motor- 

Fig. 1. Diagrammatic Sketch of Constant Potential 

generator set that is peculiarly suited to rail- 
way car lighting, in that the generator, which 
IS of a new design, provides a practically con- 
stant voltage over wide variations in speed.* 





Fig. 1 illustrates diagrammatically the prin- 
ciple of the machine. The armature is series 
wound and the field contains twice as many 
poles as the number of poles for which the 
armature is wound. In the case illustrated 
the armature is wound for two poles and 
the field contains four poles 
symmetrically located. The load 
is taken from the brushes A and 
C, and in addition to these load 
brushes there is a third brush B 
placed 90 electrical degrees from 
the load brushes. The field may 
be considered to consist of two 
independent magnetic circuits. One 
of these, F-1, is saturated and the 
corresponding flux, f-1, may be 
called the main flux of the machine. 
The second magnetic circuit, F-2, 
is not saturated and the correspond- 
ing flux, J-2, will be called the cross flux. The 
main flux generates, between the brushes .4 
and B, an electromotive force called the main 
voltage of the machine, but it does not gen- 
erate any e.m.f. between the brushes B and C. 
Similarly, the cross flux generates, between 
the brushes B and C, an e.m.f. which will be 
called the cross voltage, but it does not 
generate any e.m.f. between the brushes A 
and B. The excitation which is taken from 
brushes A and B consists of two multiple 
branches, one branch exciting the main poles 
and the other branch exciting the cross poles. 

The direction of the main and cross fluxes 
is such that the difference between these 

flux remains constant and the main voltage 
AB is proportional to the speed. Therefore 
the excitation of both the main and the cross 
fields is proportional to the speed. As the 
cross circuit is not saturated the cross flux will in proportion to the speed, and hence 




Fig. 2. Motor-generator Set for Interurban Car Lighting 

fluxes is interlinked with the line brushes A 
and C, as shown in the figure, and thus the 
line voltage AC is the difference between the 
main voltage AB and the cross voltage BC. 
i.e., the voltage AC is equal ..45 minus BC. 
Since the main circuit is saturated the main 

Fig. 3. Outline of Motor-generator Set 

the cross voltage BC must increase with the 
square of the speed. As the speed increases 
AB increases, but since BC increases faster 
the difference is constant, and test shows that 
AC{ = AB — BC) can be made constant over 
a wide speed range. In order to get best 
results the cross magnetic circuit should 
not be reduced too far below saturation, 
since then the cross voltage builds up too 
fast, but it should first be unsaturated and 
finally made to approach saturation. 

Since the line current is taken from the 
brushes .4 and C (Fig. 1), there exists an 
armature reaction OR in the direction AC. 
This armature reaction may be resolved into 
two components, one OD in the direction of 
the main flux and the other OE in the direction 
of the cross flux. As the main magnetic cir- 
cuit is saturated, the additional excitation, 
due to the armature reaction, cannot add 
anything to the main flux. The component 
OE will, however, interfere with the cross 
flux and disturb the regulation of the machine 
if not counteracted. In order to overcome 
this influence a series winding is added to 
the cross poles. This winding has an equal 
and opposite strength to the armature reac- 
tion working in this direction, and will be 
called the compensating winding. The loca- 
tion of this winding is shown in Fig. 1. It 
will be easily seen that by changing the 
strength of the compensating winding it is 
possible to obtain either rising or falling line 
voltage wnth increasing load. By over-com- 
pensation the voltage \\-\\\ rise with the load 
and with under-compensation it will fall. 
Ob\-iously the strength of the compensating 
winding can be made to just balance the IR 

126 February 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 2 








arc 4.0 
amps, at 
600 volts 




Form J-28 incandes- 
cent with 250-watt, 
32-volt, Mazda C 

l.o-kw., 650-32-volt 
constant potential 
motor generator set 
operated from 1200- 
600-volt dynamotor 

*500 watts 

Maximum distance at which it was possible 
to distinguish a man in dark clothing stand- 
ing at center of track 

Varied from 300 to 
1500 feet 

1300 feet at poorest 
voltage condition 


7 series circuits of 5- 
23-watt, 120-volt 
Mazda lamps along 
half decks. No re- 



Varied from dazzling 
brilliancy to inabil- 
ity to read 

1 multiple circuit of 8- 
75-watt and 4-25- 
watt, 32-volt Mazda 
"B" lamps along 
center deck with wide 
angle opal reflector 
(See Fig. 2) 

1.5-kw., 650-32-volt 
constant potential 
motor generator set 
operated from 1200- 
600-volt dynamotor 

*1400 watts 

Not possible to detect 
any change in car il- 
lumination during 

* Including losses in conversion. 



Low Voltage 



Carbon arc 
4.5 amps, at 
• 600 volts 

Form J-28 incandes- 
cent with 250-watt, 
32-volt MazdaClamp 



Third rail 

1.5 kw., 650-32-volt 
constant potential 
motor generator set 
operated from third 


2700 watts 

»500 watts 



Maximum distance at which it was possible to 
distinguish a man in dark clothing standing 
at center of track 

With third rail volt- 
age varying be- 
tween 350 and 625 
volts 300 to 1000 
feet. At minimum 
of 150 volts arc ex- 

With third rail voltage 
varying between 350 
and 625 volts 1300 
feet. At minimum of 
150 volts, 700 feet 



3 series circuits of 6- 
56-watt, 110-volt 
Mazda lamps along 
half decks. No re- 
flector used 

Third ra 

Glaring brilliancy at 
625 volts to inabil- 
ity to read at 350 
volts and 150 volts 
practically dark 

1 multiple circuit of 7 - 
75-watt, and 3-25- 
watt, 32-volt Mazda 
"B" lamps along cen- 
ter deck with Alba 
No. 4129 reflector 
(See Fig. 2A) 

1.5 kw., 650-32-volt 
constant potential 
motor generator set 
operated from third 

*1200 watts 

From 625 to 350 volts 
no noticeable varia- 
tion. Possible to read 
as low as 200 volts. 

•InclurlinK losses i 


drop in the machine, resulting in a flat com- 
pounded generator. 

Application to Trolley Car Lighting 

The new system is operated at a potential 
of 32 volts. The selection of this voltage was 
influenced by several important factors, 
namely, minimum weight and size of machine; 
the need of low voltage energy for the opera- 
tion of incandescent headlights; multiple 
operation of lamps, eliminating circuit outages 
and permitting the use of larger units with 
consequent reduction in lamp maintenance; 
the use of a lamp standardized for steam 
roads; and lastly, provision of a source of low 
voltage energy in high voltage installations 
for the operation of Type PC control equi laments . 

The system is in operation on interurban 
electric railways, operating under widely 
varying service conditions, and is giving 
entirely satisfactory results. 

On a typical installation, heavy freight and 
passenger trains are operated from a 1200- 
volt trolle}', and as a result of the heavy traf- 


^ 400 500 600 

Trolley \/olts 

Fig. 4. Generator Voltage with Variation in Trolley Voltage 

fic the trolley voltage varies between wide 
limits and gives very unsatisfactory lighting 
results. Frequent grade crossings complicate 
the headlight problem. 

A comparison of the equipments installed 
on this system, with a tabulation of the results 

obtained from each, is given in Table I. 
Attention is called to the wide voltage varia- 
tions of the series equipment and the variation 
in the headlight and interior lighting. With 
the low voltage equii)ment, under precisely 
the same conditions, no change in the interior 

8 75 -Watt 52- Volt Mflzdo B Lamps 
O 25 - Watt 52 - Volt Maido 8 L amps 
H Form J-28 Headhgi-it mth 2 SO - Watt MoTCJa C Lamo 

Fig. 5. Installation of Lighting Units on Interurban Cars 

lighting is noticeable, and the headlighting 
under the poorest voltage condition compares 
very favorably with that of the series system 
at its best. 

On a typical third rail installation very 
dense traffic movements cause wide voltage 
variations, with inadequate car illumination 
and poor headlight protection. The ;5rd rail 
gaps are a further source of annoyance, caus- 
ing repeated blinking of the interior lights 
and interference with the headlight. 

The results obtained under these conditions 
are shown in Table II. Here the voltage 
ranges from 62o to loO volts, or from glaring 
brilliancy to near-darkness with the series 
equipment, while the motor-generator set is 
maintaining practically constant interior 
illumination down to 350 volts and a readable 



Approximate annual power cost per car at $.0175 per 
kw-hr. Headlight and interior lights burningt 1707 
hours per year. Haulage estimated at $.05 per lb. per 

Estimated annual depreciation (including interest on in- 
vestment) per car 

Estimated annual maintenance per car 

Total annual cost per car 

Annual saving per car 







35 00 



MJased on equipments listed in Tabic II. 

tReport of Equipment Committee A.E.R.A.. 1914. 


Vol. XXI, No. 2 


interior as low as 200 volts. At 150 volts the 
headlight is projecting 700 feet, and from 
350 to 650 volts a distance of 1300 feet; 
whereas, with the ordinary series system the 
light is out at 150 volts and the projection 
between 350 and 650 volts varies from 300 to 
1000 feet. In other words, the low voltage 
equipment is furnishing at 350 volts trolley 
as good interior illumination and a consider- 
ably better headlight than the series system 
furnishes at any voltage. 

On the latter installation photographs of 
the interior illumination were taken at vary- 
ing voltages, care being taken to have the 
same lens aperture opening, length of plate 
exposure, and plate speed in each case. In 
order that the comparison might be accurate 
extreme care has been taken to have the 
half-tone engravings represent faithfully the 
exposed plate. 

The illumination at 350 and 600 volts 
trolley is shown in Figs. 8 and 9, and that at 200 
volts in Fig. 6. Figs. 7 and 1 1 show the com- 
parative effects at 250 volts trolley of center 
and half deck lighting, the former by means 
of the motor-generator set and the latter 
by current supplied directly from the third 

Tests were made to determine the drop in 
generator voltage corresponding to the time 
in seconds required to span the third rail 
gaps. The results at 500 volts trolley are 
plotted in Fig. 10. With the low voltage sys- 
tem, the third rail gaps will not seriously 
interfere with the car illumination and con- 
stant headlighting is assured. 

When it is considered that these results 
are obtained with actual savings in power and 
maintenance, as shown by Table III, the 
showing is the more remarkable. The opera- 
ting figures will vary with the cost of power, 
up-keep, etc., but those given are considered 

Timz in Seconds Required to Span Tnird ffo / Oops 

Fig. 10. Drop in Gmerator Voltage While Crossing 
Third Rail Gaps 

conservative and in accord with the conditions 
existing on the average system. 

It has been demonstrated that exceptional 
car lighting, both headlight and interior, may 
be had at a lower cost than now prevails, and 
under these conditions the new system should 
find extensive application in the lighting of 
new cars and the changing over of existing 
unsatisfactory equipments. 


Fig. 11. Scries Lighting. 250 Volts. Half-deck Arrangement of Lighting Units 
(Compare with Fig. 8) 

130 February 191S 


Vol. XXI, No. 2 

Some Experiments in the Use of Electric Power 
for Field Work on the Farm 

By J. H. Davidson 

University F.\, Davis, California 


F. E. Boyd 

General Electric Company, San Francisco, California 

This article considers the possibilities of electric power for cultivating farm lands where power may be 
obtained from existing transmission lines. It does not comtemplate the isolated generation of power nor the 
use of storage batteries. The tests were performed with a tractor built largely from parts of other machines, 
and hence does not show the efficiency that could be expected from a standardized machine. This experimental 
machine demonstrates, however, that it is perfectly practical to cultivate soil by the proposed method; that the 
overload capacity of the electric motor is an important factor in this work; and that the power consumption is 
such as to effect a considerable saving for each cultivation over the use of horses, as well as a saving in laborers' 
time. It is almost certain that powerful tractors, either electric or gas-engine driven, will before long replace 
the horse in the cultivation of the soil; and where electric power is at all available the electric motor-operated 
tractor will prove to have decided advantages in its simplicity and lower operating costs. — Editor. 

With the rapid increase in the number of 

internal combustion motors and the pending 
scarcity of the more volatile petroleum fuel 
products, it is well that consideration be 
given to other sources of povirer. Hydro- 
electric power should at least receive careful 
consideration for all purposes where it can be 

The advantages of electric power for field 
work, where the load must necessarily be 
irregular, are quite obvious. The simplicity 
and reliability of the electric motor is not 
exceeded by any other motor; much of the 
engineering is confined to the power house, 
and the ability of the electric motor to carry 
temporarily a heavy overload gives it a 
decided advantage for agricultural work where 
the load is constantly varying. The large 
starting torque, light weight, and compact- 
ness arc likewise of importance in this service. 

In California the use of electric power on 
farms for pumping, lighting, and general 
l)ower purposes is now extensive. A survey 
made in 191.") by a committee of a Western 
power association indicated that the total 
hfjrse power in electric inotors on the farms 
was in excess of 100,441, and by this time 
(January 191,S) the total is 200,000 horse 
l^ower. The total number of consumers is 
about 14,000. It is significant that this 
electric power exceeds the electric power used 
on all the rest of the farms in the United 

At the present time water power in Cali- 
fornia has been developed to the extent of 
(i()0,()()0 power, although fuel oil has 
l)een very cheaj) in recent years. It is staled 
ujjon good authority that the total available 
water power in the state is 0,000,000. It 

would, therefore, seem reasonable to expect 
an extension of the use of electric power on 
the farm in the future. 

It is on farms where intensive agriculture 
is practiced and where electric power is now 
used for pumping, where the transmission 
lines are installed, that the field of electric 
power will be extended. Most of these farms 
are either truck farms or farms producing 
crops of high value per acre. Although Cali- 
fornia is a state of large ranches, there are, 
according to the 1910 census, 43,139 farms of 
less than .50 acres, and 22,525 less than 20 
acres. Incidentally this land, as shown by 
the census, has an average value of S500 per 
acre. Thus it is seen that the fanns of Cali- 


24 Acres 

, , 

1251 ft. 

(- — "'■"''■■ — - 



i f ■ i] ',] .'! 



j 1 1 j : j ; ; ; 4 /Jcres 

i :' ;' 1 i i j i 1 

4 Acres 

4 Acres 


: i ; 1 ; 1 J 1 wc 




I ; i 1 ; ! 1 ! 4Acres 

A Acres 

4 Acres 


U U U U 

Fig. 1. Diagram showing Arrangement of Power Feeders 
and Method of Cultivating 24-acre Plot 

fornia could use a large amount of electric 
power wathout involving any serious trans- 
mission problems, and if its use were made 
I)ossible it would not only replace much of 
tlie power now being used, but also reduce the 
amount of hand labor necessary. 

SOME experimp:nts in the use of electric power 


In order to secure some definite data con- 
cerning the possibilities of electric power for 
field work the authors conducted an experi- 
ment which involved the following distinct 
features : 

Design and construction of an 
experimental electric tractor. 

Practical field test of tractor. 

Tests to determine power con- 

Analysis of results and conclu- 

The experiment was confined to 
the use of power obtained direct 
from a commercial transmission 
line, and storage batteries were 
not considered. 

The tractor was designed for 
truck crop work. Two drivers 
were used with a cultivator as an 
integral part. It was designed to 
travel 140 feet per minute and was 
driven by a 3-h.p., 220-volt, 3-phase 
motor. The machine was made by 
utilizing parts of other machines as 
far as possible. The drivers were 
32 in. in diameter, with a 4-in. 
face. Three speed reductions were 
required, which were effected by a 
belt, a bevel gear set, and a spur 
gear set. The machine carried a 
cable reel, and through the opera- 
tion of a friction clutch the cable 
could be played out or wound up as 
desired. In operation the cable 
was dropped at the side of the 
tractor when traveling away from 
the main power line and picked up 
on the return. It was necessary to 
shift the cable connection at the 
end of the field occasionally by 
moving the plug connector to a new 
receptacle. The experimental ma- 
chine, complete with ISO feet of cable an 
tivating attachments, weighs 735 lbs. 

The methods of cultivating the soil and 
distributing the electric power are illustrated 
in Fig. 1. 

Conservative estimates made in collabora- 
tion with the power company engineers 
indicate that the poles and line material 
necessary for the installation outlined in 
Fig. 1, even at the present high prices, will 
not exceed $110. The estimated price of the 
machine is $,o()0; thus, for $610 the equipment 
could be put on a farm ready to operate. 
These figures make liberal allowances for 

manufacturing and merchandising, and for 
the electrical man on the installation. 

Although it is a fact that the equipment has 
limits on its, radius of operation as compared 
with a horse (which, together with harness, 


and 3. Front and Rear Views of Electric Tractor, 
showing Cable Reel, Control Levers, etc. 

would cost in the average of 8275), it should 
not be o\erlookcd that the machine is capable 
of doing many things that a horse cannot do. 
For instance, it constitutes a portable motor 
which can readily and easily be moved about 
the fann by one person to be belted to a 
wood-saw, churn, pump, feed grinder, cider 
mill, grindstone, spra\Tng machine, etc. 

An important feature of an equipment of 
this character is the fact that it is capable of 
working continuously, whore a horse can 
work only intermittently. 

After construction, the experimental trac- 
tor was given a field trial. No difficulty was 

132 February 191S 


Vol. XXI, No. 2 

experienced in handling the machine, although 
it was not to be expected that the first ma- 
chine would be free from many impractical 
features. However, the machine worked 
better than the authors anticipated. The 
cable was easily managed, and the fact that 
the machine was tethered was not so much of 
an inconvenience as might be expected. It 
was unusual to find a machine working so 
quietly and with so much reserve power. 
The tractor in hard ground, where the culti- 
vator was set deep, would sHp its drivers 
while the motor developed an overload of 
250 per cent. 

was 2.9 per cent; also that while reelmg the 
cable the power consumption was less than 
when playing it out. This was due to the fact 
that the pull of the cable assisted m moving 
the tractor, while when unwmdmg there 
was a drag due to friction in the reel. 

The following conclusions were deduced 
after the completion of the tests : 

a It was demonstrated by a crude experi- 
mental machine that the soil could 
actually be cultivated by electric 
power and that at least there were 
no fundamental obstacles. 

Fig. 4. Tractor in Use 

Records were made of current consumption, 
and the following data were secured : 

Normal cultivation, current consumption, 1867 

Deep cultivation, current consumption, 2500 watts. 

Drivers slipping, current consumption, 3200 watts. 

Recultivation on soft ground, current consump- 
tion, 2400 watts. 

Cultivator on soft ground, current consumption, 
2200 watts. 

A draw-bar horse-power test was made by 
detaching the cultivator and substituting a 
stone boat for a load. 

Draw bar pull, 2285 pounds. 

Time required to travel 100 feet, 46.8 seconds. 

Draw bar horse power, 0.88. 

Input-electrical horse power, 2.94. 

Over all efficiency, 29.8 per cent. 

Estimated output of motor, 2.48 h.p. 

Efficiency of tractor, 35.5 per cent. 

The efficiency of the outfit was very low. 
This can be attributed to the crude gearing 
used and the excessive friction of the bearings, 
which were not in the best of condition. 

It was noted during the tests that the slip- 
page of the drivers while doing nf)rmal work 

b. For garden work a light machine is 

desirable, keeping the power consump- 
tion low and making the machine 
easy to handle. 

c. The overload capacity of an electric 

motor is an important feature in its 

An effort has been made to compare the 
cost of cultivating and plowing by a horse 
and with this machine. It is very difficult 
to draw any accurate conclusions because 
there are so many varying and intangible 
factors entering into the maintainance of a 
horse equipment. The following approxi- 
mations, although not suitable from which to 
draw any definite conclusions may, neverthe- 
less, be of some general interest. 

First. Due to the greater rate at which 
work can be done and the continuous period 
over which it can be performed, it is believed 
that where it would take a horse about 11 
hours to cultivate S acres (the work, of course, 
not being done in 11 consecutive hours), the 
machine could do the same acreage in possibly 


8 hours (there being no question about the 
fact that it could be done in 8 consecutive 
hours). This means efficiency in the use of 
labor incident to operation. 

Second. Although, as stated above, the 
cost incident to the maintenance and opera- 
tion of a horse equipment is very uncertain, 
estimates indicate that in the cultivation of a 
24-acre tract, as illustrated, there would be 
at least a saving of $7.50 for each cultiva- 
tion in favor of electricity, plus at least a day 
and a half in time saved by the person operat- 
ing the equipment. Opinion differs as to the 
number of cultivations necessary for differ- 
ent crops, but, of course, the more cultiva- 
tions the greater the saving. 

Third. It is interesting to consider what 
the use of this outfit will mean to the farmer 
with property under 40 acres, taking into 
account the question of how much acreage is 
necessary to provide pasturage and feed for 
horses. Any saving in this direction means a 

transference from the expense account to the 
income account. 

Fourth. Expenditures for feed for the 
horse should not be overlooked in considering 
the cost of operation. 

In conclusion, it is apparent from the fact 
that 200,000 h.p. in electric motors is now 
actually being used on the farm that the 
phrase "Electricity on the Farm" does not 
constitute an idle dream any longer. Al- 
though 160,000 h.p., of this is used for irriga- 
tion and reclamation purposes (a peculiarity 
to semi-arid sections), the remainder, or 
40,000 h.p., is actually being used for miscel- 
laneous farm purposes, such as were enumera- 
ted in connection with the varied uses to 
which the machine in question could be put 
on the farm. The only thing that we are not 
doing with electricity on any scale is plowing 
and cultivating, and this now bids fair to 
be a commercial reality in the verj^ near 

Graphical Representation of Resistances and 
Reactances in Multiple 

By H. C. Stanley 

San Francisco Office, General Electric Company 

Frequently a number of resistances or reactances are connected in multiple and it is desired to know their 
total or combined value of resistance or reactance. The calculation necessary to obtain this combined value is 
usually simple in principle but at times laborious in practice. For approximate results and as a check on the 
more accurate calculations, a graphical solution is sometimes of value. The present,article outlines briefly the 
graphical solution of some representative cases. — Editor. 

The graphical representation of resistances 
in series is very simple, consisting merely 
in laying them out in a straight line, the total 
length of the line representing the total 
resistance. This procedure is shown in Fig. 
1, where a, b. c and d represent the individual 
resistances and e the total resistance. 

perpendicularly to a base line at any con- 
venient distance apart. Diagonals are then 
drawn as shown, and the perpendicular r 
from the base line to the intersection of the 
diagonals represents the value of a and b 
in multiple. This is proved as follows: 




Fig. 1 

When resistances are in multiple the 
graphical representation is more difficult. 
A method, however, is as follows: 

Let a and b. Fig. 2, represent any two 
resistances which are in multiple. As is well 
known, the total resistance is the reciprocal 
•of the sum of the reciprocals of the individual 
resistances. The lengths a and b are erected 

Let d and e be portions of one of the 
diagonals as shown in Fig. 2. 

Then t=,j (being corresponding sides of 


similar triangles) and - = j-r- (being corre- 
a d+e 

sponding sides of similar triangles). 

134 February 19 IS 


Vol. XXI, No. 2 

Then r ■ 



for n we have 

Now let us consider the case of resistances 
and reactances when used together. In Fig. 
6, let r represent the resistance and x the 
reactance, being drawn at right angles to 
each other. 

If the resistance and reactance are in 
series, then the hypotenuse represents the 
impedance. If, however, the resistance and 
reactance are in multiple, the impedance is 



The last expression is the reciprocal of the 
sum of the reciprocals of the individual 

Fig. 3 shows four resistances a, h, c and d 
in multiple. This is merely a continuation of 
Fig. 2. Sections a and b in multiple give 
ri, n and c in multiple give r^, and r-i and d in 
multiple give the final value of u- 

One convenience of this graphical represen- 
tation might be suggested as follows: 

Suppose that we desired to investigate the 
value of a number of resistances in multiple, 
assuming all units of resistance to be equal, 
by laying the resistances off at equal intervals, 
a cur\^e can readily be drawn which shows 
that after a certain point very little can be 
gained by the addition of a single unit. This 
is shown in Fig. 4. 

A series-multiple combination of resist- 
ances is shown in Fig. 5 wherein a, b and c 
represent respectively the resistances of the 
three legs of a delta-connected circuit. The 

lines X, y and z then represent the resistances 
between the corners of the delta. This 
diagram shows a and b in series, and in 
multiple with c, whereby the value of y is 
obtained, the values of s and x being arrived 
at similarly. 

The preceding formulae and diagrams will 
of course apply equally well to reactances 
operating in series or multiple. 

represented by s, :: being the perpendicular 
drawn from the hypotenuse to the opposite 
angle. The proof is as follows: 

r sin 4>. 

, and dividing hy r x we 

Then z = 


\/r- + X- 


+ - 

This is the established equation for lesist- 
ance and reactance in multiple. 

If there are several reactances and resist- 
ances in multiple they should first be taken 
separately as in Fig. 3, and then the resultants 
combined as in Fig. 6. 

If the principle shown in Fig. 6 is used on 
an ordinary piece of co-ordinate paper, this 
provides a simple and ready means for deter- 
mining what multiple combinations of resist- 
ance and reactance are necessary in order 
to obtain any required values of impedance. 
In fact, it might be stated that investigation 
on any of the lines proposed in this article 
can best be carried out on co-ordinate paper. 


Electric Cargo Winches 

By E. F. Whitney 
Portland Office, General Electric Company 

The use of electricity on shipboard is increasing rapidly in both the variety and the extent of its applica- 
tions. Most ships today are electrically lighted, have their fans, pumps, etc., electrically driven, and are 
equipped with a radio outfit. In addition to these applications, the galleys of manv ships are electrically 
equipped, and a considerable number of ships are electrically propelled. A comparatively recent but equally 
successful development is the application of electric drive to cargo winches: and the following article treats 
of this subject. The magnitude and characteristics of winch work are defined, the electrical equipment is 
described, and the superiority of its operation over steam-winch operation is discussed in terms of reliability, 
speed, control, cost, and efficiency. — Editor. 

The application of electric motors to hoist- 
ing and conveying equipment has been suc- 
cessfully carried out in practically all classes 
of work requiring such equipment, so that 
today the electric drive is universally accepted 
as being the most efficient, reliable, and expe- 

With the recent -activity in the shipbuild- 
ing industry of this country and the impera- 
tive demand for propelling equipments, the 
geared turbine sprang into favor overnight 
and became a newly accepted standard for 
American shipbuilders. Because of its merit 
it at once established itself in an unassailable 

Another idea having to do with the positive, 
efficient, and speedier handling of cargo was 
also presented to the shipbuilders. This was 
electric drive for cargo winches, which tradi- 
tion and precedent had determined should be 
operated by steam. The unprecedented ac- 
tivity in auxiliary motor ships (which combine 
the use of sails and oil engines for propulsion) 
has given the electric winch its opportunity, 
and the results indicate a marked improve- 
ment over steam-winch operation. 

During the past few years much attention 
has been given to terminal freight handling, 
but very little has been given to a careful 
analysis of the handling and loading methods 
employed by the carriers themselves. It is 
evident that each exerts its influence on the 
other and that the greatest benefits can be 
obtained only when a close balance is struck 
between dock facilities for handling and 
carrier facilities for loading and unloading. 

In this article those vessels will be con- 
sidered which must be equipped to handle all 
of their cargo through deck hatches, and 
which cannot, because of the varied character 
of the ports of call, count on dock faciHties 
for help. This, class of vessel embraces by far 
the largest part of our ordinary commercial 

The duty of cargo winches may be divided 
into two general classifications: 

(1) High rope speed (handling moderate 

unit weights of cargo). 

(2) Moderate rope speed (handling heavy 

unit weights of cargo). 

The first class involves the handling of mis- 
cellaneous cargo loads where the greater part 
of the cargo is made up of relatively small 
packages and is handled in slings. 

The second class applies to specialized 
cargo. The line of division is not definite and 
it will usually be found that the same equip- 
ment is expected to perform both classes of 
service, so that, a compromise is necessary. 
The range of duties specified is found to be 
from 1.500-lb. sling loads at 2.50 feet per 
minute to 12.000-lb. sling loads at 75 feet per 
minute. For average heavy work loads range 
from .3000 pounds to 5000 pounds at 175 feet 
to 125 feet per minute, and for light work 

Fig. 1. Winch Motor. Side View. Totally Enclosed 

from 700 pounds to 3000 poiuids at 250 feet 
to 175 feet per minute. 

The limiting factor in the speed of loading 
a vessel should be the capability of the men in 
the hold to stow awa>- the cargo. With slow 
speeds and light loads . the cargo can be 


Vol. XXI, No. 2 

stowed faster than it can be handled by the 
winches; so that the present tendency is to 
increase the load and the speed of the wnches 
(that there may always be work ahead for the 
men in the hold), and to increase the number 
of men to the maximum at which they can 

End View, Winch Motor, showing Weatherproof 
Brake Mounted on Shaft 

work effectively. This requirement necessi- 
tates a very flexible hoisting drive, one ca- 
pable of operating at high speeds with light 
loads and at moderate speeds with heavy loads 
— in every case maintaining the highest average 
speed compatible with safety in handling the 
cargo. For this purpose, the series direct- 
current motor is admirably suited, and when 
adapted to a given winch design will give 
higher average speeds throughout the range 
from light to heavy loads than can be obtained 
by other methods. This is one of the features 
making for dispatch in loading. 

Today, with charters soaring and vessels in 
demand' as never before in the history of the 
world, each day lost in loading or unloading 
caKo at the dock is so much unproductive 
time that can never be regained. Speed in 
handling cargo is therefore of extreme impor- 
tance. Each day saved means that the vessel 
has not only saved a day on its voyage and 
has released terminal space for other cargo, 
but also that the owners have saved an extra 
day for the entire force of stevedores and 
longshoremen required to handle cargo, and 
that these men arc released for duty on some 
other vessel which in its turn will get away 
on its voyage that much sooner. Therefore, 
in choosing winch equipment the items to be 
considered are: 

(1) Reliability, 

(2) Speed of handling, 

(3) Cost and elTiciency of operation. 


Unless the equipment will be ready to 
operate when required, it cannot be con- 
sidered. This presupposes a certam degree of 
simplicity and demands rugged equipment 
which will require very little adjustment and 
be easy to repair. Untried or experimental 
machinery as well as new designs of equipment 
cannot be considered (unless, of course, an 
experimental or trial installation is being 

The types of motors and controls recom- 
mended are of standard designs which have 
been used for a nuinber of years. The motors 
are enclosed and are weatherproof, with shaft 
packing to protect the bearings from water. 
They are geared direct to the winches and 
are mounted on deck without additional 
enclosing protecrion. (See Figs. 2, 7, and 8.) 
Waterproof controllers may be used, but 
the usual practice is to enclose the entire con- 
trol equipment in a waterproof case mounted 
on the winch frame nearby. (See Fig. 6.) 

The equipment used has been reduced to its 
simplest form and has as few parts as possible, 
all of which are large and substantial. (See 
Figs. 3 and 4.) 

The smaller devices are protected by being 
encased so that mechanical damage_ from 
outside sources is reduced to a minimum. 
Exposed parts are made weatherproof and 
are unaffected by climatic ', changes. This 
latter factor is of particular ^ importance be- 

Fig. 3. View of Disassembled Winch Motor. Arrangement 
of parts faciUtates dismantling 

cause, ordinarily, commercial carriers must 
call at all ports of the world. It is not unheard 
of that a vessel may leave one of the temperate 
Pacific coast ports and arrive at a Far Eastern 
port covered with ice, and with several cylin- 
ders of its steam-winch equipment cracked 



Fig. 4. 

due to freezing of the condensation in the 
steam chest. It is also often necessary to 
keep steam winches turning over slowly in 
cold weather to keep them from freezing. Such 
precautions are not necessary with electric 

Speed of Handling 

Unless simplicity marks the con- 
trol equipment, miscellaneous steve- 
dore labor cannot readily operate 
and handle the outfits without 
previous experience. Practically all 
such labor is experienced in operat- 
ing steam winches. The control 
must therefore be similar to that of 
steam winches and, furthermore, 
must be simpler and more positive 
in order to at once win over the 
operator to the equipment. It is 
a new departure and, therefore, 
must immediately overcome the 
prejudice of lack of acquaintance 
and give the operator confidence in 
his ability to handle it. Experi- 
ence has shown that a stevedore 
can operate electric winches to the 
satisfaction of himself and the loading crew 
after a few minutes of practice, and after a 
day's handling he is enthusiastic about the 
ease and positiveness of the control. 

The requirements for fast loading and 
unloading are: 

(1) Positive and uniform control of the 

load and the empty loading gear. 

(2) High average speed of hoisting for all 

possible ranges of loads. 

(3) High-speed hoisting both for the load 

and the empty loading gear. 

(4) Positive control for lowering loads irre- 

spective of the speed of lowering. 

(5) Positive braking to stop the travel of the 

load quickly, so that full advantage 
may be taken of (4) . 

Easy control of the loading gear is essential 
to safety as well as to speed. Any reduction 
in the nornial labor required for operation 
gives so much more time for the operator to 
watch results and interest himself in perfect- 
ing the niceties of handling which make for 
speed through eliminating false motions, such 
as, incorrect placing of load, running out 
more line than actually required (either empty 
or loaded), apparent inability to swing and 
stop load quickly over the exact position for 
lowering, etc., while hoisting. 

This ease of control in electric winches is 
obtained by having the entire operation of 
hoisting, lowering, and braking for each drum 
controlled by a single lever (see Fig. 6). 
The position of this lever controls the 
speed of the outfit and the brake is applied 

Motor with Top Half of Frame Removed. Interior of motor 
ily inspected, two main poles, and one commutating pole 
in each half of frame 

by moving the handle to the off (central) 
position. This is analagous to the throttle 
control of steam winches, with the added 
advantage of controlling the brakes which, 
with the steam outfit, is a separate opera- 

To obtain the best results, the operator 
must know that the same position of the 
control handle will always give the same 
definite results. With electric winches, this 
is secured by properly choosing the size and 
type of the generating equipment and its 
prime mover, and by the correct layout of the 
distributing circuits to the several winches. 
The uniform performance of the motcfrs 
requires uniform voltage at the motor ter- 
minals. This is easily obtained under the 
conditions just named. In actual loading 
operations the voltage range has been 
observed to be about 2'2 per cent to 5 per 
cent, the latter obtaining for sudden changes 
of load that cause instantaneous fluctuations, 
while the maintained voltage after this sudden 
drop is about 2} 2 per cent to W per cent below 
no-load voltage. An item favorably influ- 
encing voltage regulation is the relatively 
short lengths of circuit from the generating 
outfit to the winches so that the current-carry- 
ing capacity of the wires, rather than the 
voltage drop, is the limiting feature for the 
size of the winch. 

13S Febraarv 1918 


VoL XXI, No. 2 

For equivalent uniform control of steam 
winches, some of the principal items to be 
considered are: 

(A) Steam pressure and quality. 

(B) Exhaust pressure. 

(C) Piston and valve fit. 

Fig. 5. Speed-torque Curve showing Hoisting and Lowering 
Control for Cargo Winches 

Unless steam pressure and quality are main- 
tained at normal values there is a marked 
reduction in speed of the outfit when loaded 
and in the size of the load that can be handled. 
Even with maintained ])ressure the speed 
regulation for a given valve position with 
varying loads is not so good as that of the elec- 
tric winch. The load handled has a marked 
effect on the back pressure, due to the limita- 
tions of exhaust port area. The back pres- 
sure is greatest when the load is heaviest — an 
unfavorable condition in itself. 

The number of winches operating at one 
time has a decided effect on both initial and 
exhaust pressure, so that one winch running 
alone may perform excellently; but should 
two or three others pick up heavy loads at 
the same time, none of them can approach 

their maximum capacity owing to drop in 
pressure in the steam line. Of course, extra 
boiler capacity and large steam and exhaust 
lines will ameliorate such a condition, but 
here enter the questions of first cost, space, 
and operating cost, and we are considering 
only average conditions as found, not 
the" best conditions which could be pro- 
duced with a view of showing the steam 
winch to best advantage without regard 
for cost, space or boiler room operation. 
This point is touched on later under cost 
and operating efficiency. Therefore, 
unless there is imiform control under all 
conditions of operation, the highest 
average operating speed cannot be main- 
tained since the operator is constantly 
crowding or holding back the outfit, 
never knowing exactly what to expect 
of it. 

High lowering speed, whether loaded 

or light, and positive control during 

lowering are obtained by applying the 

principle of dynamic control. Here, the 

motor is either acting to hold back the 

load or assisting in lowering, depending 

upon the weight of the load and whether, 

as the result of gravity alone, the load 

would seek a speed higher or lower than 

that which the operator wishes. In both 

cases, however, the motor is connected 

to the power circuit, and a balance is 

struck between the speed of load and 

the efl^ort exerted by the motor. Fig. 5 

shows the typical characteristics of such 

control conditions. The operator, hav-. 

ing control of the load at all times and 

"feeling it," as it were, can maintain a 

higher rate of speed than would be safe 

under other conditions. The scheme of 

lowering gives the flexibility necessary^ to 

eliminate sudden jerks in the hoisting cable, 

there being no tendency to have any slack in 

the cable with this method of control. To 

have positive control it is essential that 

there be no sudden or irregular jerks on the 


Positive braking allows the operator to 
spot the load or empty hook accurately, 
lower at maximum rate until almost in place, 
and stop quickly and positively without 
smashing the load. It also permitsvery small 
adjustments of load just before making a 
landing to permit easy landings in the exact 
spot required. This feature of electric opera- 
tion is appreciated by the operators, and 
in every case calls forth favorable com- 



Cost and Efficiency of Operation 

As to cost and efficiency of operation, the 
electric winch outfits compare favorably with 
steam installations. Earlier, it was stated 
that activity in the auxiliary motor-ship con- 
struction gave electric winches an opportunity 
of demonstrating their worth. The 
propelling equi])ment of these ves- 
sels are crude oil engines, so that 
no boiler plant is required. Any 
boiler plant installed on such ves- ^ 

sels is for the winches only, so that 
a direct comparison is easily ob- 
tained between the first cost of a 
steam installation and an electric 
equipment. These costs are so 
nearly the same that the great 
operating economies of the electric 
method at once decide its choice; 
in fact, estimates indicate that the 
electric installation is actually 
slightly cheaper. The prime mover 
for the generator in such installa- 
tions has been a crude oil engine, 
and when the cost of such units is 
compared to the cost of small 
steam turbines or engines, a large 
reduction is shown in first cost 
for a vessel with steam plant 
as compared to motor equipped 

The operating costs are low because of the 
ruggedness and simplicity of the equipment, 
and the small amount of attention required. 
With the electric outfit power is generated 
only when required (except for the small 
rotation losses of the generating unit) and is 
transmitted to the winches effectively. There 
is no loss comparable to the stand-by losses 
of a boiler when the units are idle, or to the 
leaks and condensation in steam line and at 
winches, whether running or idle. The fuel 
saving is a considerable item. The economy 
of a central generating unit is better than that 
of six or eight or more individual smaller 
units. The economy of prime movers im- 
proves as the size increases, and limitations 
of design decrease. One unit furnishing 
power to several sources of fluctiiating load 
has a better average load and economy than 
separate units at the several points. The 
steam winch engine is an uneconomical steam 
user, as not so much consideration is given to 
its design with a view to economy. The 
modern electric generating set is an eco- 
nomical imit and every consideration is given 
to its economy as well as to its reliability and 

These are among the considerations that 
make the saving in operating costs with 
electric winches a considerable item. In fact, 
in the case of the motor ship the saving is 
sufficient to pay the entire cost of the elec- 
tric installation in eighteen months. If to 

Deck Control Position in Front of Hatch, showing 
Method of Winch Control 

this are added the difference in upkeep and 
supply material costs between steam and 
electric installations, the electric \\-inch will 
be put in a still more favorable light. 

Unfortunately, too much consideration is 
given to the item of the first cost and too 
little to the operating costs. Unless both the 
buililers and purchasers have given proper 
consideration to all items of cost and are 
working in harmony for the best results, a 
short-sighted policy, detrimental to one or 
the other, is likely to be adopted. 

The total cost of the complete winch instal- 
lation, whether steam or electric, will not 
exceed G per cent of the cost of small vessels, 
or 3 per cent of the cost of larger vessels. 
(Small vessels are classed as 2000 tons net 
cargo and less, large vessels as 3000 tons net 
cargo and larger.) 

The choice lictween the two schemes of 
winch drive will not affect the cost more than 
10 per cent either way from an average. 
Thus there may be a maximum difference in 
cost of 20 per cent for the winch installation, 
or 1.2 per cent of the total first cost for a 
small vessel, and 0.6 per cent of the first cost 
for a large vessel. The effect of this on total 

140 February 19 IS 

operating costs is negligible and, therefore, the 
question of first cost, insofar as it affects a 
decision between steam and electnc winches, 
may be eliminated from consideration. 

The speed of loading has been mentioned 
such comparisons of necessity covering the 


Vol. XXI, No. 2 

Figs. 7 and 8. Electric Winches Moiuited on Deck 

same class of work to be performed under the 
same climatic and other conditions. With 
inexperienced operators loading miscellaneous 
lumber in unfavorable weather (six inches of 
snow on dock and lumber piles, with the snow 
thawing), operating three hatches with two 
single drum winches at each hatch, approxi- 
mately 25 per cent more lumber than is the 
usual estimate for steam winches operating 

under favorable conditions was loaded the 
first day the electric outfits were run. bub- 
sequent loadings have been made with greater 
dispatch Further information along this 
line will be available within a short time, as 
additional complete loading and power records 
are to be taken on a later vessel 
in the near future. 

Fig. 10 shows a long timber being 
lowered into the hold. 

The winch equipments which 
have been specified by builders 
cover Hght, moderate, and heavy 
duty hoists. All of them consist of : 

(1) Generating equipment, 

(2) Switchboard equipment, 

(3) Winch motors and control, 

(4) Anchor windlass motor and 

(5) Miscellaneous motors. 

These will be considered in the 
reverse order because of the con- 
trol of the last items in deciding 
upon the type and capacity of the 
first two. 

5. Under this heading come motors 
for miscellaneous pumps, ma- 
chine shop, refrigerating plant, 
etc., which need no comment. 
4. Anchor Windlass Motor: The 
size of this motor varies with 
the size of anchor and chain, 
and also length of chain. It is 
usually geared to the hoisting 
dnmi through double reduc- 
tion gearing — one step being a 
worm drive and consequently 
not reversible except iDy the 
application of pov/er. No elec- 
tric brake is needed, although 
usual practice contemplates a 
disk brake to provide for 
emergencies. Straight rheo- 
static reversible control is used, 
with a contactor reset protec- 
tive panel for protection of the 
motor from a too severe over- 
load or incorrect operation. The motors 
usually chosen are low speed, totally 
enclosed and weather-proof, and range 
from 25 h.p. to 50 h.p., depending upon 
the duty specified. 
Winch Motors and Control: The motors 
are series wound, totally enclosed, 
weather-proof, commutating-pole motors 
of the most rugged mechanical construe- 



lion and conservative electrical character- 
teristics. They are geared to the hoistin}^ 
drum through either single or double 
reduction spur gearing. The front end 
•of the motor shaft is fitted with an elec- 
tric brake that instantly and automatic- 
ally sets when the controller is turned 
to the "off" position. The brake re- 
leases only when the controller has been 
turned to the running position and 
sufficient current flows to operate the 
motor. This guards against the brake 
releasing, in case of an open circuit, 
and dropping the load. The brake is 
capable of holding any load that the 
motor will be called upon to lift. (See 
Figs. 2, 7, and S.) 

The control equipment, as has already 
been described, works on the dynamic 
braking principle, which gives absolute 
control of the load whether hoisting 
or lowering. This principle is not new 
and has been used for heavy crane work 
for some years. It is only by means of 
some such application that a nicety of 
handling heavy masses has been made 

An electrically reset protective panel is 
a convenient adjunct. It furnishes pro- 
tection to the winch motors and, after 
being called upon to operate, may be re- 
set by the operator without leaving his 

The winches are usually located in pairs 
— two at each hatch ; thus two motors per 
hatch are usually required. (See Figs. 7 
and S.) 

The sizes selected are 15-h.p., 20-h.p., 
and 25-h.p. low-speed motors. The 
selection depends entirely upon the 
builders' specifications. As noted before, 
the specified require. nents will be for loads 
and speeds covering a wide range, viz., 
1500 lb. at 250 feet per minute, to 12,000 
lb. at 75 to 90 feet per minute. In 
general, the average miscellaneous cargo 
carriers will call for winches capable of 
handling loads of 3000 pounds at 200 
feet per minute. This is the basic rating. 
The equipment should, of course, be 
expected to handle light loads at higher 
speeds and heavier loads at lower speeds. 
Such an outfit should be capable of 
handling more cargo in a given time 
than can be stored in the vessel in an 
equivalent length of time. The equip- 
ment to meet the requirements is stand- 
ard and readilv chosen. 

2. The switchboard should have all metal 
parts made of non-corrodible material, 
and should consist of the necessary 
panels to mount and properly control 
the different circuits. There should be 
one circuit for each hatch equipment, 

Fig. 9. Long Timber Suspended in Position 
Preparatory to Lowering 

one circuit for anchor windlass equip- 
ment, and the necessary circuits for 
miscellaneous motors so that those hav- 
ing no inter-relation may each have an 
independent circuit. The necessary' 
overload protection must be pro\-ided 
in accordance with underwriters' require- 
I. The generating equipment must have 
ample capacity to care for the hea\-iest 
loads that may be imposed upon it. The 
deversity factor is great howe\-er. The 
anchor windlass will practically ne\-er be 
operating at the same time as the winch 
outfits. Sudden high swings may be 
encountered, but these are of short dura- 
tion. The fewer the number of hatches, 
the larger must be the generating unit in 
proportion to the total connected load. 
With three or more hatches all high 
swings of the load are of \-ery short dura- 
tion, one to five seconds. The generator 
should be compound wound, preferably 

142 February 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 2 

with a slightly rising characteristic _ at 
full load, and should be a commutating 
pole machine. 

The prime mover may be a steam tur- 
bine, steam engine, gas engine, or oil en- 
gine, as conditions determine. The prime 
mover selected should have ample capa- 
city to withstand, with good speed regu- 
lation, the heaviest loads that may be 
imposed upon the unit, otherwise the 
best voltage conditions cannot prevail. 
A number of such electric cargo winch 
installations have been made in the past 
year, all of which have proven eminently 

All of the remarks regarding electric equip- 
ment apply equally to both alternating- and 
direct-current installations. 

In operation, it is sometimes desired to take 
in rope slowly to avoid a jerk on the load. 
This is somewhat similar to the jogging service 
for printing press drive. Special attention 
should be given to this featirre if a-c. equip- 

ment is to be used. The first point of control 
with d-c. outfits can be adjusted so that such 
slow light work can be performed satis- 

In choosing protective equipment, fuses 
should be eliminated as far as possible and 
the necessary protection afforded by means 
of electrically reset overload relays. With 
such an arrangement, it is not necessary for 
the operator to leave his position to replace 
fuses or to close a manually operated circuit- 

A curve for direct current, showing the 
action of the motor at several points of both 
hoisting and lowering, is shown in Fig. 5. 

Table I shows a standard line of direct- 
current motors which may be chosen for such 
work. The selection of the size and speed will 
depend upon the duty to be performed. This 
table gives the rating on a thirty-minute duty 
basis. In selecting a motor for any specific 
duty, consideration should be given to the 
average duty, as well as to the maximum load 
to be handled. 


Low Speed Moderate Speed 





H.P. ' 




Approximate Net 

llS,and^230 SoO Volts 

230 Volts Only 

Weight in Lbs. 



900 1000 




CO- 180.3 














CO- 1805 







CO- 1806 







CO- 1807 







CO- 1808 




























The limiting speeds for these motors are as follows: 

CO-1803 ; . 3500 r.p.m. 

CO-1804 3200 r.p.m. 

CO-1805 3200 r.p.m. 

CO-1806 2700 r.p.m. 

CO-1807 2200 r.p.m. 

CO-1808 2200 r.p.m. 

CO-1809 2100 r.p.m. 

CO-1810 1900 r.p.m. 


The Suppression of Hysteresis in Iron-carbon Alloys 
by a Longitudinal Alternating Magnetic Field 

By C. W. Waggoner and H. M. Freeman 
Department of Physics, West Virginia University 

The results of any investigations dealing with the hysteresis losses of iron and steel are of extreme impor- 
tance in electrical engineering. In the following article the authors discuss some remarkable experiments on 
the disappearance of hysteresis due to the action of an alternating magnetic field. — Editor. 

This article is a report on the prehminary 
study of the suppression of hysteresis loss in 
iron-carbon alloys when a longitudinal alter- 
nating magnetic field is superimposed upon 
a hysteresis cycle that is produced by a 
slowly varying direct-current field. The 
other physical properties of the series of 
iron-carbon alloys tested (hysteresis loss at 
20 deg. and — 190 deg. C, tensile strength, 
temperature coefficient of expansion, etc.) 
have been reported elsewhere.' 

That there is a relation between the elastic 
and inagnetic properties of such a series of 
alloys, and that this relationship might have 
been predicted from the Ewing molecular 
theory and the phase diagram for the micro- 
scopic constituents, has been pointed out 
heretofore.- It was shown that the mag- 
netic hysteresis should increase with the 
percentage of pearlite in a series of carbon 
steels up to the eutectic percentage^ and 
then decrease with the pearlite beyond the 
eutectic point. 

The relation between the three constituents 
— ferrite, pearlite and cementite — is shown 
diagrammatically in Fig. 1. Ferrite (pure 
iron) and cementite (FeiC) unite in a definite 
proportion to form a closely interwoven and 
interstratified mixture called pearlite. At 
about V'o of one per cent of carbon the whole 
mass is pearlite and every ferrite molecule is 
seciu-ely held by cementite. The iron carbide 
(cementite) has a specific magnetization of 
about one-tenth that of pure iron,* so that 
it may be assumed that the phenomenon of 
hysteresis has to do very largely with the 
ferrite molecule and its freedom of motion. 
In low-carbon steels, where femte is in excess, 
the hysteresis loss should be low. The loss 
should increase with the decreasing free 
ferrite molecules up to the eutectic point. 
Beyond the eutectic point, there is an excess 
of cementite; and. it is a.ssumed that this 
net-work of excess cementite may break up 
the solid mass of pearlite and thus free some 

of the ferrite molecules. Any molecules thus 
freed should cause a slight reduction in the 
hysteresis loss at increasing percentages of 

This particixlar study was made to ascer- 
tain, if possible, any connection between the 
freedom of motion of the ferrite molecules 
and the carbon percentages; it being assumed, 
at the outset, that the superposition of the 
longitudinal alternating magnetic field would 
produce a "shaking up" action on the ferrite 
molecules. It was hoped that such a study 
would furnish additional data to substantiate 
the foregoing theory. 

The fact that a superimposed alternating 
field would produce, at high inductions, a 
suppression of the hysteresis loss is not new. 
The suppression caused by high-frequency 
alternating fields has been thoroughly investi- 
gated in connection with the magnetic 
detector for radio-telegraphy, and a summary 
of this literatiu-e has recently been made by 
Bown.^ Fleming and Coursey' working 
with soft iron wire have shown that in strong 
fields (// = S or more) the hysteresis loss is 



— ■ 














V Pcrc«ntcfe of Combinea Carbon 

Fig. 1. Curve showing the Constitution of Iron-Carbon 

diminished by the application of alternating 
fields, for high and low frequencies, and for 
either longitudinal or circular fields; also 
that, in general, the effect of either longi- 
tudinal or circular alternating magnetic 
force, damped or undamped, is to increase 

144 February 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 2 

the value of B^ax- N. H. Williams' using a 
Koepsel permeameter and working with cross- 
magnetic fields finds that for soft iron the 
hysteresis loss disappears entirely, and that 
for steel the loop is greatly reduced by the 
application of the cross-magnetic alternating 

Pttotoqrophic Paper 

Fig. 2. Diagram of the Apparatus used in Obtaining the 

Hysteresis Loops while the Test Sample is acted upon 

by a Longitudinal Alternating Magnetic Field 

fields. He also finds that, for soft iron, 
Bmax is reduced by the cross alternating 
field, while for hard steel it is increased 
beyond the normal value. 

The chemical analysis of the steels used is 
given in Table I. With the exception of the 
sample marked "ARCO" they are the same 
samples as were used in obtaining the hyste- 
resis loss at low temperatures. The heat 
treatment of these samples has been described 
in the results of a previous investigation.' 

The method of obtaining the hysteresis 
ctirves was a modification of a method used 































































by Fleming and Coursey ; the principal change 
being in the substitution of a Grassot flux- 
meter for the magnetometer in determining 
the flux. The apparatus is shown dia- 
grammatically in Fig. 2, in which P is a 
simple slide-wire potentiometer of nichrome 

ribbon having a rotating contact which fur- 
nishes the slowly varying magnetizing cur- 
rents. A cord, fastened to a pulley wheel 
on the potentiometer, is attached to a lever 
which serves to give the mirror M an angular 
displacement directly proportional to the mag- 
netizing current, and hence causes 
the spot of light from L to trace 
out on the photographic paper the 
U displacement of the B-H curve. 
The B displacement is produced 
by the light reflected from the 
mirror of the flux-meter which is 
»,.„,„r connected to the secondary of the 

magnetizing solenoid. The source 
of light L was a Mazda C automo- 
bile headlight lamp and, when 
brought to a sharp focus on the 
photographic paper by the flux- 
meter's concave mirror, gave a 
very satisfactory trace as is shown 
in Figs. 3, 4, and 5, which are re- 
produced from the actual photo- 
graphs obtained by this method. 
Insurance bromide. Grade B, pho- 
tographic paper was used, and it was found by 
trial to be the most satisfactory for this pur- 
pose. The solenoid is one meter long and is 
wound so that for a current of one ampere H is 
35 c.g.s. The wire for the alternating-cur- 

a — Jr-st — ?♦ 

Fig. 3. Photograph of the Normal Hysteresis Loop 
for Sample PI 

rent field was wound on a glass tube and was 
placed inside the direct-current winding. The 
samples of iron, 40 cm. long and approxi- 
mately 0.5 cm. diameter, were placed inside 
the glass tube and then carefully centered in 
the solenoid. 



With all the dimensions given for the 
solenoid, it is a very easy matter to calibrate 
the apparatus so that it will read B and H 
directly. The H displacements are functions 
of the direct current only. The B displace- 
ment was determined by keeping the oscil- 
lating mirror M quiet and passing a known 
current through the direct-current coil of the 
solenoid without iron. The magnetic flux 
causing the ballistic throw of the flux-meter 
can be readily calculated. 

In this preliminary study two hysteresis 
curves were taken for each sample; one the 
normal curve and one with the 60-cycle 
longitudinal alternating field. The areas of 
the hysteresis curves thus obtained were 
measured by a planimeter, and the sup- 
pression of the hysteresis loss was calculated 
from these areas. 

In order to insure all cycles being made in 
the same time, the movement of the contact 
armof the potentiometerwas timed by ametro- 
nome and the cycles were all taken in four sec- 
onds or as near this time as was possible. 

For purposes of strict comparison, the same 
Hmax direct current was used in each case 
as well as the same Hmax alternating current. 
These values were: Hmax direct current = 
42.3 c.g.s., and Hmax alternating current = 
5S.7 c.g.s., and were sufficient to produce a 
magnetization well over the "knee" of the 
magnetization curve. Figs. 3, 4, and 5 show 
the character of the curves taken by this 

Fig. 4. Photograph of the Normal Hysteresis Loop 
for Gray Cast Iron 

Fig. 5. Photograph of the Hysteresis Loop for Cast Iron 
with the Alternating Field Impressed upon the Loop 

method. Fig. 3 shows the normal curve of 
hysteresis with Sample PI. Figs. 4 and 5 
were taken on a sample of good gray cast iron 
and show the characteristic curves for cast 
iron as well as the dimunition in hysteresis 
caused by the superposition of the alternating- 

current field. Some curves were taken on a 
sample of Invar, also on a high-carbon magnet 
steel commonly used in telephone receivers 

The results are condensed and shown in 
Fig. 6. This curve shows that, in general, 
the effect of the impressed alternating-current 

— _j^ . — J 

Carbon Cont£/U '" ^fr cent 

Fig. 6. Change in Area of Hysteresis Loop with Variation of 

Carbon Content. Annealed Magnet Steel, 38.8 per cent: 

"Invar" 27.8 per cent; Cast Iron 44.5 per cent 

field is to produce a reduction in the hysteresis 
loss for all the alloys, the effect being greater 
in those of highest carbon content. The 
data in these preliminary tests do not warrant 
any conclusions other than that the effect of 
the impressed alternating-current field causes 
a suppression in the hysteresis which is a more 
or less direct function of the carbon content. 
Contrary to the assumptions at the be- 
ginning of this study, the results indicate 
that the suppression of hysteresis by lonvi- 
tudinal alternating magnetic fields cannot 
be likened to the suppression obtained by 
mechanical vibrations. According to Ewing' 
"In experiments of the same class with hard 
iron or with steel, vibrations (mechanical) 
produce effects of the same general kind : but 
its influence in destroying hysteresis is far 
less complete than in soft iron." It would 
appear from the results described in this 
article that the two effects are exactly 
opposite, so far as the composition of the 
material under test is concerned. It is, how- 
ever, possible that the explanation is to be 
found in the action of the eddy currents 
induced in the samples during the alternating- 
current magnetization and this point i.' being 
investigated at the present time. 

(') Waggoner. Phys. Rev., vol. xxvill. p. 303. 1909. 

Jones and Waggoner. Proc. Am. Soc. for Testing Mat., 
vol. YI, 1911. 

(>) Waggoner. Phys. Rev., vol. xxxv. p. 58. 1912. 

(») About 0.9 per cent carbon. 

(•) Honda and Murakami. Science Abstrmcts. vol. XX. No. 
1026. 1917. 

(') Bown. J. Franklin Inst., vol. CLXXXIII. p. 42. 1917. 

(•) Fleming and Coursey. Prt>c. Phys. Soc. Lon.. vol. xxvlll. 1915. 

C) Williams. N. H.. Phys. Rev., vol. ix. p. 339. 1917. 

(•1 Waggoner, loc. cit. 
if) Ewing. Magnetic Ind. in I. and Other MetaLi, 1900. p. 118. 

146 February 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 2 

*Electric Oven for Baking Cores 

The electrically heated drying oven possesses a decided advantage over steam-heated or gas-heated ovens 
in that the temperature may be regulated to a nicety, and when once the thermostats are adjusted for a given 
operation the equipment is automatic and requires very little attention. The electric oven has established itself 
in high favor with automobile manufacturers, and some of the principal installations have been with these con- 
cerns for drying enamels, cores, etc. The results that are being obtained by the use of an electric oven for bak- 
ing cores at the plant of the WyUis-Overland Company are outlined m this article.— Editor. 

Electricity for heating a core oven is being 
successfully used in the first oven of this type 
that was recently installed in the aluminum 
and brass foundry of the Willys-Overland Co., 
Toledo, Ohio. One electrically 
heated oven has been in use several 
months, and the erection of a 
second oven of a similar type, for 
larger cores, was started recently, 
but it is not completed at this 
writing. The two ovens are located 
side by side under the roof of one 
of the core rooms in which ovens 
of the standard type are used. One 
of the electric ovens is 20 ft. above 
this core-room floor and the other 
is 5 ft. higher. 

The ovens are of the continuous 
conveyor type, and each has a 
vertical leg of the same section, 20 
ft. long, at the front of the oven, 
extending to the floor, in which 
doors are provided for loading and 
unloading the cores. The oven in 
use is 45 ft. long, and the new one 
is 60 ft. long. They are 10 ft. 8 in. 
in height and 5 ft. 6 in. in width, 
being built in two sections, with a 
2-in. asbestos partition between the 
upper and lower sections. The 
framework is of steel, and the first 
oven has asbestos walls 2 in. in 
thickness on the four sides. The 
second oven is covered on the four 
sides with Nonpareil insulating 
brick. The ovens are supported 
by steel trusses on which is laid a 
a floor or platfonn of steel plates. 
Other steel trusses carry the con- 
veyor machinery in the ovens, so 
that the supports of the ovens and 
their conveyors are entirely inde- 

Cores baked in the continuous electric ovens 
are made on a second-floor core room, at one 
end of which, at a convenient height above the 
floor for loading, are the oven doors. Be- 

* Reprinted from Tin Iron Agf, 

neath the core room is a sand storage room, 
from which core sand is carried up in a bucket 
elevator. A roller chain conveyor, 100 ft. 
long and 24 in. wide, extends the length of 

Cores placed on cast-iron plates are carried into the oven on a roller platform 
and the plates are pushed upon a shelf in the conveyor carriage. After 
passing through the upper half of the oven and back through the lower, 
the cores are carried by the conveyor through a vertical section of the 
oven to the lower floor where they are removed. 

the second-story core room through the center, 
terminating near the entrance to the oven. 
This is shown in the illustration. The 
core-room makers' benches are located on 
both sides of the conveyor, and when they 



finish their cores they put them on plates or 
trays which are placed on the conveyor and 
thence are carried to the oven. The trays 
are flat sections of cast iron, 14 in. wide 
and 30 in. long, having numerous cir- 
cular perforations to allow the free circu- 
lation of the hot oven atmosphere. Usually, 
two or three cores are placed on one tray, 
the number depending on the size. The 
cores remain on the trays until removal 
from the oven. 

The movement of the core-room conveyor, 
which is not in continuous operation, is con- 
trolled by a push-button by an operator who 
stands at the end of the conveyor. This 
operator lifts the tray of cores from the con- 
veyor and places it on a short section of a 
roller platform built on a slight incline, over 
which he pushes it into the oven conveyor, the 
tray fitting into an angle-iron shelf in a car- 
riage or rack in this conveyor. The carriages, 
which are pivoted to the conveyor on o-ft. 
6-in. centers, have double rows of shelves, 
each carriage having eight shelves on each 
side. The conve^-or is 126 ft. 6 in. long, and 
has 23 carriages. The second conveyor, for 
large cores, has four carriages on 5-ft. centers, 
but only four shelves on each side. 

The travel of the cores, after being placed 
on the conveyor at the loading door, is upward 
to the top half of the oven, from the front to 
the back of the oven, back through the lower 
section, and down a vertical section of the 
conveyor to the lower floor, where the baked 
cores are taken out. Here a short section 
of roller platform is provided for handling 
the trays and cores, similar to that at the 
loading end. The conveyor carriages pass 
on and up to the loading end of the oven, 
again to be filled. After the cores are taken 
from the conveyor trays the latter are placed 
on a 12-in. belt conveyor with steps bolted to 
it for carrying the trays to the second-floor 
core room. 

The conveyor travels at a speed of ap- 
proximately 9 in. per minute, and is driven 
by a 5-h.p. motor. It takes 2 hr. 5 min. 
for the cores to pass from the loading end 
to the discharge end of the oven, the 
conveyor making the complete circuit in 
2 hr. 40 min. The time required in the 
new oven will be slightly longer, owing 
to its greater strength. Large cores have 
been baked in the first oven pending the 
completion of the larger oven, these being 
allowed to make two circuits through the 
o\on instead of one circuit. The capacity 
of the oven for small cores is approximately 

sixteen trays of cores every 7 min. It has 
proved of sufficient capacity to bake all the 
cores made by its sixteen core makers, 
although on the average it will handle the 
output of twelve men. With the com- 
pletion of the new oven all the cores made 
for the foundry will be baked in two electric 

The heating units are distributed all 
through the ovens, in both the lower and 
upper sections. The cores are dried off in the 
upper half of the oven, and are baked in the 
lower half, where the temperature is higher, 
and cooled off somewhat while passing 
through the vertical section on their way to 
the discharge door on the lower floor. A 30- 
in. stack, 20 ft. high, controlled by a damper, 
is located above the front of each oven to 
carry away the gases, which tra\'el in a direc- 
tion opposite to the movement of the con- 
veyor. The conveyors and steel frame 
supports for the o\'ens were supplied by the 
Link-Belt Co., and the ovens were built by 
the Young Brothers Co. 

There are about 21 heating units in 
the oven, of General Electric make, with 
a rating of about S.2 kw. each. Nine 
are controlled by a hand-operated switch, 
and the remaining twelve are on a circuit 
controlled automatically by a Brown py- 
rometer. The heat is thrown on the oven 
by the watchmen at 5:30 a.m., and this 
allows about two hours for the oven to get 
up temperature before the core makers start 
to work. 

In the table are given the results of a test of 
the oven, made recently by a representative 
of the power company supplying current for 
the plant. 

Supplementing the figures showing the 
results of the test, the following statement 
was made : 

"The results of this test are indicative of 
continous operation since the oven was up to 
operating temperature when the test was 

"The heat required for the operation is 
that to bring the cores up to temperature, to 
drive off the moisture, to bring the plates up 
to temperature, to heat the ventilating air, 
and to supply the losses through the walls 
and through metal. There is also a loss of 
heat by the larger cores while passing through 
the vertical leg of the oven, as they are return- 
ing to go through the horizontal leg the second 
time. Since the large cores have to be sent 
through the oven twice, the production is cut 

14S February 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 2 

Test of the Electrically Heated Core Oven 

Duration of test, min • 

Average temperature of operation, deg. 

Cores baked, lb 

Electric power, kw. hr 

Pounds of cores per kw. hr 

Kw-hr. per pound of core 

Moisture in the sand, 6 per cent as- 
sumed, lb ■ • 

Heating moisture, 415 X (326 4- 966), 

o * - J ooo.loU 

Heating sand,' (e.'g'oT -415)x'o.45 X 326, 

■r>*.„ 95^,0 / D 

Total heat to bake neglecting air, B.t.u. 1,488,556 

Heat input, 3,412 X 915, B.t.u •^•^^i-^!2 

Thermal Efficiency, per cent 4/. 68 

Radiation per hr., 1,009 X 0.25 X 326, 

B.t.u 82, ^o4 

Total radiation during test, B.t.u 438,304 







Heat absorbed by plates, B.t.u ??i'tnR 

Total heat accounted for, B.t.u. ....... Z,148,»U0 

Heat consumed bv air and through iron, 
the amounts of which it was not feasi- 
ble to ascertain, B.t.u 97oi,180 

"The heat required for absorption by the 
iron entails a loss of 24 kw. per hour 
with the present 2-in. insulation. With 4 
in. of insulation this loss would be only one- 
half as great. 

"The heat required for absorption by the 
iron plates is 41,640 B.t.u. per hour, or 12.2 
kw. hr. If these plates were made of alumi- 
num, of the same size, the heat required for 
absorption would be 26,500 B.t.u. per hour, 
or 7.77 kw. hr." 

Some Factors Affecting Determination of the 
Maximum Demand* 

By Chester I. Hall 

Fort Wayne Works, Gener.\l Electric Company 

A concise review of the development of maximum demand rate systems is given in the introduction of the 
article below This is followed by a discussion of the four general methods of measurmg the maxiinum 
demand made on central stations by consumers. Maximum demand meter requirements are segregated into 
two subdivided classifications and the corresponding types of meters are named. What constitutes an equi- 
table time interval over which to integrate demand values is given consideration m the conclusion ot tlie arti- 
cle. A companion article on maximum demand meters wUl appear in an early issue. — Editor. 

known as the maximum demand system, 

In 1S92, Doctor John Hopkinson, of Man- 
chester, England, propounded what was at 
that time a startling theory, viz., that the 
charge for the electrical service rendered 
should bear some relation to the cost of ren- 
dering it. This general thought led to the 
analysis of central station costs, and to the 
develo])ment of a great number of different 
kinds of rate systems. Dr. Hopkinson im- 
mediately applied his theory in a rate system, 
having as its primary object a uniform use of 
current for as many hours per day as possible, 
on account of the obviously profitable nature 
of this class of business. 

The application of this system called for 
an initial payment by the customer of an 
amount dependent upon the maximum con- 
sumption which the customer would guaran- 
tee, and an additional charge dependent upon 
the number of kilowatt-hours used during the 
period. This system was found to have marked 
limitations, and in 1002 Arthur Wright, of 
Brighton, England, amplified and refined Dr. 
Hopkinson's ideas and developed what is 

• Presented at the General Meter Conference of the Ohio 
Electric Light Association, Dayton. Ohio. November 2.3, 1917. 

having a primary and secondary charge. The 
primary charge, which is generally larger, is 
based upon the maximum demand which the 
customer draws from the central station, and 
the secondary charge upon the kilowatt -hour 
consumption. Wright went further and 
developed instruments for measuring the 
charge, resulting in what we have been using 
in America as the Wright Demand. Meter. 

At about this time many of the disciples of 
Dr. Hopkinson were giving very intensive 
thought to the application of such tariff sys- 
tems, prominent among whom was Charles 
H. Merz, who believed thoroughly in the 
primary and secondary charge, but disagreed 
with Wright in the method of measuring the 
maximum demand for obtaining the primary 
charge. Merz contended that the measure- 
ment of maximum demand by instrument 
operating upon the logarithmic law was mark- 
edly unfair in certain instances, but that a 
definite mathematical average of the load 
conditions v/ould be equitable to all classes of 
customers. This conception led to the devel- 
opment of demand meters operating upon 


the principle of the integration of energy con- 
sumption over a definite time interval. 

Since that time most of the developmenu 
has been concerned with the application to 
existing conditions of the Hopkinson and 
Wright ideas, and to the development of 
accurate and reliable demand meters which 
will make such systems practicable. At the 
present time there are four general methods 
of obtaining a measure of the pri- 
mary charges which are in more 
or less active use ; 

1. The observation of instantane- 

ous indicating instruments. 

2. Observational averages ob- 

tained by stop-watch read- 
ings of watthour meters, or 
the integration of charts 
of instantaneous graphic 
recording instruments. 

3. Demand meters operating 

upon the lagged or loga- 
rithmic principle. 

4. Demand meters giving the 

result of integration over a 
definite time interval. 

It is quite obvious that some of 
these systems give erroneous read- 
ings under many normal operating 
conditions, and upon loads other 
than those of constant value. 

In order to standardize and give a reference 
point from which measurements of maximum 
demand may be compared, the central station 
organizations of this country have settled 
upon the following definitions for demand, 
load factor, and diversity factor: 

The demand of an installation or system 
is the load which is drawn from the source of 
supply at the receiving terminals, averaged 
over a suitable and specified interval of time. 
Demand is expressed in kilowatts, kilovolt- 
amperes, amperes, or other suitable units. 

The load factor of a machine, plant, or sys- 
tem is the ratio of the average power to the 
maximum power during a certain period of 

The diversity factor is the ratio of the sum 
of the maximum power demands of the sub- 
divisions of any system, or parts of a system, 
to the maximum demand of the whole system, 
or of the part of the system under considera- 
tion, measured at the point of supply. 

In order to clear up many misconceptions 
relative to the various methods of measuring 
demand, the curves of Fig. 1 will be of value. 

1. Instantaneous demand. 

2. Lagged or logarithmic demand. 

3. Integration over a definite clock time 


4. Integration over an elapsed time inter- 

There are two methods by which the classi- 
fication of demand meters can be made: first, 
with respect to the kind of customer or size 
of installation; second, with respect to the 

30 Minute Intervals 
1. Different Bases for Measuring Maximum Demand 

amount or variety of information desired. 
It is, of course, impossible to make hard and 
fast rules which will apply in e\-ery case, as 
the installation of dcN-ices of this nature is 
regulated very largely by local conditions, 
both operating condition and those imposed 
by contracts. It is, however, ]iossible to make 
more or less accurate subdivisions under a 
classification, and the tabulation below will 
serve to indicate a generally accepted basis 
in use at the present time: 

(a) Loads up to 1 10 kilowatt. 

(b) 1 10 kilowatt to 2.5 kilowatts. 

(c) 2.5 kilowatts to 50 kilowatts. 

(d) 50 kilowatts to 100 kilowatts 

(e) From 100 kilowatts up. 


(a) Applications requiring accurate limita- 

tions of demand. 

(b) Applications which require indication 

of watt or kilowatt demand, without 
indicating time of day at which 
demand occurs. 

150 February 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 2 

(c) Applications requiring a permanent 

record of all of the demands of the 
month, together with the time of 
day at which each demand occurs. 

(d) Applications which require the infonna- 

tion as Hsted in class (c), but which 
require, on account of the large size 
of the installation, great accuracy of 
reading and permanency of record. 

Note. — The two subdivisions (c) and (d) 
cover the problems connected with off-peak 
rate systems : contracts calling for the average 
of the three highest demands of the month, 
and similar special conditions. 

There are available at the present time 
demand meters which fulfill the conditions 
set out in the previous tabulation. They may 
be roughly classified as follows : 

1. Demand limiters. 

2. Indicating demand meters giving inte- 

gration over definite time interval. 
Lagged and logarithmic values of 

3. Curve drawing demand meters, includ- 

ing those giving instantaneous values 
and values integrated over definite 
time interval. 

4. Printing demand meters. 

In the application of demand meters one 
of the most troublesome and much discussed 
points has been the time interval over which 
the integrations are to be made. It would be 
obviously unfair to penaHze a customer for 
an instantaneous overload, such as is caused 
by short-circuited conditions or other acci- 
dental reasons. If the time interval is made 
excessive, then during the interval large 
demands may be made upon the central sta- 
tion equipment, which would influence either 
the regulation of the line, or the capacity of 
the equipment necessary to serve such de- 
mands. The problem, has Ijeen to arrive at some 
happy medium which would Ije equitable to 
both the central station and the customer. 
A general statement of the ideal condition is: 
The time interval should be so proportioned 
that only those demands which have an effect 
upon the central .station operation or equip- 
ment are recognized and should be measured 
in pro])ortion to their effect upon such opera- 
tion or cqui])ment. 

This jjroblem was first fully discussed by 
Mr. Louis A. Ferguson, of the Common- 
wealth Edison Comjjanv, of Chicago, in a 
paper entitled, " l':ffect of Width of Maximum 

Demand on Rate Making." Since that time 
many very careful investigations have been 
made upon actual service installations of 
many kinds, in order to determine the effect 
of various time inter\'als upon the value of 
demand obtained. 

A compilation and analysis of the results 
of tests made by different central station com- 
panies under varying conditions will be illumi- 
nating in connection with the application of 
demand meters. While average variations 
will not necessarily indicate the actual differ- 
ences to be found upon any specific customer 
by variations of the time interval, yet it is 
probable that tlie values given will roughly 
indicate the effect of such variations upon the 
revenue of the central station, which will be 
affected by aU classes of customers. 

Kilowatt Demand in Percentage 
of Thirty Minute Demand 


Demand Interval 

centage of 
Thirty Min- 
ute Demand 










It is of interest to analyze the data further 
with relation to the general classification of 
customers, in order to determine roughly 
those classes for which the variation is greater 
than the average, and those for which the 
variation is less than the average. 

Class of Customer 

Kilowatt Demand in 

Percentage of Thirty Minute 


Load ih 

Demand Interval 

of Thirty 



































107 102.3 






110.5 105.5 





Electricity in Logging and Saw Mills 


Power and Mining Engineering Department, General Electric Company 

Lumber mill machinery covers a relatively extensive floor area, owing to the necessity in some operations 
of passing back and forth long strips of lumber. Where steam power is employed this condition necessitates 
long lines of shafting, with its high factor of friction and consequent low efficiency. With individual drive of 
wood-working machinery by electric motors operated by central station service, the heavy loads that are con- 
stantly demanded by band saws, edges, etc., do not produce a serious drop in the speed of the entire equip- 
ment as is the case where power is supplied by an isolated power house of limited capacity. A particularly 
satisfactory arrangement is illustrated by the power equipment of a large lumber mill in the West which 
burns sawdust under boilers to operate electric generators that are tied-in with the power system of the 
local public utility for mutual exchange of power when conditions require. — Editor. 


With an ever increasing demand for 
liunber and the necessit}^ of logging in the 
more inaccessible places in our forests, there 
has been a continually increasing cost in 
bringing the logs to the mills. A large portion 
of this cost consists in gathering or yarding 
the logs along some railroad or river bank 
in the woods. Formerly this was done by 
the slow moving ox team. Increased demand 
for lumber, howe^'cr, called for a more rapid 
and cheaper method, and as a result the 
powerful steam donkey was developed. Super- 
seding this there came the electrical logging 
engine which, after five years of the most con- 
clusive tests, has proven that where electrical 
energy can be transmitted at a reasonable 
cost, it is as superior to the steam donkey as 
the steam donkey is to animal power. 

Performances of the electric donkey taken 
during the past few years have shown that 
when compared with other methods of 
logging, the electrically driven outfit will 
handle logs at a decreased cost per thousand 
feet and at an increased rate per day. It also 
has the following distinctive features: 

Will safely withstand the severe serv-ice to 
which it is subjected. 

Can transport itself through the woods. 

No fires to build or water to haul. 

No wood to cut and consume, using timber 
which cotild otherwise be converted into a 
commercial product. 

No boilers to freeze or explode. 

Eliminates sparks which are the source of 
many forest fires. 

The power is usually transmitted at 11,000 
or 22,000 volts from the generators located 

Log Pond and Mill. St.. 

152 February 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 2 

at the mills, where there is always an abun- 
dance of cheap fuel, to a portable substation 
located in the area which is to be logged. At 
the substation the voltage is stepped down, 
and is transmitted to the driving motor on 
the donkey through a flexible, three conductor 
armored cable. This cable is made up of 
sections 250 to 500 feet in length. The ends 
of the cable are provided with couplings by 
means of which extra lengths of cable may be 
readily inserted when it is desired to move 
the donkey. 


After a decade of operation, often under 
most severe service conditions, the electric 
drive in saw mills has proven its value whether 
in the cutting of the giant firs of the Pacific 
Coast, the pines of Minnesota and the 
Rocky Mountain states, or the hard woods 
of the South. Mill owners and designers, who 
in the early days took the risk of installing 
motors, are now firmly convinced that the 
induction motor, when properly designed and 
applied, is fullv able to meet every demand 

Logging Engine, showing Main Supporting Tower for Sky Line and Loading Boom, operated by 150-h.p., 
550-VQlt Slip-ring Induction Motor. Potlatch Lumber Company, Elk River. Idaho 
(A Sky Line is an overhead tramway for getting logs across a canyon) 

The motor equipment consists of a wound 
rotor, GO cycle, 3-phase motor of standard 
voltage direct connected to the dnmis 
through gearing. The motor is equipped with 
a solenoid operated brake for quick stopping 
and to prevent any over-winding of the cable. 
In order to prevent the possibility of mechan- 
ically overtaxing the cable, each equipment 
is provided with an oil switch having an 
inverse time limit overload relay, set to give 
a practically instantaneous trip when the 
jjull in the cable reaches some predetennincd 
value. By this arrangement there has been a 
decided decrease in shutdowns due to the 
breakage of the cable ; also the life of the cable 
has been greatly increased. 

imposed by this class of work. Its advantages 
over the slow speed steam engine with its 
accompanying line shafts, belts, and bearings 
are many. 

In a modern electrically driven sawmill, the 
non-condensing engine has been supplanted 
by a high speed, highly efficient condensing 
steam turbine, this change resulting in a great 
saving in boiler capacity, steam consumption, 
and floor space. All line shafting and large 
belts are practically eliminated, thus removing 
many obstructions to the lighting, and allow- 
ing a better distribution of machinery, with a 
marked reduction in the construction cost. 
The elimination of a large number of bearings 
reduces the fire hazard from hot boxes. 



42.ft. 10-Saw Wood Slasher for Cuttmg Slabs ,nto 4-foot Lengths for Fuel. It is Un..:. u, „ , . :,.p.. SSO-voIt 
Direct-connected Motor. Weyerhaeuser Timber Company, Everett, Wash. 

■which has a very noticeable effect upon the there is a large saving in this item. This 

insurance rates. A comparison of the quantity is evident when it is considered that oil used 

of oil required by steam and electrically in induction motor bearings is used over and 

driven mills of the same capacity shows that over again, whereas that used on line shaft 

12-in. by 72-in. Edgcr, showing Feed Koii v^ontroi and Starting Compensator Moimte.l .mi K>l,;er Kr 
Weyerhaeuser Timber Company 

154 February 19 IS 


Vol. XXI, No. 2 

bearings is used once and they require oiling 
every day. 

When " sudden peaks, such as are con- 
tinually demanded by band mills -and edgers, 
are thrown on an engine there is a slowing 
down in the entire mill amotmting to as much 

7-ft. Vertical Re 

■ Driven by a 75-h.p., 550-volt Slip-ring 1 
Weyerhaeuser Timber Company 

as 5 per cent or 7 per cent and sometimes up 
to 10 per cent on a poorly regulated engine. 
When electrical drive is substituted this 
cannot occur, as each machine has its indi- 
vidual drive, and when these heavy peaks 
are demanded the only slowing down will 
be in the individual machine itself, and will 
amount to the slip of the motor, or not more 
than 2 per cent to 5 per cent. 

A comparison of the operating costs of a 
large number of steam and electrically driven 
mills shows that there is a decided reduction 
in the cost of operation of the latter. This 
can be accounted for by a reduction in the 
number of millwrights, oilers, and helpers 
about the mill; saving in renewals of worn-out 
bearings, belts, etc.; oil, minimum number of 
shut-downs due to breakdowns, a constant 
rate of production throughout the entire mill, 
and lower insurance rates. 

If it is desired to build an addition to the 
mill, adding new machinery, no long lengths 
of line shafts, belts, or steam jjipes will be 
required. The change can be made without 
interfering with the operation of the rest of 
the mill, and the machinery can be installed 

just as efficiently and advantageously as that 
in the original construction. 

The induction motor is peculiarly adapted 
for electric drive in saw mills, as practically 
all of the different machines run at a constant 
speed and demand sudden and heavy over- 
loads. For such service 
_ there is no electrical ma- 

chine that will withstand 
more hard usage than the 
squirrel cage or wound rotor 
induction motors. 

When properly installed 
with conduit wiring and 
protective switching appa- 
ratus, the danger of coming 
into contact with live cir- 
cuits is eliminated. There 
is no complicated control 
equi]Dment to contend with, 
and an}- motor in the mill 
can be operated by un- 
skilled labor. The control 
equipment can be located 
where it is most accessible 
for the operator. 

Practically the only con- 
trol apparatus required is 
the standard compensator 
iuction Motor. for squirrcl cage, and oil 

switches and drum con- 
trollers for wound rotor 
induction motors. Both are equipped with 
overload and low-voltage protective devices, 
and have the following additional features : . 
Safety; All live parts are entirely en- 

Circular Saw Automatic Grinder Dri 
550-volt Motor. Weyerhaeu 

L by a 3-h.p., 1200-r.p.m., 

Timber Company 



Band Saw, D) 

Automatic Grinder, 

Reliability: Excellent electrical and 
mechanical design not requiring opera- 
tion by skilled labor. 

Durability : Strong construction, insuring 
long life of all parts. 

by a 5-h.p., UOO-i 
rimber Company 

550-volt Induction Moto 

Simplicity : All parts supported by frame, 
making installation easy. 

Induction motors constructed with moisttire- 
resisting insulation insure no danger of insu- 
lation hreakd(:)\\'n:^ when oximseil to moist 

Wood Slasher, for Cutting Slabs 

ilo IS in. Lengths. Driven by a 35-h.p , I200-r.p.m., 550 volt Direct 
Motor. Wcycihaeuscr Timber Company. 

156 February 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 2 

salt air or are installed in damp places, as 
under log decks, timber docks, or other 
poorlv ventilated places. 

Owang to the large amount of refuse and 
waste available, sawmills generally produce 
their own power, at whatever voltage and 



_ ? 





Sawdust Conveyor'Under lift. Band Saw. Driven by 10-h.p., 

1200-r.p.m., 550-volt'.Motor. Connected through Reduction 

Gear. Weyerhaeuser Timber Company. 

frequency give the best results, although 
three-phase, BO-cycle, 440 or 550 volts is 
generally used. These voltages have been 
adopted because the distance of transmission 
is short and they can be easily insulated. 
Sixty-cycle frequency allows the |use of 
motors with speeds best adapted for sawmill 

The power requirements of the different 
machines vary with each individual instal- 
lation, as this factor depends upon the size, 
length, and kind of logs, rate'of cutting, and 
the condition of the timber. 

Log Hoists 

There arc two general methods of transport- 
ing logs into a mill. In the more common wav 
the logs are floated on an endless chain. This 
chain is driven at a speed of 50 to SO feet 
per minute Vjy a 35-75 h.p. motor, either 
belted or direct-connected to the log jack. 
The motor is of cither the squirrel cage type, 
run continuously, the load being tlirown off 

and on bv a friction device, or of the wound 
rotor tvpe, with resistance to give a high 
starting' torque and control equipment for 
starting and stopping. 

In a number of mills built dunng the past 
few years on the Pacific Coast for cutting the 
large fir and spruce timber, the logs are 
floated into a pocket built into the mill over 
cables. One end of the cable is fastened to 
the edge of the log deck, and the other is 
wound over a drum which is driven through 
gear reduction by a belted or geared motor. 
This motor, with a wound rotor, is rated for 
intermittent ser\dce at from 37 to 52 h.p. 
capacity, and is provided with a controller 
for reversing duty and speed control. It is 
also equipped with a solenoid brake so that 
the load can be held suspended in case there 
is not sufficient room on the deck for all of 
the logs. 

Head Saws 

One of the largest users of power in a mill 
is the head saw, whether it is of the circular or 

12-in. by 42-in. Gang Saw Driven by a 10-h.p., 550-volt, 

Slip-ring Induction Motor. Weyerhaeuser 

Timber Company 

band mill type. Although rapidly going out 
of use, the circular saw is found in many of 
the older mills and in those in which electric 
drive has not been installed. The starting 



requirements of circular saws are light, and 
squirrel cage motors are always recom- 
mended. The motors are subject to wide 
variations in load, the peaks often reaching 
two or three times the normal demand during 
a day's ciit. 

Because the band saw is a 
much more economical cutter 
of timber, it is the more de- 
sirable type of head saw. The 
power requirements during 
the cutting period are not as 
high as with circular saws 
under similar conditions, for 
the reason that the band saw 
has a heavy flywheel effect 
which smoothes out the load 
peaks. The demands at start- 
ing, however, are much se- 
verer, and wound rotor mo- 
tors are consequently recom- 
mended. Tests on a typical 
band mill drive indicated 
a running demand of 300 
to 600 h.p. input to the 
motor. Belted motors are 
recommended, as this drive 
permits the use of compara- 
tively high-speed motors. 

ojjcration of an entire sawing equipment. 
In some mills several sections of live rolls 
and other transfers are driven from a common 
motor, and each section is provided with its 
individual friction clutch for starting, stop- 
ping, and reversing 

en by a JS-h.p.. 
»Iotor. Weyerh 

i'U Direct-connected 

Carriage Set Works 

Motor - driven set works 
have been successfully in- 
stalled in several mills built 
during the past few years. 
The set works mechanism is 
driven through a friction disk 
which is belted to a standard 
5-h.p. squirrel cage motor. 
Power is supplied to the 
induction motor through a 
flexible three-conductor cable. 
As the motor runs contin- 
uously no special electrical 
control is required. The set 
work control is similar to that 
used with the steam-dri\-en 
type, and setters trained to 
the operation of one can 
handle the other equallv as 

Live Roll and Chain Transfers 

Although only small users of power, the 
necessity for the continuous running of live 
rolls and chain transfers is an important 
factor in production, in that the shut-down 
of even a single section will pre\-ent the 

1 by a 50-h.p.,\. 500-volt Direct c 
Weyerhaeuser Timber Company 

nnccted Motor 

In Other mills each section of rolls or 
chain transfers is driven by indi\ndual 
motors cqui]iped with the necessary con- 
trol for whatever serxnce is required. Live 
rolls, which must frequently be reversed. 

15S February 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 2 

are eouipped with high resistance rotor motors 
which are thrown directly on the bne by means 
of contactors. Push button stations are pro- 
vided which can be installed in those places 
that wiU give the greatest accessibility to the 
operator. Where ^frequent reversals are not 

Overhead C 

■head Crane used In Conveying Lumber from Transfer Cars to Tabl 
Front of the Planing Machines. Weyerhaeuser Timber Company. 

Electrically Driven Transfer Car with Load of Lumber for Dry Kilns. 

required and the starting requirements arc 
not particularly severe, standard squirrel 
cage motors are recommended. In order to 
secure the low speeds required for this class 

of service, these motors are back-geared or 
provided with special gear reductions. 


The power requirements for conveyors are 

quite similar to those of live rolls, expect that 
reversing duty of the motor 
is not required. Where 
heavy starting duty is 
imposed, as in burner and 
long slasher conveyors, 
motors with wound rotors 
are generally applied. 


Edgers, although large 
users of power, are readily 
adapted to electric driver 
as they require a constant 
speed with large overload 
capacity and moderate 
starting torque, and are 
arranged for direct connec- 
tion to the saw arbor. For 
this service the squirrel 
cage induction motor is 
specially suited. The power 
required by edgers covers 
a very wide range in the 
].)ine mills; motors of 75 to 
150 h.p. are usually ample, 
while those used on the 
heavy Pacific Coast edgers 
run up to 300 h.p. 

To obtain the speed 
changes the edger rolls are 
driven by a 7}^- or 10-h.p. 
squirrel cage motor de- 
.signed so as to give speedsof 
IcSOO/ 1200/900/600 r.p.m. 
l:>y changing the number of 
poles. The control of this 
motor, consisting of an oil 
switch and pole changing 
switch, is mounted where 
it is readily accessible to 
the edgerman. 

Slashers and Trimmers 

Slashers and trimmers, 
which require a motor of 
large overload capacity, 
moderate starting torque, 
and high speed (for which 
squirrel cage motors are recommended) are 
most desirable applications for electric drive. 
Direct-connected motors are almost uni- 
versally used, the correct saw speed being 



Motor Operating Log Hoist. Booth-Kelly Lumber Company 

obtained by selecting the proper diameter of 


In many mills resaws are added either to 
increase the capacity of the mill or to save 
Itunber by taking another cut from the slabs. 

The service of the motors driving resaws is 
identical with that of band mills but on a 
smaller scale. A seven-foot vertical resaw 
driven by a 75-h.p. motor mounted on the 
machinery floor and belted to the band saw 
pulley is shown on page 154. Close at hand to 
the operator is located an oil s^vitch and dnun 

6-in. by 30-in. Double Si 

nfao.M Dr.ven by a 75-h.p., 1200-1 
Booth-Kclly Lumber Company 

. Induction Motor 



Vol. XXI, No. 2 

44-ft Automatic Tr 

ler and Transmission Machinery for Trimmer, driven by a 50-h.p., 720-r p.r 
Induction Motor. Booth- Kelly Lumber Company 

lO-h.p., UOOr.p.m.. 440-volt Motor Driving the Set Works on the Log Carriage. The Sliding Cable to the 
Motor is shown along the Right Wall. Booth-Kelly Lumber Company 



controller for changing the speed of a o-h.p. 
wound rotor motor which drives the feed rolls 
through a friction disk. 


Gangs are installed in many mills to in- 
crease production and also to obtain an edge 

they all reciuire high-speed direct-connected 
motors with moderate starting torque, and 
comparatively large overload capacities. 


One of the greatest j^roVjlems in a mill is 
to have the various ojierations so arranged 

Log Hoist Driven by a 52-h.p., 600-r.p.m., 440 volt Varying 
Speed Motor. Booth-Kelly Lumber Company. 

grained product suitable for making flooring. 
They require from 100- to 3()0-h,p. motors, 
depending upon the rate of feed, kind of lum- 
ber, etc. The load is more uniform on these 
than on other types of machines using motors 
of large capacities. To accelerate the heavy 
flywheel and saw frame the starting torque of 
the motor must be large, for which puqjose 
motors with wound rotors are recommended. 

Lath Mill 

Motor a])plications to the machines in the 
lath mill offer no special obstacles in that 

Monorail Car Carrying a Package of Lumber to the Dry Kiln 
Stacker. Booth-Kelly Lumber Company. 

that the lumber can be trans])orted from 
one to the other with maximum speed, 
minimum loss of time, handling, and distance 
traveled. Inside the mill this is accomplished 
by live roUs and chain transfers. Cants to 
the gang are handled by an electrically 
operated crane. For service outside the mill 
storage battery locomotives, motor-driven 
transfer cars, mono-rail cars, and traveling 
cranes have been developed, each ha\nng its 
particular advantages for different installa- 
tions. All of them are successfully driven by 
electric motors. 

162 February 191S GENERAL ELECTRIC REVIEW Vol. XXI, No. 2 


In Memoriam 


John Riddell, mechanical superinten- 
dent of the Schenectady Works of the 
General Electric Company, died in Sche- 
nectady, December 31, 1917, leaving behind 
him a host of personal friends and intimate 
associates in the business world. 

Mr. Riddell, born in Ireland in 1852, was 
conspicuously a self-made man. At the age 
of 12 or 13 years he started as an apprentice 
in a jobbing machine shop owned by 
Nicholas B. Gushing, Jersey City, who 
made elevators and repaired machinery, 
especially marine engines. Even as an 
apprentice his employers selected him to 
handle some special marine engine repairs 
because of his remarkable aptitude for work 
other than routine. The work brought 
him in contact with marine circles, and he 
spent the next two years as second engineer 
on trading steamers plying between the 
West Indies and Central America and New 

His first association with the electrical 
business was with the Daft Electrical Co., 
where he was rated as a machinist, but was 
really doing experimental mechanical work, 
especially in the railway field. 

In 1887 he entered the employ of the 
Thomson-Houston Electric Co., at Lynn, 
Mass. In 1888 he became foreman of the 
railway motor shop and was recognized as 
one of the leading mechanical experts at 
the time the General Electric Company 
was formed in 1892. 

Mr. Ridde'l moved to Schenectady in 
1895, and shortly after his arrival was 
appointed Mechanical Superintendent. In 
this important position he designed special 
machine tools for increasing the production 
of the machine shops and also for carrying 
on the many special processes involved 
in the manufacture of mechanical tools. 
Many of these machines were built by the 
General Electric Company under his direc- 
tion, and for such tools as were purchased 
outside, Mr. Riddell not only prepared the 
specifications, but actually purchased them 
himself as the Company's trusted repre- 
sentative. He was consulted in regard to 
all automatic machinery, and his resource- 
ful genius was called in when a solution was 
sought for difficult mechanical problems 
that baffled the_average expert. 

In the sense that Mr. Riddell could ob- 
tain large output from machine shops with 
a minimum cost, he might well be termed a 
manufacturing economist. He was respon- 
sible for the location of machines and ma- 
chine tools, and his advice and opinion were 
sought in regard to such manufacturing 
problems as the routing of the materials from 
the time the raw product was received until 
the finished product was ready for shipment. 

All the millwrights were under Mr. Rid- 
dell's direction, regardless of the fact that 
he learned his trade in the old school when 
steam engine and belt drive were supreme. 
Mr. Riddell was quick to grasp the advan- 
tage of individual motor drive for all factory 
machinery. Having carried on this im- 
portant work in the General Electric Com- 
pany's largest factory during the whole 
period of its development, his knowledge 
and experience are as great a loss to the 
General Electric Company as his com- 
panionship is personally to those with 
whom he was associated. 

Mr. Riddell had a forceful personality, 
and in his travels built up a wider acquain- 
tanceship among machine tool manufac- 
turers than anyone else in the Company. 

The records of the United States Patent 
Office show that 37 patents were taken out 
in the name of John Riddell. There were 
hundreds of improvements to machine 
tools which he either invented or regarding 
which his opinion was sought by manu- 
facturers in various lines. Frequently, 
designing engineers of machine tool manu- 
facturers have made journeys to Sche- 
nectady to show Mr. Riddell a proposed 
machine tool improvement and obtain his 
opinion, criticisms, and suggestions. 

Among Mr. Riddell's notable achieve- 
ments in the various works of the General 
Electric Company is a boring mill — the 
largest in the world at the time — which was 
built from his design and which has a sixty- 
foot swing. This proved so successful for 
machining large rotors and stators of water- 
wheel-driven generators that he designed 
a forty-foot boring mill embodying the 
same principles for turbine work. 

Another of his wonderful machines is the 
bucket cutter for large steam turbines, 
which was developed in 1902. It was at 

164 February 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 2 

this time that the General Electric Com- 
pany was building the first 5000-kilowatt 
steam turbine, and this labor- and time- 
saving device became an important factor 
in the development of the steam turbine 
industry at a time when the steam engine 
was pre-eminent in the largest power plants 
in the world. 

A semi-automatic field coil winding ma- 
chine was built by Mr. Riddell, and was 
adopted both in Lynn and Schenectady. 
It was a labor- and time-saver, and as a 
single achievement did much to advance the 
the electrical industry. 

Mr. Riddell was awarded a gold medal at 
the Panama-Pacific International Exposi- 
tion at San Francisco in 1915, as collaborator 
in the exhibit of the General Electric Com- 
pany at the Exposition. 

Mr. Riddell was a member of the 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 
the Engineers' Club of New York, the 
Society of Engineers of Eastern New York, 
the Mohawk Club, and the General Electric 
Quarter Century Club. He belonged to all 
Masonic bodies in Schenectady, the Ori- 
ental Shrine and the Albany Consistory, 
and was also a member of the Elks. 

Those who knew him loved him be- 
cause of his generous, whole-hearted nature. 
There were none of those small jealousies 
in his makeup that are so common to ambi- 
tious natures— he was not only willing but 
anxious to give credit to those who assisted 
him, and afforded encouragement to those 
who were striving to improve thernselves. 

Mr. Riddell is survived by his wife, one 
daughter, and two sisters. 

Temperature Sensitive Paints 

By W. S. Andrews 
Consulting Engineering Department, General Electric Company 

The above term has been applied to chemical 
compounds that are subject to color changes 
at a comparatively small rise in temperature. 
These paints are occasionally used for indi- 
cating a dangerous rise in the temperature of 
machine bearings, electric generators and 
other apparatus where excessive heating has 
to be avoided. 

The two compounds described below are 
easy to make and reliable in operation. 

The Double Iodide of Mercury and Copper 

This compound is normally red but turns 
black at about 87 deg. C, becoming red again 
when the temperature falls. 


Make separate solutions of copper sulphate 
and potassium iodide in distilled water. Add 
the latter to the former with constant stirring 
until the precipitate which is first formed is 
re-dissolved. Then add a strong solution of 
mercuric chloride (corrosive sublimate) and 
the red double iodide of mercury and copper 
will be precipitated. Wash and dry this 

precipitate on filter paper. The red powder 
may be mixed with a weak solution of gum 
arable in water and used as a paint. 

The Double Iodide of Mercury and Silver 

This compound is normally of a light 
primrose yellow, but turns to a dark orange 
or brick red at about 45 deg. C. Ic becomes 
yellow again on cooling — and it may be 
heated and cooled an unlimited number of 
times without losing its curious property, 
providing it is not overheated. 


Make separate solutions of silver nitrate 
and potassium iodide in distilled water. Add 
the latter to the former with constant stirring 
until the original precipitate is dissolved. 
Then add a strong solution of mercuric 
chloride (corrosive sublimate) which will 
pioduce a precipitate of the double iodide 
of mercury and silver of a bright yellow color. 
Wash and dry the precipitate on filter paper. 
It can be used as a paint by mixing with a 
weak solution of gum arabic in water. 




VOL. XXL No. 3 

Published bu 

General Electric Company's Publication Bureau 

Schenectad'j. New York 

MARCH 1918 




1' '^^->\ 

" NORfflfl " 



For Fractional Horse-Power Motors 

Friction : Friction and wear are inseparable. Both increase with increasing speeds 
in a bearing. Both impair, may ultimately destroy, efficiency. To expect high 
motor efficiency where plain bearings are used is like expecting to haul loads economi- 
cally on a sledge over a cobble-stone pavement. Anti-friction bearings, themselves 
varying among themselves in anti-friction qualities, are essential to economy and 
serviceability in fractional h.p. motors. The question is not, "Should we use ball 
bearings?" but "What ball bearings shall we use?" 

" NORfflfl " Precision Ball Bearings are the logical answer. 
Not because the Norma Company says so, but because 
" NORfflfl " speed pre-eminence has been proved — is being 
proved daily — in hundreds and hundreds of thousands of 
small high-speed electrical devices where safety and economy 
depend upon " NORffW speedability. Records of perform- 
ance, not promises of performance, are offered you. 

See that your Motors are 
" NORfflfl " Equipped 


\7 9o BR^/qDW/qy new vork. 

Ball, Roller, Thrust, Combination Bearings 

"NORfflfl" Engineers speed bearing specialists offer 
you their services without obligation. 

General Electric Review 


Manager, M. P. RICE Editor. JOHN R. HEWETT 

Associate liditor. B. M. EOPP 
Assistant Editor. E. C. SANDERS 

Subscription Rates: United States and Mexico, $2.00 per year; Canada, $2.25 per year: Foreign. $2.50 per year; payable in 
advance. Remit by post-office or express money orders, bank checks, or drafts, made payable to the General Electric Review 
Schenectady. N. Y. 

Entered as second-class matter, March 26, 1912, at the post office at Schenectady, N. Y., under the Act of March. 1879. 

Vol. XXI, No. ;; i.. Ge,5rJl'Eiilrf'cL,.„. M.ARni 1!»1,S 


Frontispiece KWi 

Our War Program and the Value of Co-operation Ui7 

By E. W. Rick, Jr. 

Railway Electrification as a Means of vSaving Fuel and Relieving Freight Congestion . 171 

By E. W. Rice, Jr. 

Standardized Flexible Distributing Systems in Industrial Plants, Part I . . . .176 

By Bassett Jones 

Electricity in Beet-sugar Factories .... . . 188 

By E. iM. Ellis 

The Voltage Regulator and Phase-balancer Regulator Equipment of the Philadelphia 

Electric Company 196 

B\- R. M. Carothers 

Life in a Large Manufacturing Plant 

Part VII: Departmental Schools and General Educational Facilities .... 2tl2 

By C. M. Ripley 

Methods for More Efficiently Utilizing our Fuel Resources 

Part XIV; Advantages of High Pressure and Superheat as Affecting Steam Plant. 

Efficiency 216 

By EsKiL Berc. 

Voltage Regulation of Thrce-Phase Feeders by Automatically Controlled Induction 

Regulators 222 

By M. Unger 

Effect of Artificial Light on the Growth and Ripening of Plants 232 

Bv J. L. R. HAvnicN and C. P. Steinmetz 


By E. W. Rice, Jr. 
President American Institute Electrical Kn<;ineers 

There never was a time in the history of 
the world when work was more needed, 
and talking only justified when it will hel]) 
forward the great work which is at hand. 
We all know what that great job is — the 
winning of the war. Everything else must 
take a back seat and wait until that job is 
done. I would much rather now try to do 
my bit of work to aid this great cause than 
to talk about it, but as you have asked me to 
talk to you, and as I can think of nothing 
more important to talk about, I trust that 
you will be patient if I talk to you a little 
about the war. 

I wish first to say that we are fortunate 
in having in our President a spokesman who 
is able to state the ideals of the American 
people and their purpose in this great war 
in a manner so clear and so impressive as to 
perfectly satisfy and thrill every loyal 
American, and he has so appealed to our 
AlHes that he is now accepted as the leading 
spokesman for all on our side of the war. 
If our enemies were in a position to listen to 
an "appeal to reason" we could even hope 
that his messages would be accepted as the 
basis of peace. It is fortunate for the 
world's future that his messages contain no 
indication that we will be satisfied with an 
inconclusive peace, and no matter how much 
we may hope that his messages may event- 
ually break down the resistance of our 
enemy, through an appeal to reason, we are 
warned that it is vitally necessary to throw 
our full strength into winning the war, 
through the exertion of superior military 
and naval, and industrial power. 

I suppose we all think we know just how 
to win this war, and we are all ready to give 
advice in pri\'ate and some even in jiublic. 
The newspapers, Congress, a long list of 

* Postprandial Address. Sixth Midwinter Convention, A.I.E.E., 

New York Citv. Fcbru.iry lo, lOl.-^. 

voluntary associations, engineering councils, 
labor leaders, business men, chambers of 
commerce, are all offering their advice to the 

The average citizen is mystified and won- 
ders just what is the matter; he has been 
told that the greatest pos.sible production, 
especially of war material, was vital to our 
success, and this appealed to his common 
sense; but just as our manufacturers were 
getting up speed and working at high pressure 
they have been ordered to stop and to reduce 
pressure, as production is said to be ahead 
of the distributive facilities of the country. 
He has been told that the arm)' organization 
had completely broken down; he has seen 
reports that the submarine menace had been 
mastered, only to note that the sinkings 
continue at an alarming rate; he was told 
that millions of tons of shipping were needed, 
and an organization was started to build these 
ships; he saw months of time wasted in talk 
at a time when every day lost meant the 
loss of millions of dollars and thousands of 
lives. After months of weary waiting the 
dead-lock was broken and we got fairly 
launched upon a shipping program. We 
thought that we were running along fairly 
well when suddenly the entire country was 
stunned by the recent drastic order of the 
Fuel Administrator, closing many industries, 
and stopping much of business life. 

We were all greatl_\- encouraged and thrilled 
during the early months of the war by 
the patriotic attitude of Congress which 
supported the administration in an un- 
precedented manner, without distinction of 

The two great Liberty Loans aggregating 
between five and six billion dollars were 
voted and raised with the patriotic and 
enthusiastic sujiport of all the country, and 
we are told that when historv has been 

16S Alarch 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 3 

written naughty Wall Street will deserve a 
decoration for its patriotic and efficient 
assistance. A great scheme of taxation, 
more drastic and bearing more heavily upon 
the wealth of the country than anything 
known in our history, has been passed and 
will be loyally supported even by those who 
are most heavily hit. 

The selective draft system was prepared 
and put into operation and accepted by the 
country in a truly magnificent manner. 
The Red Cross has been reorganized and an 
enormous amount raised by voluntary sub- 
scriptions, and is well started on its beneficent 
and valuable mission. The Knights of Colum- 
bus are also doing magnificent work in a simi- 
lar field. I will not take your time to sketch 
further the tremendous activities which this 
country has started during the past year. 

In view of this record of accomplishment, 
and our truly splendid start in the war, why 
has this feeling of nervousness come over the 
country ? Why has Congress suddenly changed 
its attitude of unquestioning support to one 
of investigation and criticism ? What does it 
all mean? Is it true that we are making a 
failure of the job? 

It seems clear to me that we have rot 
made a failure and that everything is moving 
along as well as we had a right to expect 
under all the circumstances. When we con- 
sider that less than a year ago our nation of 
a hundred million of people, entirely un- 
prepared for war, with institutions and 
traditions only adapted to the conditions 
of profound peace, was thrust into this 
greatest of enterprises, it is clear that we 
have already accomplished wonders and that 
we should not be discouraged. In spite of 
eminent authority, a million men cannot 
spring to arms overnight, nor can dread- 
naughts, destroyers, submarines, anti- 
submarine devices, heavy ordnance, and all 
the great mechanism of war, be produced in 
a day, in a month, or even in a year, no 
matter how much we pray or "cuss" or work. 
A certain minimum of time is necessary to 
start, equip, and get this nation into the war 
effectively. We should do everything possible 
to see that this minimum of time is not 
unduly prolonged. Business men, and es- 
pecially engineers and manufacturers who 
understand the nature of the equipment 
required for this conflict, however, must 
ajjpreciate that our fundamental, and let us 
hope not fatal, mistake is that we waited 
until the war was thrust u]xm us before we 
started to get read}-. 

I think a little reflection will make it clear 
that the mistakes which we have made since 
we started in the war, however numerous or 
avoidable, are in the aggregate negligible 
compared with the overwhelming mistake 
of failure to prepare for the war during 1915 
and 1916. That precious time has been 
lost forever and no effort or time, criticism 
or talk can cancel that mistake and give us 
back the lost time. We must expend untold 
billions, and we must make superhuman 
efforts, but we must be patient and realize 
that inconsiderate haste is likely to result 
in added friction, lost motion, false starts, 
and a general retardation of our program. 

While it would seem that, considering our 
history and our type of Government, with 
its checks and balances, we have done 
fairly well since we started in the war, we 
realize that we have fallen short of what 
we would like to have accomplished, and we 
should not be satisfied, and constructive 
criticism should not be discouraged. I believe, 
however, that we should not become unduly 
disturbed, but rather be encouraged at the 
prospect. " While there is life there is hope," 
and the very fact that the country has 
energy enough to kick violently while it is 
working, clearly demonstrates that there is 
no possibility of dissolution or thought of 

Now what kind of constructive suggestions 
can we offer, may I inquire? I hesitate to 
make any suggestions. However, as a 
business man and engineer there are certain 
matters which seem to me worthy of con- 

I start with the premise that this is a 
peoples' war — a war for democracy. To be 
successful the people must believe in the 
war and must work for the war. It would 
seem, therefore, that this fact being recognized 
we should not attempt to handle the job 
on the basis that it is to be run exclusively 
by the party in power. In such an emergency 
it does not seem probable that we can get 
best results by our customary majority or 
party government. All the people must be 
represented. The party in power represents 
at best only a bare majority of the people, 
and to win a peoples' war all .^-he peoples' 
representatives should be given an oppor- 
tunity to share the responsibility. 

It seems quite probable that the questioning 
attitude of the country today is due more 
than anything else to a growing fear that 
the full ability, wisdom, and experience of 
the country is not being properly utilized. 



When at war every important force in our 
nation must be enlisted to the fullest extent 
and in the most efficient manner. The 
support of the country has been magnificent. 
Would not this confidence be greatly strength- 
ened if those in political control would 
look beyond their party, and take into the 
service of the nation its strongest men without 
reference to political affiliation? 

There are plenty of such men who are 
willing to help the country, and the country 
wants them put to work worthy of their 
records and abilities, not under dictation but 
as partners of our great enterprise. England 
has met the situation by a so-called Coalition 
Government. Why can't we do something 
similar ? 

The country is greatly encouraged at the 
large number of able men, prominent in 
business and other walks of life, who have 
vohmteered for service in various depart- 
ments of the Government and who have 
been accepted and set to work. This policy 
should be encouraged, as the more it is 
followed, the better the country will be 
satisfied, and the sooner we shall win the 

It is essential that the men who are charged 
with enormous responsibilities in our Govern- 
mental enterprises have the confidence of 
the country, as their orders, no matter how 
drastic or arbitrary or apparently unnecessary, 
should be followed with confidence. At 
the present time orders are patrioticalh- 
obeyed, but with some misgiving, due not so 
much to the hardships inflicted as to the 
feeling that our leaders do not fully realize 
what they are doing. There is no lack of 
confidence in their good intentions and 
character, but there is some questioning of 
their wisdom and practical experience. 

After all, in my opinion, the question of 
the exact form of any organization is relatively 
unimportant. The effectiveness and value 
of any organization is largely dependent 
upon the men who are on the job. The 
theoretically perfect system would break 
down and prove an utter failure if adminis- 
tered by men who arc arbitrary, inexperienced, 
or lacking in the spirit of co-o])eration. Gn 
the other haVid, a system that is apparently 
ilefective on paper can be made to operate 
with the greatest measure of practical success 
if the men filling ])ositions of power and 
responsibility are men of vision, wisdom, 
practical experience, and full of the spirit of 
co-operation, men who take to "team-play" 
as nalurallv as a duck takes to water. 

We are now making a vigorous effort to 
adjust ourselves to the work of winning the 
great war into which we ha\-e been thrust. 
We are all on trial. If our institutions and 
methods are found to be such that they 
cannot function properly and efficiently 
under war conditions, we shall have to modify 
them to whatever extent may be necessary. 

Every organization must demonstrate what 
it can do to help the country in its hour of 
need. Every organization, whether of capital, 
labor, manufacture, or business, and every 
individual must be subjected to the test 
of whether it is doing its best and most 
effective work to win the war. This will be 
the only and supreme test. Every individual 
who fails to put forth the maximum effort 
in the most efficient manner must be brought 
into line. 

It is obvious that no single element by 
itself can win the war. Capital alone is 
helpless; labor alone is equally helpless. 
The Xavy cannot win without the help of 
the Army, and both are helpless without 
shijK. The sacrifices cannot be made by 
capital alone, or by labor alone, but must 
be distributed on a fair basis. 

The test of patriotism will be the willingness 
to work, each in his own sphere, to the 
absolute limit. We need the maximum 
output of brains, labor, and material; the 
country demands it, and the country will 
see that it is obtained. Any man or organiza- 
tion of men that stands in the way of the 
])urpose which this country has set for itself 
will be eventually crushed. 

I don't suppose that we can form any 
adequate idea of the stupendous task which 
the Government has undertaken, in its army, 
navy, shipbuilding, aircraft, and other ])ro- 
grams. It simply staggers the imagination. 

The personnel of the Governmental 
organization has undergone a rapid and 
tremendous expansion. The organization 
which was sufficient for our small peace 
program was, of course, absolutely unable to 
cope with the war jirogram. It is manifestly 
im]iossible to build up a new organization 
which will operate satisfactorily at once. 
It has taken many years to build and perfect 
the great industrial organizations of our 
country. The transfer of a man to Govern- 
ment service does not change his character 
or necessarily increase his efficiency. After 
any organization has been brought into 
existence, time is required for the different 
units to learn their duties and particularly 
to learn how to co-operate with each other. 

170 March 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 3 

Time is also required for the country to 
transfer its industrial activities from com- 
mercial work to Governmental work. While 
this transfer must be made as rapidly as 
possible, even if great loss ensues, there is a 
limit to the rapidity with which this transfer 
can be effectively made, and if we exceed 
that limit, we will introduce so much waste 
and friction that the rate of transfer will 
be reduced and our object of increased pro- 
ducion for the Government temporarily 

It takes time for us to get over our ideas 
and practices, based upon our competitive 
conditions and education. We are now to 
forget our education in competition, and 
think of nothing but co-operation; in other 
words, of what is best to increase the country's 
production as a whole, for that is vital in 
winning the war. 

It is obvious that the Navy and Army 
cannot be built up without drawing upon the 
organization and facilities of the country, 
and that their activities cannot be maintained 
without an efficient industrial organization 
constantly at work behind them in this 
country. Therefore our Government, as well 
as ourselves, must never forget that the 
preservation of the country's industries in 
the highest state of efficiency is a vital matter. 

In order to avoid chaos, it is essential that 
Governmental departments should co-operate 
with each other, and such co-operation is 
not merely a matter of organization but 
largely a matter of men or personnel. Some 
men cannot co-operate. Such men are not 
useless, but they cannot be used in adminis- 
trative positions. A man at the head of an 
important Governmental office or department 
must co-operate with the heads of other 
departments and must arrange to have such 
co-operation extend to each and every person 
under his control. Co-operation to be effective 
must be wholehearted and instinctive. 

I like the President's expression, "Spirit of 
accommodation," for that is the essential 
element of co-operation. 

Now I wish to emphasize the fact that it 
takes time to produce really efficient co-opera- 
tion. No new organization can possibly 
work as smoothly and effectively as one 
which has had time to become perfected. 

Moreover, co-operation in Washington 
between departments will not entirely settle 
the matter. We have a duty to perform. 
There must be co-operation among the 
industries. We must forget to comi)ele and 
learn to co-operate with other units. 

But this is not all : we must have co-operation 
between the Government and industries, 
and, to be effective, this means that both 
must be a party to the co-operation. It 
cannot be a "Hon and lamb" sort of affair. 
If the Governmental heads use their vast 
power arbitrarily and unwisely, they can 
easily cripple the industries of the country, 
and thus delay victory for years. 

Take for example the matter of priority. 
This is merely one of the factors of production. 
All large industrial establishments handle 
such matters through a production depart- 
ment with a production manager at its head. 
Such a man is settling questions of priority 
every day. If he settles them wisely, the 
industrial organization is successful; if he 
makes many mistakes, the organization will 
function badly and probably fail. If an 
inexperienced man were put in charge of the 
production of any establishment, he could, 
and probably would, with the best of inten- 
tions, reduce the productive efficiency of 
such an establishment by 50 per cent within a 
few weeks. 

In many of the big industrial organizations 
which have grown up during the past twenty- 
five years in the United States, will be found 
excellent examples of co-operation. No man 
can be successful in an administrative 
position, large or small, in such an organiza- 
tion, who does not understand and practice 
co-operation as second nature; in fact, such 
organizations found that co-operation was so 
much more efficient and economical than 
destructive competition that they began to 
co-operate with other competing units, but 
were prevented by law. 

The country has now found that these 
organizations are extremely useful under the 
present conditions, and also that they are 
composed of individuals who have been 
trained in loyalty, and who are devoting 
themselves loyally and enthusiastically to 
the service of the country. Such service is 
rendered not only by individuals enlisting in 
the Government work, in the Army, Navy, 
and elsewhere, but frequently, and even 
with greater effectiveness, by remaining 
with their organization and turning its 
facilities, as rapidly and to the 'Extent that is 
practical, over to work for the Government. 
The value of the service of such organizations 
to the Government and the country is greater 
than the aggregate value of the individuals 
or the material facilities of the organization, 
because the value of each and every part of an 
efficient and live organism is multipHed by 



the very fact that it is part of an organism 
trained to "team-play." Care must be taken 
not to disintegrate such organizations, as 
otherwise great value will be lost to the 
country at this critical time. 

I believe that the problems facing us will 
be successfully solved in time, but we need 
more co-operation, more of the spirit of 
accommodation, all our patience and wisdom. 

and, above all, a willingness to work to the 
limit. . 

We must discipline ourselves until a 
shirker in any field of useful effort will be 
regarded with the same contempt as a 
shirker in the military service of the country. 
There is no difference, or if there is any 
difference, a shirker behind the lines is worse 
than one in the trenches. 

Railway Electrification as a Means of Saving Fuel 
and Relieving Freight Congestion* 

By E. W. Rice, Jr. 
President American Institute Electrical Engineers 

A recent estimate of the horse power of steam railway locomotives in the United States places the figure 
at 25,000,000. This compares with an estimate of 8,500,000 horse power for all of our central stations and an 
additional 4,500,000 horse power for isolated plants. Mr. Rice states that these locomotives consume annu- 
ally 150,000,000 tons of coal, two-thirds of which could be saved by electrification. There is no guess work 
about this statement, as its truth has been demonstrated in actual operation. Under average conditions the 
steam locomotive requires six pounds of coal per horse-power hour, while present central stations could move 
the same trains with a consumption of only two pounds of coal per horse-power hour. This savins in fuel is 
only one of the great advantages that Mr. Rice points out would result from electrification of our railways. 

— Editor. 

Members of the electrical profession and 
indtistry have reason to be pleased with the 
contributions which they have made for the 
benefit of the world. While we are glad to 
think that our science and our industry are 
fundamentally devoted to the products and 
conditions of peace, we realize that in the 
electric light, searchlights, the X-ray, tele- 
phones, telegraph, wireless apparatus, electric 
motors, etc., electricity plays an important 
part in the grim business of war. 

We are in the midst of an extraordinary 
coal famine, due to causes which it is perhaps 
undesirable for us to attempt to outline. 
However, I would like to point out how mtich 
worse the situation might have been were it 
not for the contributions of the electrical 
engineer; and also how much better our 
condition might have been if our contri- 
butions had been more extensively utilized. 

Suppose we assume that the present serious 
sittiation is dtie to a lack of production of coal. 
It is comforting to consider to what extent 
conditions stirrotmding such production have 
been improved and how the outj^ut of our 
coal mines has been already increased by the 
use of electrical devices in connection with 
coal mining — such for example, as the electric 
light, electric coal cutters, electric drills, and 

• Prcsi.k-mial address at the Sixth Midwintir Convention of 
the A.I.E.E., Now York City. February 15, 191S. 

electric mining and hauling locomotives. I 
have no figures before me, but I think it is a 
fair asstimption that the output of coal mines 
should have been increased at least 25 per cent 
on the average by the employment of such 
electrical devices. If this estimate were cut 
down to 10 per cent it would still leave a 
possible increase in the tonnage of coal 
produced of something like 50,000,000 tons 
dtiring the past year. 

If, on the other hand, our situation is not 
due to a shortage in the production of coal, 
but rather to the failure of the distributive 
agencies of the country, which is more 
probable, it is interesting to see how this 
difficulty would have been largely removed 
if the railroads of the country were operated 
by electricity instead of steam. 

Where electricity has been substituted for 
steam in the operation of railroads, fully 
50 per cent increase in available capacity of 
existing tracks and other facilities has been 
demonstrated. This increased capacity has 
been due to a variety of causes, but largely 
to the increased reliability and capacity, 
under all conditions of service, of electric 
locomotives, thus permitting a speeding up 
of train schedules by some 25 per cent under 
average conditions. Of course, under the 
paralyzing conditions which prevail in ex- 
tremelv cold weather, when the steam 


Trans-continental Passenger Train "Olympian" Climbing the Rockies before Electrification 

All-steel Passenger Train "Olympion" ut D(.'(,t L<.'.\y^v nficr Elcrtrifn 



locomotives practically go out of business, 
the electric locomotives make an even better 
showing. It is well known that extreme cold 
(aside from the physical condition of the 
traffic rail) does not hinder the operation of 
the electric locomotive but actually increases 
its hauling capacity. At a time when the 
steam locomotive is using up all its energy by 
radiation from its boiler and engine into the 
atmosphere, with the result that practically 
no useful power is available to move the 
train, the electric locomotive is operating 
under its most efficient conditions and may 
even work at a greater load than in warm 
weather. It may, therefore, be said that cold 
weather offers no terrors to an electrified road, 
but, on the contrary, it is a stimulant to better 
l^erformance instead of a cause of prostration 
and paralysis. 

But this is not all. It is estimated that 
something like L50,000,00U tons of coal were 
consumed by the railroads in the year 1917. 
Now we know from the results obtained from 
such electrical operation of railroads as we 
already have in this country that it would be 
possible to save at least two-thirds of this coal 
if electric locomotives were substituted for the 
])resent steam locomotives. On this basis 
there would be a saving of over 10(1, 000, 000 
tons of coal in one year. 

This is an amount three times as large as 
the total coal exported from the United States 
during 1917. 

The carrying capacity of our steam roads 
is also seriously restricted by the movement 
of coal required for haulage of the trains 
themselves. It is estimated that fully 10 per 
cent of the total ton mileage movement behind 
the engine drawbar is made up of company 
coal and coal cars, including in this connection 
the steam engine tender and its contents. 
In other words, the useful or re\'enue carrying 
capacity of our steam roads could be increased 
about 10 per cent with existing track facilities 
by eliminating the entire company coal 

I have not mentioned the consum]ition of oil 
by the railroads which we are told amounted 
in 1915 to something like 40,000,000 barrels, 
nearly 15 pec-cent of the total oil produced. 
This fuel is entirely too valuable to be used 
in a wasteful manner. It is important for 
many reasons that such a wonderful fuel as 
oil should be most economically used, if for no 
other reason than that it will be needed for the 
ships of our forthcoming merchant marine, for 
the tractors that tiil our fields, and the motor 
trucks that serve as feeders to our railwavs. 

The possible use of water power should 
also be considered in this connection. It is 
estimated that there is not less than 25,000,- 
0(J0 h.p. of water power available in the 
United States, and if this were developed and 
could be used in driving our railroads, each 
horse power so used would save at least 
() lbs. of coal per power hour now 
burned under the boilers of our steam 
locomotives. It is true that this water power 
is not uniformly distributed in the districts 
where the railroad requirements are greatest 
but the possibilities indicated by the figures 
are so impressive as to justify careful examin- 
ation as to the extent to which water power 
could be so employed and the amount of 
coal which could be saved by its use. There 
is no doubt that a very considerable portion 
of the coal now wastefully used by the 
railroads could be released to the great and 
lasting advantage of the country. 

The terrors of these "heatless days" will 
not have been without benefit if they direct 
the attention of the people and of our law 
makers to the frightful waste of two of our 
country's most valuable assets — our potential 
water power and our wonderful coal reserves. 
The first, potential water power, is being 
largely lost because most of it is allowed to 
run to waste, undeveloped, unused. The 
second asset, coal, is wasted for exactly the 
opposite reason. It is being used but in an 
extravagant and inefficient manner. 

Our waterfalls constitute potential wealth 
which can only be truly conserved by develop- 
ment and use — millions of horse power are 
running to waste every day, which once 
harnessed for the benefit of mankind become 
a perpetual source of wealth and prosi)crity. 

While the amount of coal in our country is 
enormous, it is definitely limited. While 
Providence has blessed us with a princely 
amount of potential riches in our coal beds, 
it is known that there is a finite limit to the 
amount of coal so stored and when this coal 
is once exhausted, it is gone forever. It is 
really terrifying to realize that 25 per cent of 
the total amount of coal which we are digging 
from the earth each year is burned to operate 
our railroads under such inefficient conditions 
that an average of at least six pounds of coal 
is required per horse jjower hour of work 

The same amount of coal burned in a 
modern central power station would jjroduce 
an equivalent of three times that amount of 
power in the motors of an electric locomotive, 
oven including all the losses of generation and 

174 March 1918 


VoL XXI, No. 3 

transmission from the source of power to the 
locomotive. Where water power may be 
utilized, as in our mountainous districts in the 
West, all of the coal used for steam loco- 
motives can be saved. In the middle and 
eastern states, however, water powers are 
not sufficient and it will be necessary in a 
universal scheme of electrification that the 
locomotives be operated from steam turbine 
stations but, as I have already .stated, the 
operation of the electrified railroads from 
steam turbine stations will result in the saving 
of two-thirds of the coal now employed for 
equivalent tonnage movement by steam 

It is, therefore, not too much to say that 
if the roads of the country were now electrified 
that no breakdown of our coal supply, due to 
failure of distribution, would exist. What 
this would mean for the comfort of the people 
and the vigorous prosecution of the war, 
I will leave for you to imagine. 

Of course, this picture which I have 
briefly and inadequately sketched of the 
great benefits which our country would have 
received if the roads had been electrified does 
not improve our present situation, and it may 
be claimed that any discussion of such a 
subject at this time is of an academic nature. 
This point of view is in a sense true, but I 
think that we can properly take time to 
consider it because of the effect which it may 
have upon our future efi^orts. This picture is 
not merely an inventor's dream but is based 
upon the solid foundation of actual achieve- 
ment. We have had enough experience upon 
which to base a fairly accurate determination 
of the stupendous advantages and savings 
which will surely follow the general electrifi- 
cation of the railroads; in fact, I think we can 
demonstrate that there is no other way 
known to us by which the railroads problem 
facing the country can be as quickly and as 
cheaply solved as by electrification. 

The solution of the railroad problem would 
also "kill two birds with one stone" by 
solving the fuel problem at the same time. 

If it is a fact, as has been stated, that the 
steam railroads of the country have failed to 
keep pace with the country's productive 
capacity — the increased output of manu- 
facturing industries, the extension of agri- 
culture and other demands for transportation 
— it is obvious that if the country is to go 
ahead, the railroad transportation problem 
must be solved and it must be solved at the 
earliest possible date. It becomes a matter of 
national imjiortance that the best solution 

should be reached in the shortest possible 
time. That solution is best which will give 
the greatest amount of transportation over 
existing tracks, in the most reliable manner, 
and if possible, at the lowest operating cost. 
We electrical engineers are confident that 
we can make good our claim that the best 
solution is to be found in a general electrifi- 
cation of the railroads. That such a solution 
would be of great advantage to our profession 
and to our industry is important, although 
not as important as the great advantage 
which it would be to our countrj^ freeing it 
as it would from the present threatened 
paralysis of business, possibility of untold 
human suftering and incalculable financial 
loss. It should give us courage and optimism 
for the fiiture of our profession to contemplate 
the service which we may render in this 
direction, and which it seems to me is immedi- 
ately at hand. It should arouse in all of us, 
and particularly in the younger engineers, an 
enthusiastic confidence in the present and 
future stability and value of our profession 
and of the electrical industry. It should 
satisfy the young engineer that the oppor- 
tunity for him to render important service 
is as real and great today as it has been in the 
past for those of us who have seen and 
participated in the marvelous growth of the 
industry up to the present time. 

We would not be justified in being so 
confident of the benefits of electrification of 
railroads if every element in the problem had 
not been solved in a thoroughly practical 
manner. The electric generating power 
stations, operated either by water or by steam 
turbines, have reached the highest degree of 
perfection, efficiency, and reliability, while the 
transmission of electricity over long distances, 
with reliability, has become a commonplace. 
Electric locomotives capable of hauling the 
heaviest trains at the highest speeds, up and 
down the heaviest grades, have laeen built and 
found in practical operation to meet every 
requirement of an exacting service. There is, 
therefore, no element of uncertainty, nothing 
experimental or problematical, which should 
cause us to hesitate in pressing our claims 
upon the attention of the country. Electrifi- 
cation of railroads has progressed with relative 
slowness during these many years, waiting 
upon the development and perfection of all of 
the processes of generation and transmission 
and of the perfection of the electric locomotive 
itself. When all these elements had been 
perfected, as they now have been for several 
years, the railroads found themselves with- 



out the necessary capital to make the invest- 

I reahzc that the task of electrifying all of 
the steam railroads of the country is one of 
tremendous proportions. It would require 
under the best of conditions many years to 
complete and demand the expenditure of 
billions of dollars. 

The country, however, has clearly outgrown 
its railway facilities and it would require, in 
any event, the expenditure of billions of 
dollars and many years of time to bring the 
transportation facilities up to the country's 

It is not necessary that electrification 
should be universal in order to obtain much 
of its benefits. It is probable that the most 
serious limitations of our transportation 
system, at least in so far as the supply of coal 
is concerned, is to be found in the mountain- 
ous districts and it is precisely in such 
situations that electrifications has demon- 
strated its greatest value. Electrification of a 
railroad in a mountainous district will, in the 
worst cases, enable double the amount of 
traffic to be moved over existing tracks and 

If a general scheme of electrification were 
decided upon, the natural procedure would 
be, therefore, to electrify those portions of the 
steam railroads which will show the greatest 
results and give the greatest relief from 
existing conjestion. Electrification of such 
sections of the steam railroads would have an 
immediate and beneficial effect upon the entire 

transportation system of the country and 
it is our belief that electrification offers the 
quickest, best, and most efficient solution 
that is to be obtained. 

It may be said that the present is not a 
propitious time in which to deflect any of the 
country's money into railroad electrification. 
I think that in spite of the enormous advan- 
tages of which I have spoken, we would be 
inclined to agree with such a point of view if 
it were not for the recent unpleasant demon- 
stration of the failure of our railroad trans- 
portation systems to meet the demands 
which have been placed upon them by the 
industries, aggravated, it is true, by the war 
conditions and also by the unkindness of the 

After all, the question for the country to 
decide is whether we dare to limp along with 
the present conditions of restricted pro- 
duction, due to limited transportation, at a 
time when the world demands and expects 
from us the greatest possible increase in our 
efficiency and total production. 

What assurance have we that the present 
conditions are temporary, and even if they 
improve as they surely shall with the coming 
of warm weather, what are we going to do 
next winter? Of course, even if we should 
start electrification at once, we could not 
have all our railroads electrified by next 
winter but we could have a good start, and as 
Sherman said about the resumption of specie 
payments, "The way to resume is to resume," 
so "The way to electrify is to electrify." 

176 March 19 IS 


Vol. XXI, No. 3 

Standardized Flexible Distributing Systems 
in Industrial Plants* 

Part I 

By Bassett Jones 

Electrical Engineer Associated with Henry C. Meyer, Jr., New York City 

The author has worked out a system for determining the power requirements of industrial plants in 
advance of construction the method being based on a relationship between projected tool area, manufactur- 
fna area and tota sqTare feet of floor area. The study of this subject was undertaken m connection with 
th°e electrical distribution for a new factory building of the Sprague Electric Works, General Electric Com- 
panv and its application to this building will be described in our Aprilissue. \^e have standardized prac- 
tfcauV aU equipment employed in the generation and distribution of electric power except distribution systems 
i3ut riaM-undrngs, and the author shows that standardization here is equally practicable and desirable^ 
in any industrial plant flexibility in distribution to take care of frequent changes in machine tool layout i. of 
the utmost importance, and the author has given this matter special consideration.— Editor. 

In most cases the mantifacturer does not 
install the distiibuting system. He is not 
responsible for its successful operation and 


Within the last few years the design and 
appHcation of devices and equipment for 
generating and utiUzing energy in industrial 
plants has made great strides forward. 
Much has been written and said about 
generators, motor drive and methods of 
control, and about illumination. Little 
effort, however, has been made to improve 
upon the method of bringing energy to the 
devices where it is to be used. 

The reason for this is clear. The manu- 
facturer of the devices referred to is naturally 
interested in their improvement and use. 
Competition forces him to study constantly 
the characteristics of the apparatus he makes 
and to analyze carefully its application, to 
the end that he may improve it and so 
outdistance his competitor. For this purpose 
the manufacturer maintains a highly trained 
and expensive corps of engineers and even 
great research laboratories, the sole function 
of which is the study and development of 
methods for economically generating and 
utilizing energy. 

Sometimes the design of the distributing 
system has a vital bearing on the successful 
use of the manufacturer's devices, and then 
he is interested enough to furnish data for, 
or assist in, the proper design of the system. 
Such, for instance, is the case in the con- 
struction of high tension distributing systems 
where seemingly slight errors or omissions 
in the design may produce operating condi- 
tions that will cause serious failure of the 
parts of the system in which the manufacturer 
is interested. However, it is not the purpose 
of this paper to discuss high tension equip- 
ment, but only that equipment which applies 
direct to manufacturing processes where low 
pressures are used. 

■■ Presented at the 197th meeting of the Schenectady Section 
A. I. E. E., Schenectady, New York, February 1. 1918. 

is not, therefore, vitally interested in its 
design, except in so far as he is interested in 
the manufacture and sale of its component 
parts. Here, however, if these parts function 
correctly, the manufacturer's interest practi- 
cally ceases with their dehvery to the cus- 
tomer. It is up to the customer to use them 
properly. The design of the distributing 
system is, therefore, frequently left to some 
employee of the purchaser with the help of 
what "little "dope" he can gather from the 
motor salesman and somebody's handbook, 
or it may be left to some electrical contractor 
to connect up the tools and lights. Occasion- 
ally an experienced engineer is employed to 
study the needs of the situation and prepare 
proper plans for the work. 

Another reason why the manufacturer of 
electrical devices is not interested in the 
distributing system except in selling its 
parts, is due to the fact that the distributing 
system is inherently a variable, to be designed 
for each installation. It is essentially a 
made-to-order product and therefore has 
been assumed to be impossible of standardi- 
zation. It will at once occur to us that the 
manufacturer has standardized practically 
everjiihing that goes into the distributing 
system — switchboards, panel boards, switches, 
cutouts, conduits, wire and cable, sockets, 
reflectors, and innumerable fittings of every 
description, all or some of whjch may be 
assembled or fitted together in one way or 
another to meet a great variety of conditions. 

This is quite true : yet is it not possible that 
a system might be devised in which a fewer 
number of parts or fewer sizes of these parts 
might be necessary, and in which standard 
assembly groups could be used? For instance, 
there are almost as many different kinds and 


arrangements of panel boards in all the 
modern buildings in existence as there are 
centers of lighting circuit distribution. Is there 
not some way of designing the lighting system 
so thatafew, or even one size and type of panel, 
can be made to meet many conditions? 

Again, consider the switchboard. In the 
last few years a decided step in the right 
direction has been made in standardizing 
switchboard panels. So far so good. It has 
probably vastly increased output for a given 
overhead, simplified merchandizing, and 
increased dividends. But why stop here? 
Look over the catalogues of standard switch- 
board panels — a volume at the very least. 
Is it not again possible to devise a distributing 
system that will require, at the most, but a 
few such panels, or perhaps, a few standard 
frames and a few standard parts that can be 
fitted into the frames so as to produce a large 
number of combinations — combinations that, 
if necessary, can be changed at various times 
after installation to suit changes in the 
distributing system? As you know, such 
changes are frequent and often radical. In 
fact, this grouping of standard parts to meet 
special conditions is one of the most important 
things we have to consider. 

We might go on in this vein indefinitely, 
but here we have mentioned the whole crux 
of the problem — variations in and remodeling 
of the distributing system brought about by 
constant changes in factory arrangements and 
m^anufacturing processes. Perhaps in studying 
the system from this point of view we may ap- 
proach a solution of our other problem in which 
the manufacturer of electrical apparatus is 
particularly interested. But before apparatus 
or assembly groups can be standardized the 
distributing system must be standardized. 

The form of our proposed standard dis- 
tributing system must necessarily adapt itself 
to building conditions; this must always be 
icept in mind. It must be possible to install 
the system in any ordinary form of building 
built in any ordinary way out of any ordinar\^ 
materials — wood, mill construction, brick, 
and steel or reinforced concrete, or any 
combination thereof; and whether the build- 
ing be one story with fiat, peaked, monitor or 
saw-toothed roof, or ten stories in height; 
high ceilings or low, flat or w4th projecting 
beams; in plan, square, rectangular, L or H, 
or any other f onn of any dimensions ; one bay 
or three bays wide. The system must be 
contrived so as to go easih- into any such 
building at as low a first cost as may be, 
pro\-ided only that it is possible to rearrange 

the system at any time without shut-down 
and at comparatively small expense. You 
will probably agree that any distributing 
system that will fulfill the last requirement 
alone — that can be easily and cheaply rear- 
ranged without shut-down — would be worth 
its salt and would probably warrant some 
initial extra outlay. 

The bane of the factory wiring system has 
been the "extra." Was there ever a f acton.' 
wired from the original plan without any 
changes? This amounts to the same thing as 
asking whether the tool layout in any facton,* 
wasever determined oncef or all before the build- 
ing was wired, and thereafter never changed? 
We all know that no such thing exists as a 
fixed factory plan inside the outer walls. I 
wonder if you know how much it costs each 
year to rewire the buildings with which you 
are familiar ? Not only the cost of the changes 
in the wiring system but also all the cutting 
and patching that go with it. I have been 
laughed at for asking so foolish a question. 
Yet I have seen twenty to thirty feet of 
flooring ripped up to wire to one additional 
tool. One tool! and I believe that a tool plan 
in any live, growing, moving factors- or even 
department made this year would hardly be 
recognizable next year. 

Here is a group of screw machines that 
next year must all be moved to make room 
for additional machines. Two years from 
now these tools will be torn out and a less 
number of a new and different kind installed ; 
or it is found that if these machines are moved 
to another location some lost motion in 
manufacture is saved, and cost of manufacture 
is reduced a mill per stud or a penny a part 
amounting to some thousands of dollars a 
year in production. And so it goes. 

Within the limits of a single paper it is, 
of course, quite impossible to discuss the 
design of distributing systems in all kinds of 
industrial plants. Therefore, we shall confine 
ourselves more directly to the problem of the 
distributing system in plants emplo\-ing 
diversified machine tool processes, and indi- 
vidual motor drive. Indi\-idual motor drive is 
practically essential in shops where tool loca- 
tions and manufacturing processes are con- 
stantly changing wtih a \-iew to betterment of 
product and increased efficiency of production. 


Ob\-iously, the most common sense manner 
of approaching the problem is to conceive of 
the system more or less as a railroad distri- 
bution. The load units will take energy from 

ITS .March 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 3 

the system at fixed points it is true, but fixed 
for a varying time and varying in amount, 
and the system must be designed so that such 
movement and change in load distribution 
can take place without requiring extensive 
changes in the wiring. 

To meet the conditions outlined above the 
system must possess the following characters : 

First, it must be flexible from the point of 
service entry. Not only must the floor 
distribution be arranged to meet this require- 
ment, but the feeder system must also be 
flexible so that it may be reinforced to any 
floor, or to any section of any floor. 

Second, the distributing system must be so 
arranged that it can be tapped into at any 
point, and branches taken to any location 
where load units of any size may be placed. 

Third, the connection of any load unit to the 
system at any point must not require radical 
changes in the mechanics of the system, but 
only in its carrying capacity, and the system 
must be such that reinforcing can be executed 
rapidly and at a minimum cost, without mean- 
while rendering the system inoperative. 

Fourth, the several parts of the system must 
be interchangeable as far as possible, and 
considering first cost, so that the number of 
parts is reduced to a minimum and so that 
they can be used for the maximum number 
of cases. If the location of a load unit, of such 
size that it requires reinforcing of the system, 
is changed, then it should also be possible to 
move the reinforcement and apply it to 
another part of the system, thus keeping the 
material busy and not merely representing 
capital invested and lying idle. 

As ]:)ointed out above any attempt to 
standardize the electrical distributing system 
must take account of the different types of 
Iniildings into which it must be fitted. 
Obviously, if the system is to be flexible it 
must not be incorporated in the building 
structure. Otherwise, changes in the system 
will entail changes in the building — cutting, 
ripping out, and patching. It must not 
interfere with or necessarily be a part of the 
]jroccss of building construction, as this 
entails added expense on both sides. It must 
be easily installed and easily taken down, 
and, if this requirement can be met, there is no 
reason why it should not be j)ossible to install 
the system after the building is erected, or 
practically so. If the system is standardized 
it should be possible to cut and fit it all 
together outside of the building and only 
bring it in for assembly. The speed with 
which such a system ought to be assembled 

should be such as to make it possible to begin 
and complete its erection during the final 
stages of building construction. Standardi- 
zation tends toward such speed and hence 
toward low first cost. If, then, the system is 
exposed and not buried in the building 
construction, it is obvious that at the be- 
ginning we may put in as little as need be, 
provided we make proper arrangements so that 
when necessary, as much more can be installed 
as the possible future demand may require. 

We have talked of this system as though it 
were sectionalized. Sectionalizing will not 
only help standardizing and flexibility ; it will 
introduce the value of interchangeability of 
parts and will also make it possible to partially 
insure against general shut-down in case of 
damage or injury to any part or section. 
From the viewpoint of production, insurance 
against shut-down is almost as important as 
insurance against other hazards. 

Since the system is to be sectionalized, as 
well as standardized, it is necessary to begin de- 
sign by determining the unit of load that each 
section shall supply. In other words energy 
demand must be standardized. This load must 
be determined from known data as to the 
average and maximum energy consumed per 
unit of floor area. Having determined this 
data, say in terms of watts per square foot 
floor area, it is then possible to decide how 
many square feet floor area shall be supplied 
with energy by a conductor of the most 
convenient and economical size and that will 
suffice for the largest number of conditions. 
The fitting of the system to such load units 
will tend to standardize the capacity of the 
various parts of the system so that a greater 
number of a few conductor sizes, devices, or 
assembly groups may be sold with a conse- 
quent reduction in cost, due to simplified 
production. Even should this sectionalizing 
require the use of more equipment, it may 
well be that the decreased cost of the several 
standard parts will act as an offset, so that 
the net result wall be a system such as we 
desire at Httle, if any, greater first cost than 
the usual straight-away simple system, and 
a lower maintenance cost for changes. 

Machine Shop Motor Loads ' ' 

A study of several existing diversified 
machine shops showed that apparently a 
definite relationship existed between the 
ratio of fioor area occupied by tools to the 
total floor area used for manufacturing 
purposes, and the average watts per square 
foot floor area based on a year's use of power. 


In order to make clear what follows, refer 
to Fig. 1. This shows a purely arbitrary shop 
plan. The area M occujjied by tools, working 
passage ways about them, and space occupied 
by active material, is called the manufacturing 
area. Any dead area left between tool groups 
to allow for growth of such groups is not 
included in the manufacturing area. The 
area B includes space for assembly, stock 
storage, packing and shipping, where few if 
any motor-driven tools are used, and is 
called dead area. The area of the spaces 
actually occupied by tools, T, and found by 
projecting their horizontal block plans on the 
fioor is called the projected tool area. The 
ratio in question is 

projected tool area _ r> _ ^ 
manufacturing area M' 

The following few cases are fairly average 
of well laid out shops using individual motor 

manufacturing large machinerj' averaging 
about 50 tons completed weight: dead space 
about 50 per cent of total area. It was found 
that /?2 = 0.09 and the average watts per sq. ft. 
total area for both power and light were 2.85. 

Shop No. 3 

A shop with one gallery, total area approxi- 
mately 100,000 sq. ft. used for manufacturing 
largely special apparatus up to 250 kw. 
capacity; dead space about 50 per cent total 
area. It was found that /?3 = 0.08 and the 
average watts per sq. ft. total area for both 
power and light were 2.3. 

Shop No. 4 

A shop, one story high, total area 40,000 
sq. ft. used for manufacturing a standard 
line of apparatus weighing less than two tons 
completed; dead space, about 70 per cent 
total area. It was found that Rt=0.07 and 


n n D 

D n n 

□ Di 



/)Sf^M0LY ^7i)£/( 


D a 
n n 
n D 




n D izn 

Fig. 1. Arbitrary Shop Plan Assumed for Illustration 

drive and making economical use of the 
manufacturing area. 

Shop No. 1 

A shop one story high, total area approxi- 
mately 30,000 sq. ft., used for manufacturing 
miscellaneous machinery up to about 10 tons 
completed weight and in which no dead area 
existed. It was found that 7?i = n.l5 and the 
average watts per sq: ft. total area were 4.63 
for both power and Hght. 

It is worth noting that a check study of 
this shop made a j-ear later and after a 
number of changes in number, character, 
size, and location of tools had occurred, 
showed i?i=0.15, and the watts per sq. ft. 
4.74. The increased watts per sq. ft. was 
easily accounted for by the unusual amount 
of apparatus manufactured during this 

Shop No. 2 

A shop with three galleries, total area 
ai)proximately 500,000 sq. ft. used for 

the average watts per sq. ft. total area for 
both power and light was 1.76. 

In all of these cases, except the last, it w411 
be seen that the watts per sq. ft., in any one 
shop, can be found very closely from the watts 
per sq. ft. in any second shop by multiph-ing 
the watts in the first shop by the ratio of R 
in the second shop to R in the first shop. The 
exception in the case of Shop No. 4 is due 
perhaps to the fact that much of this shop 
was used for storage of material from adjacent 
shops manufacturing different apparatus. 

Thus in the case of the first two shops men- 
tioned, we have i?i = 0.15 and /?2 = 0.09. 


R^ 0.09 ._ 


110 = 0.60X4.63 = 2.87 (nearly). 

The watts in the second shop are actuallv 

The reverse operation also gives nearly 
correct results. 

ISO March 191S 


Vol. XXI, No. 3 

Now consider the third shop. We then have 
Rs 0.08 

Ri 0.15 

= 0.53 


ir3 = 0.53X4.63 = 2.4. . 
The watts in this shop are actually 2.30. 
In any two shops, therefore, 

ir,x5=Tr^, (1) 

and since. 


Where T is the projected tool area, and M 
is the manufacturing area. It follows that, 

IV2M2 T2 

The product Tl'M will only be the total 
average load when neither shop has any 
"dead" space. 

From (2) it follows that the product of the 
manufacturing area times the average watts, 
divided by the projected tool area is the same 
in all such shops. 

If we had found the average watts by di^•id- 
ing the total average load for the entire shop 
by the square feet manufacturing area only, 
then the product WAI would be the total 
average load. It would then follow from (2) 
that the total average load in any two shops 
is proportional to the projected tool area in 
these fwo shops, and hence, that the average 
watts per square foot of tool area is a constant 
in all such shops. Averaging a large number 
of diversified tools in a number of shops 
showed this result to be between 27 and 30 
watts per sq. ft. tool area. 

These results cannot be applied blindly to 
individual shops, to departments where all 
tools are alike, or to individual tools, but only 
to diversified tool groups of say fifty tools or 

In this study it was found that the smaller 
the tools in any given manufacturing area the 
larger the projected tool area, and, therefore, 
the larger the value of R. Consequently, 
manufacturing processes requiring the use 
of small tools will require more power than 
processes where this condition is reversed. 
This is not unreasonable because the smaller 
the tools the larger the number that can be, 
and generally are, installed in a given area. 
Some of them will always be running. On the 
other hand, if two or three larger tools are 
installed in the same area, during some part 
of the time thev will all be shut down. 

These results are here offered with some 
hesitancy. A more complete investigation 
might lead to somewhat different conclusions. 
But the fact remains that these relations 
seem to hold through a considerable number 
of shops used for widely different purposes. 
The constants given apply, of course, only to 
average machine shop practice. Their values 
are somewhat different in factories equipped 
in different ways, such as, for instance, a wire 
and cable factory or a shoe factory. 

So far we have included the power required 
for lighting in our computations. This, 
however, makes little difference, for the 
results are average for a day of eight hours and 
during this time artificial light is used 
relatively but a small fraction of the total 
time. If we assume that the connected 
hghting load is 1.0 watt per sq. ft. shop 
area, the average load for a 300-day year is 
about 0.13 watts per sq. ft. If the connected 
lighting load were 1.25 watts per sq. ft., the 
total average load would be only slightly 
greater. If we allow 0.13 watt as the average 
lighting load, the net average power load in 
shop No. 1 will be 4.5 watts per sq. ft. This 
shop, which gives close to average results, 
has no dead space. The average shop, 
however, has 50 per cent dead space, so that 
we may take as an average power load for 
all shops 2.25 watts per sq. ft. total area, 
which is close to the values obtained in Shop 
No. 3. 

In cases such as Shop No. 4, where the 
average load is less than 2.25 watts per sq. ft., 
investigation has shown that some propor- 
tionate part of the floor area is being used for 
purposes not directly connected wnth the 
manufacturing being done in the shop. The 
range in aU the shops investigated is between 
1.7 and 17.1 watts average load per sq. ft. 

The results of the check study made of 
Shop No. 1, led to the conclusion that in 
diversified machine shop practice not more 
than 15 per cent of the manufacturing area 
can be efficiently occupied by tools. This was 
again checked against a layout stated to show 
the maximum number of machine tools that 
cotild be efficiently placed in a given area. 
The result was i? = 0.153. 

It is also necessary to find average peak 
loads that will affect the design of the dis- 
tributing system. The load factors frequenth' 
assumed for preliminary work are 40 per cent 
connected load as average, and 60 per cent 
connected load as peak. These values do not 
give correct results in any of the shops 
investigated . 


A method of determining the average load 
from the tool layout has been given. To 
determine the average peak load that must 
be considered in pro]5ortioning the copper, 
we shall api:)ly the law of probability to the 
starting and stopping of motors. 

It is a fair assumption that in any large 
diversified machine shop at any moment just 
as many motors are as likely to stop as to 
start., in time all motors would be 
either rtmning or standing still simultaneously. 

If, then, all the motors in a shop are of the 
same size it is Hkely that at any moment just 
as much load will be in the process of being 
connected to the distributing system as will 
be in the process of being disconnected from 
it. Under these conditions the average peak 
load \vill not be much greater than the' 
average load. If the motors are of various 
sizes then we must weight their chances of 
being started or stopped with their individual 

As most tool motors are compound wouinl, 
are usually selected for a duty that will 
rarely be demanded of them, and start under 
light load, the starting current inrush will 
not be marked. In Shop No. 1, the average 
motor horse power of 133 motors is approxi- 
mately G.2, yet the average load is but 1.2 kw. 
or 1.3 developed horse power per tool. The 
peak load in this shop would be 3.5 times the 
average load to equal the connected motor 
horse power converted to kilowatts. Actually, 
the peak load does not exceed twice the 
average load, so that, on the average, the 
inotors are never required to develop more 
than 41 per cent of their rated output. 

What follows must be considered rather as 
outlining the possibilities of the method than 
as developing its detail application. Space 
in this paper is not available for a complete 
discussion, but as the writer believes the 
matter to be new, a brief presentation here 
seems advisable, even if only to bring about 

Let A'^ be the number of motors in the 
group. Let p be the fraction of working lime 
that, on the average, any motor is running. 
Then, since on the average just as many 
motors are connected to the system as are 
disconnected from it at any one moment, 
Np motors will, on the average, be always 
connected, and, presumably running. The 
factor p will vary from less than 0.5 to ().!• 
in factories engaged in dilTerent industries 
and kinds of work. 

If W is the a^•erage load, ,-^- is the average 

load per motor. If H is the average rated 


horse power of all the A' motors, 0.746 -= 


is the average demand in kilowatts at full 

rated horse power, where E is the average 

full load efficiency. Then, 

^ 0.746 NpH 
is the average fractional demand at which 
the Np motors operate, and from this their 
average efficiency e at this load can be 
determined. Then, 

h = : 


0.746 A> 

is the average horse power developed. As 
we have seen, in divei sifted shops, there is 
reason to believe that / will not generally 
exceed 0.5. 

Obviously, the minimum probable load 
will occur when the \'p smallest motors are 
connected to the system simultaneously, each 
developing a fraction, /, of its rated horse 
power. Similarly, the maximum probable 
load will occur when the largest Np motors 
are connected to the system simultaneously. 

The probabihty that any particular group 
of Np motors will ever be connected to the 
system simultaneously is p^'* and is ver>- 
small unless A' is small. 

We may, therefore, conclude that the 
probability that the smallest probable load 
will be exceeded at any time is a certainty. 
Also the probability that the load will ever 
be less than the smallest Np motors is 
infinitely remote or zero. Similarly the 
probability that the load at any time will be 
less than the largest Np motors is a certainty, 
and that it will ever be greater, infinitely 
remote or zero. 

If the intermediate probable load values 
are infinitely finely graded between maximum 
and minimum, two simple probability curv-es 
can be lirawn, such as shown in Fig. 2. 
intersecting at the average load. The proba- 
bility that at any time the actual load will 
exceed or be less than this average value is the 
same. Therefore its probability is 0.5. 

We are interested only in loads larger than 
the average, and wish to find what the chances 
are that an\- load above the average will be 
exceeded. Let us take a load from Fig. 2 
whose iirobability of being exceeded is 0.01. 
This load is 00 per cent of the maximum 
l)robable load. We wish, then, to find the 
probabihty that this load will be exceeded at 
least once when we are willing to risk even 

1S2 March 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 3 

chances on it. By the well known formula, 

n=— ; — '°f " , where C is the probability 

that the load will be exceeded (in this case 
0.01), and n is the number of trials necessary 
to insure that the load will be exceeded at 
least once, it follows that m = 69. 


What interpretation shaU we give to the 
word "trials"? There are, let us say, 100 
motors in the group of which, on the average, 
0.6 or 60 motors are always connected to the 
system. Let us assume that, on the average, 
each motor is in operation six minutes and is 
idle, four minutes. Consequently, in eight 
hours each motor will be connected to the 
distributing system 4S times, and the whole 
100 motors 4S00 times. This, we may say, 
gives opportunity for the load to increase 
4800 times a day. Therefore, out of every 
69 changes or, on the average, ten times an 
hour, the load will exceed at least once 99 
per cent of the maximum probable load. On 
this same basis it would require an infinite 
number of chances for the load probably to 

reach once the maximum probable load 
whose probability of being exceeded is zero. 
In this manner, we may plot a curve of 
chances such as shown in Fig. 2. 

The question then resolves itself into this: 
Is it worth while to design the distributing 
system to carry a load that, on the average, 
will be imposed upon it once every 
six minutes? Will it not be suffi- 
cient to set the circuit breakers 
on the mains for this load, or even 
for the maximum probable load, 
and, the Underwriters being will- 
ing, design the copper for the 
average load, or something above 
it, since the average load (proba- 
bility 0.5) would probably be ex- 
ceeded every trial? That is, the 
chances are even that it will be 

In all of the foregoing much has 
been assumed and many working 
conditions left out of consideration. 
Motors in machine shops are not 
always graded so that the proba- 
bility curves will approach the form 
of those in Fig. 2. 

Generally, however, the motor 
sizes are so distributed that most 
of the loads within the probable 
range can be made up by a num- 
ber of combinations of different 
size motors. When this is the case, 
fine grading of the load between 
maximum and minimum can be 
assumed. In such cases, the proba- 
^^^ bility curves will take the straight 

line form shown in Fig. 3. The 
average load is not necessarily also 
the mean, as was assumed in con- 
structing Fig. 2. 
Sometimes a particular load in the range 
of probable loads can be made up in many 
more ways than any other load within this 
range. This increases the probability of its 
occurrence, and decreases the number of 
chances necessar}- to insure that it will be 

Again, a number of relatively large motors 
may be included in the group. 

Assume, for instance, that in the entire 
group there are five motors alike; then, with 

p = ~k one such motor will be off 3^ of the 

time and on 73 of the time. Two such 
motors will be simultaneously off ',9 of the 
time, and on simultaneously Va of the time, 
and five such motors will be on simultaneously 


'V243 of the time and off simultaneously 
V243 of the time. The periods being given 

by " off " = I I and " on " = I 7, 1 where n is 

the number of motors being considered 
together. Thus, if these motors were 5 h.p., 
this group alone would probably introduce a 
peak every 1.2."i minutes amount- 
ing to 2G kw. The probability of 
this load is ^V2w = 0.13, and must 
be taken into account in construct- 
ing the probability curve for the 
entire group. If there are several 
such cases in the group, then the 
probability that any combination 
of them will occur simultaneously 
is the product of their indi\-idual 

All of these conditions may bring 
about an irregular probabilit}' curve 
rather than the straight line curves 
shown in Figs. 2 and 3. 

If, however, the number of motors 
in the group is relatively large (.50 
or over), and the number of similar 
large motors in an}' case is not xevy 
great, or their combined horse 
power not a very great part of the 
total horse power of the group, and 
also if the motors as a whole vary 
considerably in rating'among them- 
selves, the probability of any such 
combination is small and a suffi- 
ciently close approximation will be 
obtained if infinitely fine grading of 
load is assumed; provided only that 
the probability curves intersect at 
the average load and that the sum 
of the probabilities that any load 
will be exceeded and that it will 
not be reached is always unity. 

As a concrete example let us take the case 
of a tool-making department in the Sprague 
Electric Works. The motors are as follows: 

If we put ^ = 0.6 and /=0.5, then the 
demand per motor when running is 1.38 kw., 
assuming an average efficiency of 0.725. The 
average number of motors connected is 
0.0X04 = 38.4. The total average load is 
1.36X38.4 = 52.2 kw. The area occupied 
by the tools is 2049 sq. ft. At 27 watts 

*-.^- . 

a 30 

Probability Cui 

M^X.» ^SS/CiV 

;cs for Evenly Graded Load, 
i 0.3 of Range 

Horse Power 


Horse Power 






37 H 






















The average horse power is therefore 2.67 

per sq. ft. the average load should be 
55.3 kw. 

The manufacturing area is 13.632 sq. ft. 
Therefore, 7? =0.15, which is the same as 
Shop No. 1, and the average load per sq. ft. 
of manufacturing area should be 4.5 watts. 
From the figures given above, it is 52,200-;- 
13,622 = 4.0 watts per sq. ft. — a remarkable 
agreement when we consider the differences 
between the two shops. 

Since /> = 0.6. the maximum probable load 
should be that of the largest 38 motors. It is 
145.5 rated horse power, or nearly 74.5 kw. 
actual average demand. The minimum 
probable load is 45.5 rated horse power or 
23.3 kw. actual average demand. The 
average load is 70 per cent of the maximum 

184 March 1918 


VoL XXI, No. 3 

load and, therefore, lies toward the maximum 
load 0.55 of the range between maximum and 
minimum. Here the probability curves for 
this case must intersect, and the probabiHty 
of this load is 0.5. 

If we drop off the single 10-h.p. motor and 
keep the number of motors connected con- 
stant, the next lowest probable load is 137.5 
rated horse power or 95 per cent of the 
maximum probable load, and 93 per cent of 
the range between minimum and maximum. 
The probability that this load wiU be exceeded 
is 0.07. But the next probable higher load 
is the maximum probable load. So the 
maximum probable load must be used as 
probable average peak. It is, therefore, about 
43 per cent greater than the average load, or 
56 per cent of the total connected load. 

Among these motors there is a sub-group 
of five, all of which are rated at 7J^ h.p. or 
3.6 kw. average demand. The total demand 
of the sub-group may occur (0.6)* or O.OS of 
the time. However, these motors are only 
1/9 of the total number connected at any 
time and, therefore, cannot materially affect 
the results, particularly in view of the fact 
that the 45 largest motors constitute such a 
large portion of the total horse power. 

Let us next examine Shop No. 1 for 
probable peak. This shop is equipped with 
fairly large tools — 48-in. borers and the like. 
The motor data follow: 

Horse Power 




Horse Power 















































Average horse power 6.15. 

Therefore, A^=133, and from the data 
presented above, average load, L=145 kw. 
Hence, the average demand per motor is 
1.1 kw. The average demand of a 6.15 h.p. 
motor at 50 per cent load is 2.8 kw. Therefore, 

14.^)5 51 

Ar^=— =51,and^=i|=0.38. 

The Np largest motors, the average rating 
of which is 11 h.p., at 50 per cent load 
demand 255 kw. The Np smallest motors, 
similarly demand 99 kw. The probable load 
variation, therefore, lies between 99 kw. and 
255 kw. — a range of 156 kw. — so that the 
average load of 145 kw. lies, toward the 
maximum, 30 per cent of the range. At this 
point the probability curves intersect at 
C = 0.5 as shown in Fig. 3. 

The range and grouping of the motors is 
such that practically any load between 
average and maximum can be made up in a 
number of ways. The sub-groups of 5-, 71^-, 
10-, and 15-h.p. motors, constitute a possible 
source of irregularity. This can be tested out 
by constructing a separate probability curve 
for these groups taken together. The probable 
maximum load introduced by these 78 motors 
averaging 8 rated h.p. is about 100 kw. when 
the largest 30 motors are connected. The 
probability that this load will occur in just 
this way is 0.38™ and is very small. It will be 
found that these motors do not introduce a 
serious complication, and we shall assume 
that the number of ways in which any load 
can be made up is sufficiently large to warrant 
the assumption of fine grading and straight 
line curves each way from the average. 

The "trial" curve is constructed and, for 
comparison, shown in Fig. 3 in connection 
with the similar curve from Fig. 2. 

The tools in this shop are generally large 
enough to warrant our taking the average 
working time at 30 minutes. There are, 
therefore, a probable 2128 total chances for 
the load to increase. Taking 75 per cent of 
the range, it appears that a load of 215 kw. 
will be exceeded at least once in every 3.1 
trials. That is, 686 times a day or about 
86 times an hour. 

It we take 95 per cent of the range, or 247 
kw., the trials necessary to insure its being 
exceeded at least once are 19.5; that is, 104 
times a day or 13 times an hour. We shall 
be safe in designing the distributing system 
for this load, and calling the probable peak 
247 kw. or 60 per cent more than the average 
and 33 per cent of the total connected load. 
The main circuit breakers would have to be 
set above this. Actually the peak in this shop 
reaches the maximum probable load, and, 
occasionally, somewhat more. 

We shall assume that in the preUminary 
design of distributing systems in diversified 
machine shop practice it is safe to assume 
that the peak load which must be considered 
in proportioning the copper, will be 50 per 


cent in excess of the average when the 
average is based on the values of watts per 
sq. ft. given above. 

We are now able to lay out the backbone of 
a distributing system even before we know 
how the power will be used or how the load 
will be distributed. It is merely necessary 

/ac/ Oroiyp 

firifi,f rufra. 

One Line Wiring Diagram 

that we order copper enough so that the 
feeders and mains can carry a load of 2.25 
watts per sq. ft. of floor area. But the method 
of installation must be such that as soon as 
we get the tool layouts reasonably well fixed 
and can determine average and average peak 
loads in the various departments, we can 
quickly distribute the copper accord- 
ingly. These tool layouts will come 
along about the time the tools arrive — 
sometimes even later, so that if the 
distributing system is at all rigid diffi- 
culties will be encountered. 

At least one proper solution of the 
problem will be found in the use of a 
backbone main on each floor; or, in 
wide buildings or heavily loaded build- 
ings, a backbone main on each side 
of each floor. These mains are con- 
sidered as semi-permanent, but so 
arranged that any section of them 
can be removed or reinforced. The 
mains will be provided ^\^th perma- 
nent taps at e\-ery ba\- or at every 
other bay, the taps being so arranged 
that branches or reinforcement can 
be connected to them without dis- 
turbing the permanent equipment. 
Branches to motor starting boxes or 
to tool cutout boxes, will be made 
only from these taps. The distribu- 
tion from tap points to load units 
also consists of units attached to the 
main system at the permanent taps 
and so each such branch may be 
shifted in its entirety from tap to tap. 
It becomes, in fact, a part of the load 
unit as much as the motor or the 

A one-line diagram of the system 
is shown in Fig. 4. The size of con- 
ductors and circuit breakers given in 
this diagram are ihose found most 
generally useful for a system based 
on the watts per sq. ft. values given 
above. The diagram indicates the 
trunk main on two floors, or rather 
the space proxnsion therefor, as the 
main may not be continuous. Tap 
points are shown with branches or 
taps to power cutout boxes where the 
fuses protecting the branches to tool 
groups are located, each tool being 
provided w4th a cutout switch with- 
out fuse. In some cases where tools 
are more or less connected in their 
work and belong together or where 
the motors are small — fractional horse 

186 March 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 3 

power — several tools may be looped together 
on a single branch, in which case the cutout 
switches on the tools as well as the branch 
should be fused. 

By thus concentrating the fuses at cutout 
boxes where the change in size of conductors 
between taps and branches is considerable, 
not only is the tool branch as Well as the 
motor and starter protected, but also, and 
more important, no main fuse or other safety 
device is required in the cutout box. Further- 
more, if the tap is not less than one-third 
the size of the main in current carrying 
capacity, is not unreasonably long, and is run 
in conduit, no safety device is required where 
it joins the main. This throws the safety 
device next in circuit to the tool branch fuse 
back to the circuit breaker protecting the 
feeder that supplies the main. The advantage 
of this arrangement is that in case of a suc- 
cession of overloads on individual motors, 
branch fuses protect the motors and will 
isolate each case of trouble, while shut-down 
of a tool group or a number of such groups will 
not occur unless conditions become generally 
dangerous. A succession of safety devices not 
differing greatly in capacity is a frequent 
cause of general shut-down due to isolated 
cases of trouble, particularly if fuses are used 
in series. It is worth while paying some 
money for this kind of insurance. 

The mains are arranged so that they may 
be cut in sections and each section fed 
separately, or they may be continuous and 
fed at one point. Innumerable combinations 
are possible depending on the load distri- 
bution and its development. The main, being 
of the same size throughout will be sectional- 
ized so that the load fed by any section will 
not exceed its current carr3^ng capacity, or 
if the current carrying capacity is necessarily 
exceeded, the main may be reinforced. 

All floor feeders are the same size as the 
mains. At the floor junction each floor feeder 
to a main or section thereof is connected to a 
common bus through a one size circuit breaker 
which thus protects both floor feeder and main. 

On the floor then, all circuit breakers, con- 
duits, and conductors used for main distribu- 
tion arc the same size. Since the location of 
cutout boxes is purely arbitrary we may select 
a .size to feed a given and convenient number 
of motors of average horse power and make 
these cutout boxes all of the same size. 

As far as jjossible the distribution of floor 
junctions will be determined as follows: 

Assume that a No. 4/0 conductor is a 
convenient size for the mains. Its current 

carrying capacity is 225 amperes which, at 
2-10 volts is 54: kw. Allowing for drop and for 
peak load, say that a No. 4/0 main will feed 
35 kw. average load. This, at 2.25 watts per 
sq. ft. floor area, means that every 11,000 
sq. ft. floor area will require a main. Suppose 
the building is 75 feet (3 bays) wide, and a 
main will be eventually run along both rows 
of columns, then one main will supply about 
300 linear feet of building. Allowing for 
mains running both ways, the riser points 
will be 600 ft. apart. 

Structural conditions may, of course, make 
it advisable to somewhat depart from this. 
On this basis a building 500 ft. long and 75 ft. 
wide, would have two riser points spaced 
about 300 ft. 

At each junction location there will be a 
riser point if the building is more than one 
story high. Generally a location for these 
risers can be found on a fixed tower or stair 
wall, and a series of nipples provided over 
each other in each floor, through which the 
risers can be run. 

Generally a single riser of appropriate size 
will be run to each floor junction. Sometimes 
two are necessary, and occasionally it may be 
necessary to install special risers that do not 
pass through a floor jimction but run directly 
to some special apparatus on any floor, such 
as a test department. Each of these risers 
originate in a switchboard on the first or 
lowest floor, usually a convenient space back 
of the wall on which the riser runs can be 
found for use as a switchboard room. See 
Fig. 5. The switchboard room is provided 
with a pit below the first floor level to serve 
as a manhole in the incoming subway system 
if such exists. A removable floor is provided 
at the first floor level. 

Thus the risers are quite as flexible as the 
floor distribution and as little or as much 
copper and other material put into the riser 
as necessary to meet any particular case. 

Since the riser conductors are all the same 
size, the circuit breakers on the switchboard 
will also be all of the same size, and the board 
may be designed so that as many as are 
initially necessary may be installed at first, 
and more later as conditions may require. 
Then, since everything else in the system has 
been standardized, the switchboards may also 
be standardized. This gives the added 
advantage that all space requirements may 
be determined in advance when the building 
plans are under consideration — generally long 
before any subdivisions of load or detail tool 
layouts have been decided upon. 


Wc have now outlined the system from the 
tool cutout box to the switchboard, and 
must go back for a moment to the tool 
branches. A simple flexible method of running 
tool connections from the cutout boxes in 
buildings of mill construction can be easily 
found by running them on the ceiling of the 
floor below. Boring through the floor is an 
easy matter. But in modern buildings of 
reinforced concrete the problem becomes 
serious and the process costly, particularly if 
changes are frequent. However, for lack of a 
better type, the so-called "floating" wood 
floor consisting of a heavy under floor and a 
lighter upper or finished floor has been 

conduit and then replacing the upper floor 
strip removed. In this way the cost of making 
and changing tool connections is materially 
reduced, and the finished floor may be put 
down before the tool layouts are determined. 

We thus start out with a predetermined 
switchboard space, figured by putting to- 
gether enough standard switchboard parts 
to meet maximum conditions, a hole in the 
wall of the switchboard room so that conduits 
may pass through to the riser, a series of 
nipples in each floor, a standard system of 
hanger inserts arranged for in the ceilings, a 
system of under floor passages and trenches 
determined, the necessary clearances recorded 


/a -J/, "ryp£ wppi.£s 


/r//i!ST rj.O0^ 

Fig. 5. Switchboard Compartment for Rii 

commonly used, the two floors laid at 90 
degrees to each other. The under floor is 
usually of planks 2^4 in. by S in. or 10 in., 
so that by systematically omitting planks a 
system of under floor passage-ways may be 
obtained in which the tool connections can be 
fished in flexible conduit. These ]iassage-ways 
should be crossed at suitable intervals, 
usually on the column axes, by trunk trenches 
with removable covers in which the con- 
nections can be laid from the cutout boxes 
on the columns. The only floor cutting;; 
necessary is that lengthwise of the upper 
floor from the nearest ]iassage-way to the 
tool, grooving the under floor to receive the 

and established, and the building may go 
ahead, no matter for what manufacturing 
process it is to be used. 

During the preliminary work, of course, 
co-ordination of plan, priority, and right of 
way must be established between the work 
of the various mechanical trades — heating, 
sprinkler, plumbing, cranes, etc. 

Thus far in this discussion, the distribution 
for lighting has not been touched upon, 
because the same general arguments apply 
and it seemed wise not to confuse the issue. 
It is believed that the examples of the 
application of this method given in Part II 

will SUttice. (To be continued) 

188 March 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 3 

Electricity in Beet-sugar Factories 

By E. M. Ellis 
Los Angeles Office, General Electric Company 
Proeress and economy demand the electrification of our railways and industrials.-; The production of 
Deetsu4r?s one of the later industries to adopt electrification. The following article gives a readily 
intelligiMe description of the processes involved in the production of beet sugar and explains how greater 
reiaM ty and economy can be secured by electrification. The many illustrations show he simp ici y and 
SiUtv of electric drive. The application of electricity is equally advantageous in the manufacture of 
cane suear^e^^^^^^^^ Cane-sugar Factories'' by A. I. M. Wemtraub G.E Review 19 4, 

cane sugar; see 

by P. S. Smith, 

Ian p "lA and Dec, p. 1204; and "Electricity Applied to the Manufacture of [Cane] Sugar 

19°3, Aug , p 571. In a forthcoming issue we expect to publish "Economies of Electric Drive in Cane Sugar 

Mills." — Editor. 

he receives his seed for his crop or "acreage. " 
Sugar beets will grow in soil containing con- 
siderable alkali and require comparatively 
little moisture. In Southern California the 
seed is planted in January, February, or 
March; and the first of the crop is ready for 
harvest about July 1st, the harvest extending 
to the first of December. The dates are 
governed by the conditions of the crop .and 
also by the factory in order that the beets 
will not be brought in faster than they can 
be handled. It is necessary to do considerable 
work in the beet fields while the beets are 
growing. They are planted very thickly and 
after a few weeks of growth are thinned b}' 
hand. Due to Government regulation and 
competition with cane sugar this operation 
requires very cheap labor, secured at present 
to a large extent from Mexico. After the 
beets are harvested the tops and tips are cut 
off and the beets thrown in small piles ready 
to be hauled either to the factory direct or to 
the railway beet dumps to be loaded in cars, 
depending upon the distance to the factory. 
The beets are left in the ground, however, 
until the factory is ready for that particular 

Storage bins are provided in the beet shed 
adjacent to the sugar factory, and have a 
capacity to insure an uninterrupted daily 
supply independent of weather conditions. 
The process of beet-sugar manufacture, 
briefly stated, consists of washing and slicing 
the beets, extracting the sugar content by 
the diffusion process, clarifying and evapora- 
ting the juice, graining out -the sugar, separa- 
ting the crystals from the molasses, and drying 
the Fugar before it goes into the bag. The 
heating, clarifying, evaporating, and graining 
processes are all carried on in vessels heated b\- 
high- or low-pressure steam. Considerable 
power is required to work up the beets, pump 
the juice, and separate the crystals. The 
low-pressure steam is obtained from the power 
units which operate against the back pressure 

The shortage of sugar resulting from the 
War has brought the public to a realization 
of the value of sugar as an article of food. 
The destruction of the sugar factories of 
France, Belgium, and Russia, and the ctitting 
off of the sugar supply from Germany and 
Austria-Hungary have compelled the Entente 
Allies to invade the Cuban market which 
has been the piincipal source of supply for 
the United States. 

In the season of 1913-14 there were pro- 
duced in the world 20,602,768 short tons of 
sugar, of which 9,433,783 tons (46 per cent) 
were from the sugar beet, and the balance 
from the cane. The consumption of sugar 
in the United States during this period was 
4,396,898 tons (21.5 ^er cent). Of this 
amount, 55.66 per cent was cane sugar from 
foreign countries (mainly Cuba), 27.84 per 
cent was cane sugar from Louisiana, Texas, 
and insular possessions, and the remaining 
16.50 per cent was domestic beet sugar. The 
beet-sugar factories have increased from 78 
in 1913 to 92 in 1917. 

Climatic conditions determine whether cane 
sugar or beet sugar shotxld be produced. The 
sugar cane requires a twelve-month growing 
season and an absence of frost in the ground; 
the sugar beet can be matured in half that 
time and, as it is raised from seed each year, 
the frost does not affect it. The cane is there- 
fore confined to the tropics, while the beet 
is suited to the temperate zones where the 
average temperature during the growing 
season averages 70 deg. F. 

The beet seed, which formerly was nearly 
all imported from Germany on account of 
our inability to compete in price and qtiality, 
is W)\\' to a large extent imported from Russia; 
but the cultivation of seed has been started 
in this country and this will make us inde- 
pendent of an outside supply. The imported 
seed is distributed to the planters by the 
various sugar factories, in return for which the 
planter contracts with the factory from which 



190 March 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 3 

of the low-pressure system. Fig. 2 shows the 
interior of the power plant of an electrically 
driven factory employing a steam turbine- 
driven unit. 

Fig. .3 shows a wagon load of beets being 
dumped into what is called the "beet shed" 
for storage. The illustration also shows the 
method of obtaming a sample of the beets to 
be taken to the tare room. 

The tare room is of particular interest to 
the farmer, because it is here that the tare 
weight of his load is decided. About one 
bushel of beets is taken from the wagon or 
carload, trimmed with a knife and mechanical 
brushes, and then weighed. The difference 
between this and the original weight is the 
tare. The cleaned or "tared" beets are cut in 
halves and one half tested for sugar content 
and purity; the results obtained are used as 
the basis for the entire load. 

The beets are taken from the beet sheds by 
means of water in a flume and are floated past 
a Dalton separator or weed catcher, shown in 
Fig. 5. The flow of the beets through this 
flume is quite rapid in order not to allow the 
beets to remain in the water too long, as a 
loss of sugar amounting to about 0.2 to 0.5 
per cent would result. 

Upon their entrance into the factory the 
beets are elevated to the washer by means 
of a beet wheel, air lift, or screw, shown in 
Fig. 4. Here they are treated with warm 
water and are washed by means of mechanical 
brushes and rotating paddle," and are then 
passed through a tailing separator 'Ijo the beet 
elevator. The elevator is an endless bucket 
conveyor which carries the washed beets to 
the top of the building where they are emptied 
into the hopper of an automatic weigher, 
shown in Fig. 9. 

The beets pass from the hopper of the 
iautomatic weigher into the beet storage bins 
directly over the top of the beet slicers or 
cutters, shown in Fig. 6. In these cutters 
the beets are cut into long, V-shaped sections, 
called "cossettes, " 3^ in. thick and from 1 in 
to 3 in. long, to expose as much surface as 
possible. They are cut by means of gang 
cutters or knives, arranged on a rotary 

From the slicers, the cossettes are conveyed 
either by belt conveyors, as shown in Fig. 7, 
or chutes into the diffusion cells which have 
a capacity of from two to five tons of sHccd 
beets, and are arranged in a battery usually 
ten to fourteen cells in scries. In these cells 
warm water is circulated first through the 
exhausted chips and last through the fresh 

cossettes, extracting 85 per cent of the sugar 

The exhausted pulp with the entrapped 
fresh water is peiiodically discharged through 
an opening in the bottom of the cells and is 
then pumped to the silo shown in Fig. 15. 
Here the water is strained from the pulp and 
returned to the factory for fluming the beets. 
The pulp is largely used directly as cattle 
feed, although some factories have a pulp 
drying plant where it is dried and packed for 

The juice taken from the cossettes is 
measured in tanks and is pumped to lime- 
mixing tanks, where a solution of lime milk 
of about 20 per cent Baume is added to the 
juice in order to furnish a filter base and also 
to act as a clarifying agent. The juice is 
then pumped to the first carbonation tanks 
where it is saturated with carbon-dioxide gas. 
This gas is taken from the lime kilns and is 
pumped into the juice at about four pounds 
discharge pressure. From the first carbona- 
tion tanks the juice is pumped under a pres- 
sure varying from 40 to 70 pounds to the 
first carbonation presses or filters. Here the 
juice is filtered, removing the dense lime cake 
which is discarded from the process. This 
cake is either used for fertilizer on beet fields 
or dried in rotary kilns and used in the Stef- 
fens process. 

The juice flows from the first carbonation 
presses through a re-heater to the second 
carbonation tanks. This process is contin- 
uous, that is, when the system is made up of 
two or more tanks the juice is saturated with 
carbon-dioxide gas as a clarifying agent in 
the first and is boiled in the second. From 
the second tanks the juice is taken to the 
second carbonation presses and is filtered 
under a pressure of about 20 pounds, remov- 
ing additional solids consisting mostly of lime. 
The cake from these presses is returned to the 
first carbonation juice; and the juice from 
these presses is saturated with sulphur- 
dioxide gas and a filter base of Keiselguhr is 
added. It is then passed through a gravity- 
bag filter and sometimes also through a tube 
boiler to the first -effect evaporators. 

The juice enters the evaporators at a den- 
sity of 13 deg. Brix. and the surplus water is 
evaporated, leaving the juice at a density of 
about 00 deg. Brix. (Degrees Brix. represent 
the amount of solids in the solution.) These 
evaporators are arranged in multiple effect, 
using exhaust steam on the first -effect and 
the vapors from the juice on the second- 
effect, and so on to the end of the last-effect 



g. 5. Bfct Flume showing a Dalton W.-,-,i S.i'i!.'i"r at the 
Entrance tu the Building. A Motor OperaUl Hoist 
Removes the Crib with the Weeds and Trash. 
Anaheim Sugar Company, Anaheim. Cal 

Fig. 6. 

cage Motor th 

,. , an.i Chain 
Anaheim. Cat 

Fig. 7. Cell Floor showing DitTusion CilU and Cossctte Con- 
veyor in the Center with Heaters. Filter Presses, and 
Carbonation Tanks at the side. American 
Beet Sugar Company, Chine. Ca! 

Fig. 8. JO-h p. rjOrpni- Squ.iicicunc M,.-,oi ^ .ih Double 

end Connection Driving Pulp Pumps. A juice pump u 

shown to the right dnven by a 30h p . 1000 rpm. 

squirrel-cage motor also suspended from the 

ceiling. American Beet Sugar Company, 

Chino, Cal. 

192 March 19 IS 


Vol. XXI, No. 3 

where the vapors enter the condenser. In 
the first-effect evaporator the body is under 
a pressure; in the second-effect it is under a 
vacuum of 5 inches; in the third under 1.5 
inches; and in the last under 25 inches. 

The juice is pumped from the evaporators 
to storage tanks and is drawn as required 
into the vacuum pans. In these pans the 
juice is boiled to a grain. The pans generally 
boil under a vacuum of about 26 inches and 
use steam at 60 pounds pressure for heating. 
About five hours is required for boiHng a pan 
of brown sugar. From these pans the fillmas, 
or concentrated juice and sugar, is dropped 
into a crystaUizer where it is kept agitated 
in order to crystallize under a uniform tem- 
perature for a period of 60 to 70 hours. From 
these crystallizers the fillmas is drawn off to 
mixers, where it is kept agitated until worked 
through the brown-sugar centrifugal machines. 
These are called "brown" centrifugals, due 
to the fact that the mass is dark in color and 
contains considerable impurities, although the 
sugar remaining in the machine is white in 
color. These centrifugals are operated at 
about 1000 r.p.m. and throw off through a 
screen lining all the liquid, retaining the solids. 
The solids consist mainly of brown sugar and 
some salts or impurities. The liquid thrown 
off is known as molasses (not the common 
commercial molasses owing to a considerable 
amount of impure content) and is approxi- 
mately seven per cent of the total weight of 
the beets. This molasses is discarded from 
the process and is sold as a factory by-product 
to distillers of alcohol, or it is worked over 
for further sugar extraction by the Steffens 
process. Sometimes the molasses is sold to 
be mixed with ground feed for stock. As the 
molasses is thrown off from the centrifugals, 
the sugar is washed with cold water. Because 
this wash water when thrown off carries with 
it a high sugar content, it is transferred back 
into the process in the vacuum pans, and is 
called the "low wash." 

The brown sugar discharged from the sugar 
centrifugals falls into a scroll and is conveyed 
to a melter tank where it is converted into a 
solution mixing with thick juice from the 
evaporators. Then it is pumped into the 
"blow-up" tanks where it is saturated with 
sul])hur-dioxide gas for removing the impuri- 
ties. From these tanks it is pumped under 
pressure through filter presses and is passed 
through gravity filters. It is then pumped 
into storage tanks on the vacuum-pan floor. 
In the vacuum jians it is mixed with the 
"high-green" syrup and "high-wash" syrup. 

obtained later in the process from the "white " 
centrifugals, and is boiled to a grain of the 
size desired. When finished, the fillmas is 
dropped into the mixer from which it passes 
into the white-sugar centrifugals. These 
machines are called "white" centrifugals 
because it is here that the pure sugar is 
obtained, and this sugar is considerably whiter 
than that obtained from the "brown" cen- 
trifugals. The white centrifugals are practi- 
cally the same as the brown centrifugals in 
operation, and the liquid thrown off from the 
white centrifugals is known as the "high- 
green" syrup. When the mass enters it is 
brown in color, but as the syrup is forced out 
the sugar gradually whitens. After the mass 
has spun for about sixty seconds it is washed 
with cold water while revolving. This wash 
water when thrown off also carries with it a 
high sugar content and is known as the "high- 
wash" syrup. These high-green and high- 
wash syrups are carried through a further 
process where sulphur-dioxide gas is injected, 
and then they are pumped into storage tanks 
on the pan floor and are used as has been 
outlined. The centrifugal is then brought to a 
stop and the sugar scraped from the sides of 
the basket and discharged through an open- 
ing in the bottom. The sugar discharged from 
the white-sugar centrifugals is conveyed by 
scrolls and elevators to the storage box high 
up in the building. It is fed from the storage 
box to the granulator, or dryer, where the 
moisture is evaporated from the crystals. 
From the granulator, the sugar is graded over 
mechanical screen devices and is discharged 
into hoppers below. From these hoppers the 
sugar is drawn off into bags which are properly 
labeled for the various size crystals in the 
different hoppers. The sugar is graded 
according to the size of the crystal and not 
according to the purity of the sugar, as the 
purity, or quality, of a particular factory 
remains practically the same throughout. 

The Steffens Process 

The molasses which is thrown off from the 
brown centrifugals is treated in what is called 
the "Steffens" plant, and approximately 
one-half the molasses is reclaimed as com- 
mercial sugar. This molasses is pumped into 
storage tanks and is then drawn oft" into 
solution mixing tanks where it is diluted with 
cold water to a density of about 12 deg. Brix. 
From these tanks it is pumped over pre- 
cooling coils and drawn into reaction coolers. 
In these coolers powdered lime is added with 
wliich the sugar combines at a temperature 






c a 

e c 

194 March 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 3 

■a S 

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o < 



■S "^ 
^ ffl 


" B. 

m i! 



low enough to prevent the lime from slacking. 
While the lime is being added, this temperature 
is maintained by a cold brine solution flowing 
in the coils of the reaction coolers in order to 
absorb the chemical heat. From these coolers 
the solution is pumped through filter presses. 
The cake from the filter presses is mixed in 
tanks with wash water from the first carbon- 
ation presses. This saccharate is used for 
liming the first carbonation juice and intro- 
duces the sugar from the Steffens plant at 
this point in the factory process. The waste 
water from these presses is heated to the 
boiHng point and pumped through additional 
presses called hot-saccharate presses. The 
waste water from these latter presses has 
formerly been discarded but is now being 
used to some extent in the manufacture of 
potash. About five per cent dry potash is 
obtained by evaporation. The cake from 
the hot-saccharate presses is mixed with the 
cold press cake in the saccharate mixing tanks 
before being pumped to the first carbonation 

The machinery in the beet-sugar factories 
operates continuously day and night for a 
period of approximately 100 days, which 
period is called by sugar men the ' ' campaign. ' ' 

There is as much as 17.5 per cent of the 
weight of the beet produced as sugar ; and the 
factory slicing 100 tons of beets per day for 
100 days will produce 17,500 tons of sugar or 
350,000 bags of 100 pounds each. 

At the end of the campaign the factory is 
practically disassembled, cleaned, repaired, 
and reassembled; and this part of the year is 
called the "inter-campaign." A shut-down 
of but a few hours during the campaign 
causes not only loss of production and labor, 
but also causes a loss due to fermentation of 
the juices which sometimes amounts to 
thousands of dollars. For this reason sugar 
factory dri\'es are generally arranged with as 
much flexibility of operation as possible and 
great reliability is essential. Until recently, 
beet-sugar factories were operated by steam 
engines driving long line shafts. Lately, a 
large number of the steam-engine-driven 
sugar factories are replacing the engine dri\-e 
with electric drive. As a large quantity of 
low-pressure steam is required in the cooking 

process, it is very economical to use steam 
turbines in the high-pressure mains to act 
primarily as reducing valves and at the same 
time to generate electric power for the factory. 
The sugar factory necessarily requires con- 
tinuity of service, and the turbine-generator 
together with the required electric motors 
have been found to be more reliable than 
steam-engine drive. Electrification simpli- 
fies the operation of sugar-mill machinery. 
Results obtained in electrified mills show a 
reduction of 15 to 20 per cent in operating 
exjienses and also show less shut-downs due 
to mechanical troubles. 

Several factories in Southern California 
have recently changed most of their steam 
drives to electric drives. Among these are 
the American Beet Sugar Company's factory, 
at Chino, which is equipped with both a 
Steffens plant and a pulp dryer; the Anaheim 
Sugar Company's factory, at Anaheim, which 
is equipped with a pulp dryer but no Steffens 
plant ; and the Los Alamitos Sugar Company's 
factory, at Los Alamitos, which is equipped 
with a Steffens plant but no pulp dryer. 
For operating electrically they have installed 
steam turbines operating under a pressure of 
approximately 125 pounds gauge with a 
back pressure varying from 12 to 14 pounds 
gauge. These factories have also installed a 
considerable number of electric motors, some 
of which are shown in the illustrations of 
this article. For all of the motor drives, with 
the exception of the sugar centrifugals, squir- 
rel-cage motors have proved entirely satis- 
factory. On the sugar centrifugals the squir- 
rel-cage motors would prove satisfactory for 
groupdrive except for the facts that the motors 
are so large, in comparison with the generator 
capacity, and the white-sugar centrifugals are 
stopped and started so often during the day 
that in order to obtain the best voltage regu- 
lation use is made of slip-ring motors. 

A sugar factory sHcing 1000 tons of beets 
each 24 hours requires approximately SCO 
horse power of motors without a Steffens 
plant which requires 250 horse power, or a 
pulp dryer which requires 300 horse power. 
The load-factor during the campaign. 
not including auxiliaries, is about SO per 

196 March 191S 


Vol. XXI, No. 3 

The Voltage Regulator and Phase-balancer Regu- 
lator Equipment of the Philadelphia 
Electric Company 

By R. M. Carothers 


The equipment described in this article was installed to distribute over the three phases of the 
generators a heavy single-phase railway load. The boosters with their independent exciters maintain con- 
stant voltage on the phase from which the railway load is taken, and the shunt phase converter distributes 
the load to the other two phases and maintains the voltages of these phases equal to that of the first. The 
single phase railway load at times reaches the value of 24,000 kv-a., and the manner in which this load is 
smoothed out is shown by a chart from the recording voltmeter. Photographs of the indicating wattmeters 
and ammeters show also how nicely the phase converter adjusts the load between the three phases. — Editor. 

In previous issues of the G-E Review* 
there have appeared articles dealing with the 
subject of phase balancers for polyphase 
circuits in general, and referring to the par- 
ticular equipment installed at the Philadel- 
phia Electric Company. It was pointed out 

To Generator Fieid 

Elementary Wiring Diagram of Voltage and 
Phase-balancer Regulator System 

that a shunt phase converter requires some type 
of balancing regulator to cause the converter 
to correct for any unbalancing effect. As an 
automatic regulator is therefore absolutely 
essential to a successful installation of this 
type of converter, it is deemed advisable at 
this time to describe the balancing regulator 
developed especially for this type of service. 
There are installed in the plant of the 
Philadelphia Electric Company both booster 
voltage regulators and phase-balancer regu- 
lators; consequently this article will deal with 
the booster regulating system (commonly 
known as the KR system) and the balanc- 

• "Singlc-phasc Power Production," by E. F. W. Alexander- 
_d G. H. Hill, Ge.verai. Electric Review, Dec, 1916, 


ENERAL Electric Re\ 

ing system as a whole, for they both work in 
conjunction with one common aim in view, 
that is, to maintain a constant bus bar voltage 
on all three phases of the system. 

The Company possessed standard voltage 
regulators (that is, the type operating directly 
upon the exciter field rheostats), but when it 
became known that a heavy single-phase rail- 
way load would have to be supplied it was 
decided to install the booster system for main- 
taining constant voltage on the phase from 
which the railway load would be taken, and 

A -J 

Caller tj-*- 
Boara Ll_ 


S. Henningsen, 

Fig. 2. Relative Location of Stations, 
Philadelphia Electric Company 

shunt-phase converters for maintaining the 
voltage on the remaining two phases equal to 
that of the first. 

The main consideration that led to the 
adoption of the booster system was the desire 
to maintain the exciter bus voltage at a con- 


stant value, in order that a storage battery 
might be floated across this bus, thus assur- 
ing emerj^ency excitation in case of the failure 
of any of the exciters. (It is impossible to 
operate a storage battery in parallel with 
exciters when the regulator is operating 
directly upon the exciter fields, due to the 
variation in the main exciter voltage.) As 
the principles of the booster system are fairly 
well known, only a brief description of the 
system will be given. 

Fig. 1 shows this system in simplified form. 
It consists principally of the main exciters; a 
booster, the voltage of which depends upon 
the excitation required at the alternator 

of the current in the exciter field will be in the 
opposite direction. Therefore, the. voltage 
of the main booster can he maintained at any 
value between maximum buck and maximum 
boost conditions by the action of the regulator 
contacts. Assuming the voltage of the exci- 
ters to be 2.50 and the range required across 
the generator fields to be from 200 to .'iOO, the 
booster would be designed for oO volts; and 
the total voltage across the fields would there- 
fore be from 200 volts (250 - 50) to 300 volts 

Fig. 3 shows how this equipment was 
installed to conform with the lay-out of 
the Philadelphia Electric Company's sys- 

Fig. 3. Complete Wiring Diagram of Regulator Syste 

fields and whose current capacity must equal 
the sum of the full-load excitation values of 
the total number of generators to be excited ; 
a separate exciter for this booster; and a set 
of resistances R-] , R-^. and R-3. the field of 
the booster exciter being excited from taps on 
an intermediate point on these resistances 
and the mid-point of the storage battery. 
The regulator relay contacts operate across 
resistance R-S. When R-S is short circuited, 
R-1 being greater than R-2, the direction of 
current in the exciter field will be in one direc- 
tion; whereas, when the regulator contacts 
are open and R-3 is in circuit, this resistance 
plus R-:2 being greater than R-1 . the direction 

tern. There are two voltage regulators 
installed, each being of the automatic type 
and having 24 sets of relay contacts. One 
regulator acts as a spare to the other. It will 
be noted that the system possesses two 
main exciter buses, one a 2.50-volt bus and 
the other a 125-volt bus; and it will also be 
noticed that the booster or excitation buses 
are divided into three sections, one section 
for Station .4-/, one section for Station AS, 
and one section for Substation •4. The rela- 
tive location of the different stations, .4-/, 
.4-^", and .4 are shown in Fig. 2. 

The generating equipment for Station .4-7 
consists of two 15,()0()-kw. generators while 

19S March 191S 


Vol. XXI, No. 3 

that for Station A-3 consists of one 30,000-kw. 
generator, and one 20,000-kw. generator. 
The equipment in Substation A consists 
of two 6000-kw and one 4500-kw. units. 
The boosters for Stations A-1 and A-3, and 
also the spare booster for these stations, are 

regulator. Fig. 4, is similar in every detail 
to the standard voltage regulator with the 
exception that it is equipped with an ad- 
ditional pilot or balancing magnet, the core 
of which is attached to the opposite end of the 
main alternating-current magnet lever. The 
elementary connections for this regulator are 
shown in Fig. 5, where it will be noted that the 
booster of the balancer set, or conveiter, is 
equipped with two sets of field windings the 
ciurents of which are at right angles to 
each other in electrical phase position. 
Each of these fields, therefore, is excited 
from a separate exciter and the balancer 
regulator controls the voltage of each. In 
order to obtain a wide range of balancing 
effect, it was desired to reverse the excitation 
upon these fields, this value being from 125 
volts in one direction to 125 volts in the other. 
To secure this range it was necessary to apply 
the KR principle for exciting them. The 
direction of excitation therefore is the result- 
ant of the two field values as shown in Fig. 6. 

/^c s<^s ^w*as 

Fig. 4. Phase -balancer Regulator 

50-kw., 75-volt machines, while the 
rating of the booster for the 125-volt 
bus in Substation A is 50-kw. at 50 
^'olts. These boosters are all induc- 
tion-motor driven and each is sup- 
plied with a separate 4-kw., 220-volt 
exciter which is also induction-motor 
driven. Although the three excita- 
tion are independent of each 
other, they are all controlled from one 
regulator; the direct-current control 
for the regulator is taken from either 
one of the 250-volt sources or the 
1 25-volt source. Equalization of pow- 
er-factor is obtained and circulating currents 
prevented by means of different adjustments 
on resistances R-S. 

As before stated, the adoption of the 
shunt type of converter led to the develop- 
ment of the phase-balancer regulator. This 

Due to the fact that each of these values can 
be maintained either side of zero, the desired 
direction and value of excitation can be made 
to revolve through an angle of 360 deg. At 
any one -instant the voltage will be low on 
some phases and high on others, which means 


that the low phases will "motor, ' ' and the high 
phases will generate. In actual operation, 
the phase converter in order to balance the 
voltages of the system will take power from 
the phase or phases upon which the voltage 

■ Diagram Showing Relationship 
) Fields of Booster 

is high and will deliver power to the phase or 
phases of which the voltage is low. 

For any one system there are required two 
balancer regulators, the pilot coils of which 

(phase B-C), and by means of the pilot coil 
maintains this voltage equal to that of jjhase 
A-C. The main alternating-current magnet 
coil of the remaining regulator is connected 
across the third phase (phase A-B), and by 
means of its pilot coil maintains the voltage 
across this phase equal to that of phase A-C. 
As the booster regulator is connected to phase 
A-C a constant as well as balanced voltage is 
held on all three phases of the system. 

The equipment as installed at the 
Philadelphia Electric Company consists of 
two balancer sets, each balancing regulator 
being so constructed that it controls these 
two sets in parallel. Similar to the boosting 
regulating equipment there is one set of spare 
regulators, making a total of four balancer 
regulators installed. 

The generating Stations A-1, A-3, and Sub- 
station A were not primarily laid out for such 
an extensive regulating equipment, and it was 
therefore quite a problem to find convenient 
and suitable locations for the regulators and 
the various boosters and exciters going to 

Fig. 7 Voltage and Phase-balancer Regulator Switchboard 

Fig. 8. Rear of Regulator Switchboard 

are connected in parallel across the phase 
from which the single-phase load is taken 
(phase A-C, Fig. 5). The main alternating- 
current magnet coil of one regulator is con- 
nected across one of the remaining phases 

make up the total equipment. The difficulty 
was finally overcome by building in one comer 
of the operating gallery of Station A-2 a small 
switchboard, Fig. 7. to receive the voltage 
regulators themsel\-es. Fig. S shows the rear 

200 March 191S 


Vol. XXI, No. 3 

of this board. The boosters and their exciters 
were located in the high-tension switch gallery 
just below the main operating gallery, Fig. 9, 
and the various resistances and rheostats were 
mounted in the high-tension bus gallery just 
above the main operating room. 

There are no charts available showing what 
the balancer regulators are accomplishing on 
the remaining two phases, but a study of the 
meter readings in Figs. 7 and 1 1 are of interest, 
although the readings were taken at a time 
of day when the load was not heavy and when 

Fig. 9. Boosters and Exciters of Regulator Syste 

It has been pointed out that the 
total capacity of the three stations 

amounts to over 100,000 kw. (that ^^^S^B^^^^S^^^^^^H^SB^BB^B^B^^^S 
is, the equipment connected to the ■^■■^■■^^HHHgBMHMB|HH|MH 
25-cycle bus). The single-phase BBSSBBiBBSSBSSSSSBSSBlSBBlSliiS 
railway load is taken from the ' ' ' ~~ ~ ' '" 

25-cycle bus, the peak load at ^^SSSSS^SSSSSwSSSSS^S^M^K^M^M^K^S^SmSi 
times reaching the value of 24,000 tSSS S^^^^^^^^BB^^ ^^A 
kv-a. Fig. 10 shows the effect of 
these swings on the system, both 
with and without the booster regu- 
lating equipment in service; and 
the difference between these two 

cur\'es readily shows the great k^B^A^B^B^H^B^B^B^Al^^MHHi^H^H^B^Bliin 
improvement caused by the use of ■B&iSSSSI^SB&BBl&'B^BBB&^'^'^l 
the regulator. This improvement ■^■»^??^^^^^""i«!!^^^lBBi^^Blii 
is all the more remarkable when 
the complexity of the regulating 
equipment is taken into considera- 
tion, and when it is further under- _____^„__, 
stood that this regulation is being BHHHJ 
accomplished during the period of WMM^XMMi 

peak load and when the railway Fig. lO. Effect of Sing.e-phas= Railway Load on Voltage of System 

load swings are the largest and Lower curve, without booster regulator; upper curve, with booster regulator 

most violent. 


only one of the converter sets was in opera- 
tion. The three meters in Fig. 7 indicate the 
voltage of the respective phases of the 2.")- 
cycle bus, and it will be noted that the reading 
of each is approximately the same. Referring 
to the three wattmeters for converter No. 2, 
Fig. 11, it will be noted that the top and bot- 
tom meter are registering on the same side of 
zero, while the middle meter is registering on 
the opposite side. These three meters indi- 

This regulating and balancing equipment 
has been in operation a little over a year and 
the performance of each has been more than 

The operation fully demonstrates that an 
automatic voltage regulator has been designed 
and developed that will operate satisfactorily 
on a shunt phase converter, and that will 
correct quickly for any unbalanced load con- 
ditions without any tendency toward hunt- 

Fig. 11. Indicating Meters Connected in Balancer Circuit. 
Converter Set Balancing to Extent of 1000 kw. 

cate the kw. load upon each phase of the con- 
verter and from their readings it would be 
inferred that the center meter is registering 
on the phase; from which the raihva\- load is 
being taken. It will also be noted that the 
reading of this meter is approximately 1000 
kw., while the sum of the readings of the other 
two meters equals (but in the ojiposite direc- 
tion) practically this same amount, which 
further indicates that the converter set is 
converting to the extent of 1000 kw. 

ing of the regulators themselves, or between 
the converters and the main generating sys- 

The 20,000-kw. generator in Station A-1 is 
a recent addition to the system and will be 
supplied \\-ith a separate excitation bus, thus 
making it necessary to increase the size of 
each voltage regulator 50 per cent. The regu- 
lators then will control four separate and inde- 
pendent exciier buses instead of three as has 
iicen d scribed in this article. 

202 March 19 IS 


Vol. XXI, No. 3 

Life in a Large Manufacturing Plant 


By Chas. M. Ripley 
Publication Bureau, General Electric Company 
The apprentice svstem described in our January issue trains young men for positions as machinists, pat- 
tern-makers, moulder's, etc. These workmen are not directly concerned with the electrical characteristics of 
the apparatus on which they are working, but mainly with the mechanical features — accurate machining, correct 
dimensions, and a knowledge of the materials with which they work. On the other hand, the students in the 
departmental schools described in this issue are instructed principally in the design and electrical character- 
istics of the Company's product. Both courses involve classroom work in theory and application. These two 
schools, of course, were organized for the purpose of training young men to perform the exacting work demanded 
in the manufacture of electrical apparatus, and are mutually beneficial to the Company and the student. But 
in addition to these educational courses there arc other schools provided for Company employees, in which 
instruction in purely academic subjects may be had. Our big industrials realize that the better informed their 
employees are the more valuable workmen they make, and hence are wiUing to provide the broadest educa- 
tional facilities. — Editor. 

In the preceding chapter was described the TESTING DEPARTMENT SCHOOL 

Apprentice Course of the General Electric The largest departmental school is the 

Company for boys of sixteen years and older Testing Department where, at the Schenec- 

having only a grammar school education. In tady Works, fifty-five boys are now in attend- 

the chapter following this, which will appear ance. In this two-year course boys can earn 

in the April General Electric Review, $1350 while being taught, if they attend 

a complete description will be given of the regularly and are always on time. 

Student Engineers' Cotirse for technical Six months after the students enter the 

college graduates. But between the ele- course they are assisting in measuring elec- 

mentary apprentice course and the advanced tricity a thousand times more accurately 

student engineers' course there exists an than a coal dealer weighs coal, a hundred 

intermediate field in which are many educa- times more accurately than a grocer weighs 

tional facilities, some of them novel and all sugar, and ten times more accurately than a 

of them important. This chapter outlines jeweler weighs diamonds. This skill and pre- 

the various departmental, vocational, and cision, this familiarity with the tools of the 

night schools, and the college courses, lee- electrical engineer, is the beginning of the 

tures, publications and libraries constituting boys' electrical education, 

these intermediate or miscellaneous educa- It is acquired in the Standardizing Labora- 

tional facilities that are open to employees tory amid agreeable surroundings. 

of the General Electric Company. In this laboratory there are 8,500 electrical 

That the school facilities are being utilized instruments of five hundred different types 

is evidenced by the record of the number of and capacities, and every one is kept accurate 

students registered in Schenectady during the within a fraction of one per cent. The 

school year 1917-18. students learn how to select the proper 

~ . „ t q In 1 instruments for various uses; how to cali- 

SwltchboaXDe'^Irtmen°Schoois '.'.'.'. 49 ^^^^''' adjust, and repair them; how to use 

Evening Vocational Schools 318 them to measure electrical quantities; and 

Municipal Night Schools 877 during the six months that they are being 

Union College Evening Classes 142 instructed in this work thev are being paid. 

Comptometer School 30 - ^ '^ 

Classroom Studies 

The course consists partly of work in the 

DEPARTMENTAL SCHOOLS shop where the boys are under individual 

. instructors, and partlv of classroom instruc- 

1 o boys from eighteen to twenty years of tion of one hour or niore each week. These 

age_ who have a high school education or classes include lectures on direct- and alter- 

equivalent training, but who are unable to go nating-current theorv, and instruction in the 

to college, the General Electric Company use of machines and instruments for testing 

offers two specialized educational courses in and the slide rule for rapid engineering cal- 

departmcntal schools. culations 



Besides the classes which are attended on 
the Company's time, the students are urged 
to attend night school, the Vocational Schools, 
or the Union College courses, all of which are 
described later in this chapter. Fifty out 
of sixty-five of these students attend one or 
more of the night courses. 

The boys spend fifty hours a week in the 
shops, attend classroom one hour a week, 
and are paid for fifty-one hours per week. 
For every week in which their time record is 
perfect they are paid for fifty-two hours, that 
is, a bonus of one hour's extra pay. 

In addition to these classes held during 
business hours, the boys are taken on inspec- 
tion trips through the shops, examinations 
are held to test their powers of memory, 
observation, and reasoning, and special care 
is taken to guide their reading in proper 
channels and to keep them interested in 
good literature and engineering books. 

For the classroom work there are two 
instructors, and two instructors each for 
the work in the shops and in the Stand- 
ardizing Laboratory. 

Shop Training 

In the armature department the students 
are not required to wind armatures or field 
coils, nor to perform any of the processes of 
manufacture; they are put here solely to 
become thoroughly acquainted with the 
various methods of design, construction, and 
manufacture in this department. 

Attention is invited here to the difTerence 
between the apjjrentice course and this 
departmental school. While an apprentice 
is working upon a machine tool as a machin- 
ist, these students are studying and testing 
the winding of armatures, learning the theory 
of electric motors and dynamos, and are 
gras]3ing far more knowledge regarding elec- 
tricity per se than the apprentice does in 
the same length of time. These students 
test the insulation and measure the resistance 
of field spools, stator coils, motor rotors, and 
stators of both alternating- and direct-current 
machines of various types. This portion of 
their training is conducted in many different 
buildings, and there is always some new 
illustration in the shop of what has pre\-iousl\- 
been discussed in the classroom. This adds 
interest to the work and assists the students 
to a clearer comprehension of what electricity 
will do. 

Shop Instructions and Observations 

An im]iortant feature of this shop training 
is the method used to train the students' 

l)owers of observation, and develop their 
memory. A few of the examination questions, 
selected at random from the complete list, 
are given below. It would be an interesting 
experiment to find out how many of these 
questions a college man could answer on the 
day of his graduation. Each graduate of the 
Testing Department's school must know how 
to answer over 100 of these questions cor- 
rectly, and his knowledge of the subjects is 
obtained not only in the classroom from text 
books and blackboard demonstrations, but 
from the actual operation of the machine 
itself, supplemented by information imparted 
to him personally by instructors in the 

Some Examination Questions Regarding Direct-cur 
rent Motor Fields 

1. What is meant by shunt fields? Series 

fields? Interpole fields? Compensated 
fields? Accumulative fields? Differ- 
ential fields? 

2. What is a ventilated field spool? 

3. Why are cast iron, cast steel, or lami- 

nated structure used in different 
frames ? 

4. Why are shims used between pole 

pieces and frames ? 

5. Why is a pole piece usually of laminated 

G. Why does it have tips on each end? 
7. Why are some pole tips perforated? 
S. How are shunt spools wound? 
9. What is a random wound coil ' 
10. Which is best, random or layer wound, 

and why' 

Some Examination Questions Regarding Armatures 
and Commutators 

1. What kind of material is used in arma- 

ture cores? * 

2. Wh>- is it not solid casting or forging? 

3. How is the core assembled? What 

operations are necessar>' before ready 
to receive coils? 

4. Why do some armatures have spider 


5. Why are holes or ducts pro\-ided ; At what 

peripheral speed do armatures run? 

6. What is an equalizer? 

7. When are wire wound coils used? — and 

when bar? 
S. How are the coils fomied ? 
9. What insulation is used on 125-250 

volts and how? 
10. What insulation is used on 1200-2400- 
3000 volts d-c. ? 

204 March 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 3 



IL What is a shell bound commutator? 

12. What is an arch bound commutator? 

13. Which is best con.struction and why? 

14. Why is copper used? 

15. Why built up of segments ? 

IG. Why not build it of steel or iron? 

17. How thick is side mica in commutators' 

18. What kind of mica is used? 

19. How is side mica prepared? 

20. How are cones prepared? 

21. How are commutators finally finished' 

22. Which is better, turning or grinding' 

23. How is a slow-speed armature balanced ? 

24. How is a high-speed armature balanced ? 

25. What is the reason for vanes on commu- 

tators? How much value? 

These questions only suggest how the 
boys can make the most of their opportu- 
nities for obtaining knowledge of electrical 
designing and contruction details. It is 
expected that they will become familiar 
with the kinds of material used, and how 
these are made up ready for assembly. They 
are encouraged to learn how the materials 
are treated and why, how they are assembled 
in motors, generators, and synchronous con- 
verters. The students must be familiar with 
the forming of armature and field coils; 
they must know how these are taped, insu- 
lated and assembled in the machines, and 
how the machines are connected up with 
the electrical circuits from the power stations. 

All these questions are practical, and the 
boys are provided ample time and oppor- 
tunity — one might say as privileged charac- 
ters — to ask any questions they desire on 
how machines are constructed and why. 

"Shooting Trouble" 

The technical term for discovering defects 
is "shooting trouble." A trouble shooter is 
a Valuable man in an engineering organiza- 
tion, be it a telephone, lighting, or traction 
company, or a large industrial plant. A 
prominent commercial engineer once gained 
an important customer for his Company 
because he was able to discover why some 
of the factory machinery would not work, 
and pointed out to the operating man the 
slight readjustment that would restore the 
machinery to full operation. There is no 
telling when an intimate knowledge of the 
interior construction and working of elec- 
frical machinery wall solve some problem in 
an emergency and help to establish a man's 
reputation as a thorough-going electrical 

During all this period the classroom shows 
the "why" of the shopwork, and the shop- 
work shows the utility of the classroom 
theory. For this shopwork on armatures, 
motors, commutators, fields, etc., a year is 
considered sufficient. 

Safeguarding Electrical Machinery 

The remaining six months of the course 
are spent partly in testing safeguarding 
devices which automatically cut off the 
electric power from machinery that is over- 
loaded or badly handled, and partly in the 
switchboard department learning how elec- 
tricity is distributed and controlled. Our 
engineers harness the waterfalls and make 
them generate electricity; but it is then 
necessary for other engineers to harness the 
electricity so that it can be transformed, 
transmitted, distributed and controlled to 
work in the service of mankind. 

Another feature of the classroom work is 
the explanation of the workings of electric 
circuits. The boys are taught how direct 
and alternating current passes through the 
wires; how electricity maj' be sent in one 
direction to one machine where it will do one 
duty; and how, by the mere turning of a 
switch, it can be sent hundreds of miles in 
another direction to do duty on another kind 
of machine. Thus the boys obtain what may 
be called a practical working knowledge of 
electricity and electrical machines, and the 
general principles of safeguarding and con- 
trolling that wonderful power with which we 
can accomplish so much for mankind. 

High Voltage Work 

In testing insulation pressures as high as 
100,000 voits are finally employed by these 
boys, and the safety j^recautions connected 
with this work are thoroughly learned through 
personal instruction and experience. 

Routine Test 

After this two years' course has been com- 
pleted, the boys are started as routine test men 
for six months. Regular and prompt attend- 
ance during this additional period increases 
the high school graduate's total earnings to 
$1,765— all ^\-itliin two and one-half years 
after his start in the electrical industry! 

In the routine test the boys are taught how 
to wire up machinery to the controllers and 
the line, and to test such apparatus as com- 
pensators and controllers for steel mill motors 
and mine hoists; how to set up and operate 
the controlling devices of electric trains, as 

20G March 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 3 

1. Measuring Resistance of Induction Motors 

2. Learning How to Test a Motor Armature 

3. Instruction in Testing Rotor of Alternator 

4. Instruction in High Voltage Work 



well as of machines for transforming one kind 
of electricity into another entirely different 
kind of electricity. During this advanced 
six months' course the weekly classroom work 
is continued as before. The operation of 
machines is demonstrated in test, and then 
inspection trips are taken to show the actual 
performance in service of the motors, con- 
trollers, and the various devices which have 
been studied and tested in the preceding 

After this schooling, these young men are 
given a final examination and those who 
pass become regular test men at increased 
pay. After an additional year of testing, 
of a more advanced and expert order, they are 
then ready for work in the engineering or 
commercial departments, or for construction 
on the road, or for engineering or commercial 
work in the various district offices of the 
Company in the United States and abroad. 


Another school is conducted for the young 
men of the testing and inspection sections 
of the switchboard department, and is 
called the Instruction Course for Switchboard 
Department Test Men. Those who have 
been accepted for this course, but who have 
not actually been graduated from high 
scliool, are expected to attend some of the 
night schools mentioned later in order to get 
instruction in the indispensable preparatory 

On January 1, 1918, forty young men 
were registered in this instruction course. 
The curriculum is quite rigid and provides 
for two hours each week of classroom instruc- 
tion on the Company's time. Every student 
must prepare the work required and master 
the subjects given. If a man misses two or 
more lectures in succession without a satis- 
factory excuse, he will be automatically 
drojjjjed from the rolls. If he is absent from 
four or more classroom sessions during the 
entire course, he must pass a special exami- 
nation on the work missed. The engineers 
in charge of these classes, however, are avail- 
able an extra hour every week for giving 
advice, answering questions, and consulting 
with the sttidents. 

In the first six months of classroom work 
the students are given simple problems 
teaching the elements and apjilications of 
electricity, and the elements of trigonometry. 
After passing an examination on this work, 
they enter a second six months' class dealing 
with problems of electrical measurements. 

switchboard design and mechanisms, and 
applications of alternating current. 

After ]:)assing examination on these subjects 
the students enter a third class, of 
six months, and take up the study of switch- 
board materials, methods of machining, 
specifications, stocks, business organization, 
the essentials of economics and the funda- 
mentals of salesmanship. Following gradua- 
tion from this third class, they are prepared 
to enter the work of the switchboard depart- 
ment. Any student who after two years 
has not shown particular aptitude or liking 
for switchboard work will, on request, be 
shifted to the routine test in the testing 

The salaries earned by the students in this 
course, and the number of hours which they 
work and attend classes, are identical with 
the schedule of the Testing Department's 
preparatory school. 

Of course, it is evident that neither of these 
courses begins to give the equivalent of 
a college education with its training in ad- 
vanced mathematics, mechanics, languages, 
hydraulics, chemistry, and cultural studies; 
but after having satisfactorily completed 
the work laid out. these students will have 
obtained a practical working knowledge of 
electricity and electrical apparatus, compar- 
ably probably to that of a man entering his 
senior year in the average technical college. 

Ever^-thing else being equal, the high school 
graduate with aptitude for mathematics will 
ultimately be given greater responsibilities 
and will earn more in the electrical industry 
than will those who lack the high school 
training. Although some apprentices, excep- 
tional men, have made extraordinary head- 
way, the average high school man \\-ill fare 
better than the average apprentice. The 
\-oung men who creditably complete these 
two courses and continue their studies should 
rise to positions as designing, construction, 
and commercial engineers, frequently with 
apprentice graduates working under their 
direction. The mathematics which the stu- 
dents obtain in the high school becomes a 
real asset in future years. 

To sum up : The young men learn to handle 
expertly a great variety of electrical instru- 
ments and apparatus, and understand their 
applications in industry; they learn in classes 
the theory of electricity; and at all times 
they are in touch with a great organization 
where they gain first hand knowledge of 
mechanical and electrical engineering and 
manufacturing processes. 

208 March 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 3 

Other classes for high school graduates are 
conducted in the Lynn, Erie, Fort Wayne, 
and Pittsfield Works. Young men with a 
complete high school education who have 
an aptitude for technical work, may obtain 
training which will fit them to become com- 
petent electrical and steam turbine testers, 
manufacturing and electrical engineers, or 
cost accountants. The classroom education 
is of an advanced character, and deals with 
advanced algebra, plane trigonometry, ana- 
lytic geometry, mechanics and mechanisms, 
mechanics of material, magnetism and elec- 
tricity, machine and dynamo design, heat 
and heat engines, chemistry and metal- 
lurgy, mechanical drawing, and business 

After a two months' trial period, during 
which they receive regular compensation, 
those students are selected who have the 
requisite characteristics. 

Training courses for electrical test men, 
technical clerks and cost accountants require 
three years, and afford extended experience 
in assembling various classes of apparatus. 
Where practicable, a short assignment in 
the cost and production departments is 

These courses are maintained to train 
young men for efficient service in the various 
branches of the Company' 's complex activi- 
ties, or in power and lighting stations, trans- 
portation companies, and other industrial 
establishments using electrical machinery 
and steam apparatus; or for those desiring 
to learn the business of installing and erecting 
electrical and steam machinery. 

The advantage of these courses is that they 
cover a gap which formerly existed between 
the apprentice course and the test course 
given to technical college graduates. 

A decided innovation brought about by 
the war is the school conducted by the Switch- 
board Sales Department for training young 
women college graduates for commercial and 
semi-technical careers in the electrical in- 

Class Room Work 

This course opens with a three months' 
probation period during which the young 
women are given one hour each day of class- 
room instruction dealing with apparatus, 
theory, and business. 

In the apparatus classes the devices used 
on switchboards are brought into the 

classroom for inspection and are thoroughly 
described and discussed. The students are 
also taken on trips through the factory or 
through neighboring power plants where 
they can see how the switchboard apparatus 
protects the big machines and controls its 
generation and distribution. Inspection trips 
are taken to afford perspective. For instance, 
one trip was taken to a waterfall outside 
of the city, in order to see the power plant 
which harnesses the waterfall, and the switch- 
board which dispatches the electric power 
to the city. 

Ample printed matter describing and 
illustrating the apparatus and installations 
is available. Lectures are given on the devel- 
opment of switchboards and the applications 
of air and oil circuit breakers, instruments, 
transformers, relays, lever switches and 
fuses. The young women learn the func- 
tions of indicating and recording instru- 
ments and of other different types of electric 

Theoretical Instruction 

Lectures are given on how to use the slide 
rule; classes in elementary electricity alter- 
nate with classes describing apparatus. Tech- 
nical lectures, beginning with the most simple 
subjects and gradually leading up to more 
complicated details, explain electrical phe- 
nomena and principles. The subjects of some 
of the lectures are: magnetic action, electro- 
magnetic induction, and the characteristics 
of motors, generators, transformers, regu- 
lators, lightning arresters, etc. 

Commercial Class 

The young women acquire a knowledge of 
department organization and routine, how 
manufacturing costs are obtained, and how 
to prepare specifications, quotations, and draw 
up contracts. One hoiir out of each eight- 
hour day is spent in classrooms and the other 
seven hours are spent in commercial engineer- 
ing work. 

In the earlier periods of the course they are 
taught the uses of the price books, cost ad- 
vices, and cost issues; they correct these books 
and keep them up to date, and thus become 
familiar with the terms and rel^ive values 
of the items entering into switchboard prod- 

Next they price and check proposals which 
will later be submitted to customers of the 
Company through the salesmen in the various 
district offices. While doing this work the 
young women act as assistants to expert 



estimators or proposal engineers, and learn 
the details of estimating and the cost of 
building a switchboard far in advance of the 
actual construction work. Later they make 
estimates on small standard-unit switchboards 
and panels for electric hoists and for small 
power plants. These young women are being 
trained as commercial engineers — a profession 
requiring a knowledge of both business and 

Young women college graduates should 
have a liking for mathematics, physics or 
chemistry in order to succeed in this course 
or in the work of the Research Labora- 
tory or the Testing Laboratory, where 
other young women graduates are now 

Training Girls at Lynn 

At the Lynn Works girls have been em- 
ployed for some time in the construction of 
small electric motors. Their work requires 
dexterity in processes of winding and inserting 
coils in motors. But now girls are being 
taught to test these motors in order to deter- 
mine their electrical characteristics and the 
perfection of their manufacture and opera- 
tion. This involves a knowledge of elec- 
tricity, both alternating and direct current, 
and the engineers of the Company are giv- 
ing these girls personal instruction in this 

Comptometer School 

A class for instruction in the operation of 
comptometers is maintained in the Schenec- 
tady Works. This class of thirty girl 
employees meets four evenings a week 
between 5 p.m. and 7 p.m. For the ambi- 
tious girls who are undertaking this work 
the Company provides an instructor and 
serves supper each evening on which the 
class meets. 


The vocational schools ofler schooling in 
General Electric methods. They are open 
to all with a good education. The vocational 
schools at Schenectady are conducted inside 
the Works, are exclusively for emplo\-ces, 
and convene immediately after the close 
of the working day. They are under the 
joint jurisdiction of the Company and the 
City Board of Education. The tuition and 
use of the books cost nothing if the students 
attend 80 per cent of the sessions. 

The courses of study offered in the Schenec- 
tady vocational schools are as follows: 

Business Arithmetic Accountancy and Business 
K^nglish Administration 

Commercial Law Touch Typewriting 

Elementary Bookkeeping Stenography 
Short Course in Phonograph Dictation 


Last year 217 students enrolled, of whom 
27 were girls. That the students meant 
business is shown by the fact that two-thirds 
of last year's students attended 80 per cent 
or more of the sessions, and 90 students 
satisfactorily passed in the subjects studied. 
The average age of the students registered was 
25 years, although the minimum age limit is 
16 years. Nine courses were offered in 1917- 
1918, and a total of 318 employees enrolled. 

Further information relative to these 
courses — the subjects treated, books fur- 
nished, time and grade required — is given 
in a twelve-page booklet published annually 
** (MU-286). 

The Fort Wayne Works have almost 
parallel courses in their evening classes, and 
in addition have courses in factory routine 
and in English exclusively for girls. The 
Indiana University has an extension at Fort 
Wayne, so that any employee who desires 
can take a course in mathematics, economics, 
foreign languages, and advanced English. 

Still other classes, to all of which General 
Electric employees are eligible, are held 
in the evening at three Schenectady schools 
and at the High School. Tuition and use of 
books in all of these courses are free of charge 
to all students. Partly because of encovu-age- 
ment from the Company, 877 employees en- 
rolled — two-thirds of some of the classes being 
composed of General Electric employees. 

The elementary courses are for boj's 
between the ages of 14 and 16 years who, 
under the Compulsory Education School law, 
must attend fifty nights a year. English, 
spelling, ci\'ics, history, and arithmetic are 
studied here. 

The High School classes are held two to four 
nights a week and pro\-ide the following courses: 





Plane and Solid Geometry 



Applied Electricity 

Electrical Engineering 


Mechanical Drawing 
Architectural Drawing 
Shop Mathematics 
United States History 

(For girls only): 
Physical Training 

210 March 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 3 

1 S 



Also at the Hij,di School there is a three- 
year commercial course, meeting four even- 
ings a week, which is the ecjual of the average 
night business college, and covers book- 
keeping, business arithmetic, English, busi- 
ness writing, shorthand, and typewriting. 


Union College 

In the 1917-18 college year, 85 per cent of 
the total number of evening students were 
General Electric employees, 142 having 

Students are here afforded the opportunity 
of sitting under instructors and professors 
in a real college atmosphere to study higher 
mathematics, physics, chemistry, elementary 
electricity, electrical engineering, Spanish, 
French, and advanced English. 

The Company refunds half of the tuition 
fees of those employees whose attendance 
record is SO per cent. 

Union College, established in 1795, is rich 
in traditions, and its standing among 
universities is of the highest order. The 
following prominent men are included in its 
list of students during past years: 


Squire Whipple, Pioneer in the science of stresses. 
See Engineering News Record, June 21, 1917. 

Lewis H. Morg.w, Father of American ethnology. 

James C. Du.\ne, Chief Engineer in the Army of 
the Potomac; President Croton Aqueduct 

Charles A. Joy, Founder of Chemistry Dept., 
Union College; Prof, of Chemistry, Columbia; 
Editor and Author. 

George W. Hough, Astronomer; Director of Dear- 
born Observatory; Prof, of Astronomy, Uni- 
versity of Chicago; Author. 

Seaman A. Knapp, Educator in the field of agricul- 
ture; Organizer of the Southern Corn Clubs. 
Introduced upland rice cultivation in U. S., etc. 

A. Anastay Julien, Prof, of Biology and 
Microscopy, Col. of School of Mine; Mich. 
Geological Survey; North Carolina Geological 
Survey; Author. 

Warner Miller, Introduced the manufacture of 
wood pulp paper in United States. 

George Westingiiouse, Inventor of the air brake, 

Franklin H. Giddings, Prof, of Sociology, Culum- 
bia University; Author. 

John C. Spencer, Secretary of War; Secretary 
of Treas^jffy. 

Gideon il\vn.E\, Organizer of N. Y. State school 

Sidney Breeze, U. S. Senate; Chief Justice, Su- 
preme Court of Illinois. 

William H. Seward, Governor of N. Y.: U. S. 
Senate; Secretary of State. 

Henry P. Tappin, President of University of Michi- 
gan; Organized present plan of State Univer- 

Robert Too.mbs, U. S. Senate, eight years; Secre- 
tary of State, C.S.A.; Biigadier-General, C.S.A. 

John Bigelow, Minister to France; Editor and 

Alexander H. Rice; Mayor of Boston; Member of 
Congress; Governor of Massachusetts 

Chester A. Arthur, President of United States. 

David Murray, Organizer of educational system of 

Attractive booklets describing these Union 
College Courses are published annually by 
the General Electric Company and circulated 
among the employees. The present issue is 

University Extension Course at Lynn 

At the Lynn Works a university extension 
course is conducted under the direction of 
the Massachusetts State Board of Educa- 
tion. The Company encourages the em- 
ployees to enroll in these courses, which are 
advertised within the Works. The subjects 
offered are practical electricity, practical 
applied mathematics, commercial corre- 
spondence, and gas and oil engines. 

Evening classes are conducted at the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Bos- 
ton University and Wentworth Institute 
and other schools in Boston, which are 
attended by employees of the General Elec- 
tric Works at Lynn, seventeen miles dis- 

Evening Work at Pittsfield 

The Pittsfield Works conducts a series of 
evening classes attended by over one hundred 
employees. They embrace instruction in 
algebra, geometry, elementary dra'W'ing, ad- 
vanced electricity, advanced mathematics, 
advanced drawing, jig and tool design, 
elementary electricity, mechanics. English, 
and a course in Spanish. 

Advanced Electricity at Pittsfield 

From the class in advanced electricity the 
past year, two men were promoted to testing 
work— work formerly done by college men — 
and a third man from the e\-ening classes was 
selected as an assistant to the head of the 
educational department. 

It will be noted from the accorapan>-ing 
photographs that the equipment provided 
for the students' laboratory work is similar 
to that used in the regular laboratory and 
in testing work. Some trigonometry, ana- 
l\tical geometry and the first principles of 
calculus are taught in the ad\-anced elec- 
tricity course; and altogether a ver>- good 

212 March 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 3 



idea of alternating current theory is ob- 

As an illustration : In the Engineering De- 
partment is a young man who in three years' 
time has passed from office boy to junior 
engineer. During this time he moved about 
from position to position in the shop, where 
he engaged in regular factory operations 
and at the same time took advantage of 
all the evening classes in electricity and 

At present over 100 students are enrolled 
in the evening technical classes — in fact, 
about the same number of students as are 
enrolled in the apprentice courses. A fee 
of $5 is charged for these classes, but the 
fee is refunded with a passing mark of 75 
per cent. 


Departmental Lectures 

Primarily for their technical and com- 
mercial educational value, the departmental 
lecture system was introduced in the various 
factories and district office; and a happy 
byproduct of these lectures has been their 
effect on the esprit de corps. Many of these 
lectures are of such importance and value 
that they are reprinted for the confidential 
information of the General Electric engineers 
and the commercial men throughout the 
world. Department managers, section heads, 
and prominent men from other departments 
deliver these lectures. 

The attendance at the Switchboard Depart- 
ments' lectures is drawn from the designing, 
requisition, commercial and production divi- 
sions of the office force, and from the foremen 
and assistant foremen of the factory force. 
The lectures describe the details of the Com- 
pany's organization, the relation of the 
Switchboard Department to the organization, 
and the manufacture, application, and opera- 
tion of the equipment manufactured by the 
Department or controlled by switchboards. 

Lectures on strictly engineering subjects 
are delivered once a week for six months to 
the newly employed engineers, most of whom 
are college graduates and have been through 
the test course. 

All members of the Power and Mining 
Engineering Department are expected to 
attend the weekly lectures of the Department, 
which cover such subjects as production, 
patents, advertising, sugar mills, voltage 
regulators, transformers, rotary converters, 
lightning arresters, high tension bushings, and 
electric furnaces. 

The Research Laboratory lecture is held 
weekly through the winter. It is intended 
primarily for employees of the Department, 
but other employees are welcome. The 
purpose of the lectures is to acquaint aU 
members of the laboratory with what is being 
done in the field of research, both within and 
without the laboratory. They embrace such 
subjects as: The Second Law of Thermody- 
namics; The Theory of Heteogeneous Reac- 
tions; Spectrvmi Series; Over- voltage ; Ra- 
dium Work of the Bureau of Mines; Research 
Work at Badische, Germany; Magnetic 
Amplifier for Radiotclephony; Mechanism 
of Cell Permeability; X-ray and Cancer; 
X-ray Spectra; Permeability and Cell Life; 
Constitution of Rubber Molecule; Absolute 
Zero, Liquefaction of Air and Separation 
of Constituents; Chemical Reactions at 
Low Pressures : X-Ray and Crystals ; Ioniza- 
tion ; Ferro-magnetic Alloys ; Physical Chem- 
istry of the Blood; Spectroscopy of Extreme 
Ultraviolet; Dielectric Phenomena; Lumi- 
nescence; The Beaver as an Engineer. 

The Publication Bureau also has weekly 
lecture courses for all members of the depart- 
ment, the object of which is to acquaint the 
members of the Bureau with the activities 
of the different sections and to consider ways 
of co-operating with other departments of 
the Company in the preparation of publica- 
tions, bulletins, handbooks, technical letters, 
and all the multiplicity of publications re- 
quired by a large manufacturing organization 
such as the General Electric Company. The 
subjects of some of the recent lectures are: 

Illustrations in Publications and Adver- 

The Printing Department. 

Making Cuts and Electrotypes. 

The General Electric Review. 

Supply Catalogues and How They are 

Handbooks and How Prepared. 

Some Photographic Problems. 

Motion Pictures. 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers 

Another prominent educational feature 
in the various cities where large factories of 
the General Electric Company are situated 
is the bi-weekly section meeting of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Electrical Engineers. The 
Lynn Section, with over IGOO members, is 
the largest of the thirty-one sections of this 
Institute, and the Schenectady Section is 
second largest, its membership numbering 
approximately 1200. 

214 March 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 3 

Anyone interested in the study, manufac- 
ture or application of electrical apparatus 
and resident in the vicinity, is eligible to 
membership. The local section is, therefore, 
open to all factory and office employees of 
the General Electric Company. 

Last year's addresses at the Schenectady 
Section included the following papers : 

The Electrically Driven Gyroscope and 

Its Uses. 
Regulation of Public Utilities. 
The Illumination of the Panama-Pacific 

International Exposition. 
Railway Electrification. 
Paper Industry. 

Electrically Driven Ship Propellers. 
The Engineer at the Battle of Verdun. 
The Art and Science of Illumination. 
Production of Steam from Coal. 
The "Amphibious" Submarine. 
High-speed Electric Locomotives. 
Niagara Power or a Real Coal Shortage. 

Other associations which have sections or 
branches in Schenectady and hold frequent 
meetings are: The American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers, The Society of En- 
gineers of Eastern New York, The National 
Electric Light Association, The Illuminating 
Engineering Society, The American Chemical 
Society, and The Edison Club. 


A great variet}^ of publications are avail- 
able, many of which are for the exclusive use 
of the employees. 

The technical letters are confidential and 
are not for public distribution. 

Instruction books are issued showing how 
electrical machinery should be shipped; how 
the foundations should be prepared; how the 
machines should be assembled and set up in 
the field; and how all the electrical connec- 
tions should be made. 

Lavishly illustrated bulletins are available 
in which arc described and pictured the thou- 
sands of applications of electricity to hundreds 
of different industries. For example, in the 
paper and pulp industry, the various uses of 
electricity are described and illustrated, from 
the cutting of the logs in the forest to the 
completion of the roll of paper ready to ship 
to the newspaper office. The function of 
the electric motor in cutting, grinding, 
chipjjing and beating the wood to a pulp, 
and changing this watery pulp into finished 
paper, are interestingly and clearly described. 

Throughout all the Works of the General 
Electric Company are a thousand bulletin 
boards. Every week a new safety _ bulletin 
is posted showing means of preventing acci- 
dents and the sad results of carelessness. 
The safety work of the General Electric 
Company was described in Part II of this 
series which deals with the "Prevention of 


Some nations know how to amass wealth, 
but their economic system is unable to dis- 
tribute it properly. 

Some libraries are storehouses where knowl- 
edge is amassed — neatly segregated, indexed, 
classified, and then merely stored. Other 
libraries not only store knowledge but con- 
dense it, fabricate it into convenient forms, 
do it up in attractive packages, and distribute 
it to a selected list of "ultimate consumers." 

Main Library 

The General Electric main library at 
Schenectady is among the latter class. In 
fact, this library is a tool of the industry, 
actually serving the factory, the department 
heads, research investigators, scientists, com- 
mercial, production and accounting depart- 
ments with the latest news from current peri- 
odicals, transactions of scientific and engineer- 
ing societies, and reviews and translations of 
books printed in all languages. 

It might be said that this library combines 
the functions of the editorial and circulation 
departments of a newspaper, for it reads 
and selects the news, featuring the important 
points, and then circulates the information 
to its subscribers. A semi-monthly Library 
Notice informs all recipients regarding the 
contents of all new articles and books. In 
this sense the Library is education plus — 
it becomes a regular service department as 
opposed to a place for semi-occasional 
"little journeys" of an educational nature. 
In these days of modem business only rare 
individuals go to the library — pressure of 
twentieth century life demands that the 
library be brought to the individual. Or 
putting it differently, "If the mountain will 
not come to Mohammed, Mohammed must 
go to the mountain." 

Our modem technical librarian can now 
give us just what we want, when we want it, 
in a convenient form and in hundreds of 
cases without our asking for it. Hence the 
modern industrial library has ceased to be a 
thing apart from the business of the plant; 



I it is no longer a disregarded adjunct. From a 
storage vault it has become a manufactory, 
changing the raw material into the accessible 
finished product. 

Research Laboratory Library 

Here also the service work is not limited to 
the mere business of bulletin board notices 
of new books received, new periodicals on 
file and current society business and conven- 
tions: the accessions are read and digested. 
In some cases the complete article is sent to, 
or called to the attention of, interested indi- 
viduals. Where recjuested, digests or trans- 
lations are made and are sent to those engaged 
in lines of work kindred to the subjects treated 
in the new books and periodicals. This 
library has a file of lantern slides showing 
tabulated data, formulae, photographs or 
drawings, novel ins allations and apparatus. 
These lantern slides can be chosen as needed 
for lectvu-es. 

The up-to-date corporation librarian has 
the intelligence to select important matter, 
and the initiative to authorize reprints for 
distribution within the organization; the 
authority to approve the appropriation and 
a knowledge of who would be interested in 
the subjects treated. 

It requires intelligence of a high order to 
prepare bibliograpliies of such subjects as 
the latest developments throughout the world 
in the nitrogen industries, in X-rays, high 
explosives or submarines, and separate the 
wheat from the chaff' 

The Library has its commercial aspects as 
well. The time of high-salaried experts need 

not be taken up in answering questions when 
complete and detailed information can be 
obtained from the specialized librarian. In- 
quirers do not consume hours of the time of 
"the man who knows," at §25 a day, when 
more exhaustive and detailed information can 
be obtained from books standing idle on their 
shelves. Modern corporation life has taught 
us not to ask the librarian for a book on 
chemistry when we desire information on 
boronized copper, for we save time by in- 
quiring definitely about boronized copper. 
If we wish to read a paper on pure electron 
discharge in radio-telephony, delivered before 
a society, we ask for that paper and not 
for the mailing address of the societ}^ in 
New York or Chicago; for the pamphlet 
is on file and possibly a score of extra copies, 
for — mirabile dictu! — our demand has been 
anticipated ! 

These facilities could be elaborated to 
include the Boston Public Librar}', only six- 
teen miles from the West Lynn Works, as 
the New State Librar\' at Albany, with a 
capacity of two million volumes, is only 
seventeen miles from Schenectady. Many 
other small libraries are omitted, as they 
are too speciaUzed to be of general in- 

In many respects a similar account could 
be written of the educational facilities in the 
other plants of the General Electric Company. 

Correspondence Schools 

The leading correspondence schools of the 
country report enrollments of General Electric 
employees totalling 2000. 

Main General Electric Library (Schenectady) . 

General Electric Law Library 

*Rcsearch Laboratory Libiary 

Testing Laboratory Library, 

Power and Mining Department Library 

*Illurainating Laboratory Library 

*Consulting Engineering Laboratory Library . . 

'Patent Department 

'Publication Bureau Data Section 

Union College Library 

Schenectady Public Library 

New York State Library (Albany) 

New York Office 

Boston Office 

♦ P,-irtly confideiuial. 

Books and 
Bound Periodicals 
































216 March 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 3 

Methods for More Efficiently Utilizing Our 
Fuel Resources 


B)' EsKiL Berg 
Turbine Engineering Department, General Electric Company 

The steam turbine has become the prevailing type of prime mover for power stations and the preferred 
type for new steamships. Mr. Berg reviews the theoretical possibilities of higher pressures and superheats, 
as it is mainly by these means (or by the binary vapor principle) that greater operating economy can be 
secured. It is of interest to add that the principal changes from present practice will be in the design of 
the boiler rather than in the turbine or the station piping.— Editor. 

The use of high steam pressure and super- 
heat is very eflfective for improving the fuel 
economy of any steam prime mover, par- 
ticularly the turbine. The gain will be 
substantiated both theoretically and prac- 
tically in the following ; but before proceeding 
with the demonstration a few fundamental 
points about steam and its action in turbines 
win be reviewed for the sake of clearness. 

The Curtis type of turbine is particularly 
well suited to take advantage of liigh steam 
temperature on account of the large clearances 
used, and also on account of the fact that 
the initial high temperature is confined to 
the steam chest, the temperature being 
greatly reduced when it reaches the inside of 
the turbine itself. 

EflBciency of a Turbine 

The efficiency of a turbine is the ratio 
of the mechanical energy taken out of the 
steam by the turbine to the total energy 
in the supplied steam, when this steam is 
expanded adiabaticallyf from the pressure 
at the throttle valve to the exhaust pressure 
in the exhaust casing of the turbine. 

The steam consumption of a turbine, when 
connected to an electric generator, is generally 
stated in pounds of steam per kilowatt-hour, 
and is the amount of steam required to deliver 
one kilowatt for one hour. 

"Theoretical water-rate " is a term con- 
stantly used in all turbine investigations 
and is the ratio of one kilowatt-hour ex- 
pressed in foot-pounds (2,654,000) to the 
available energy of one pound of steam 
expressed in foot-pounds. The ratio between 

♦Presented at the 196th meeting of the Schenectady Section 
of the A.I.E.E.. Schenectady. N. Y., January 24, 191S. 

fAdiabatic expansion takes place when the temperature of 
steam is lowered without abstraction of heat, in other words. 
all the lowering of temperature is done entirely by work taken 
out of the steam. 

the theoretical water-rate and the actual 
meastired water-rate, gives the efficiency of 
the tiu-bine. Table I gives the theoretical 
water-rates per kilowatt-hour at the steam 
pressures, superheats, and vacua generally 

Formula for Calculation of Available Energy 

The formula for calculating the available 
energy of steam expressed in foot-pounds, 
either dry or superheated, when expanding 
adiabaticaUy to any back pressure, is seldom 
found in handbooks or textbooks, and when 
such formulas are found they are rather 
complex and difficult to use. The formula 
can, however, be made very simple when 
expressed as the difference between the total 
heat input and the heat left in the liquid 
together with the latent heat in the mixture 
at the lower pressure. The formula then 
becomes : 

Available energy in ft. lb. = 

778 [Hi+Cpti-(q2-fx2r2)] 

Hi = Total heat of saturated steam at 

initial pressure pi. 
C^ = Specific heat of superheated steam. 
ti = Degrees Fahr. superheat at pressure pi. 
q'2 = Heat of the liquid at lower pressure p2. 
a;2 = Quality of the steam at pressure p2. 
r2 = Latent heat at pressure p2. 

All of these quantities are found in any 
steam table except x^. (dryness factor) which is, 
however, easily calculated from the fact that 
the entropy is constant before and after the 

Entropy of superheated steam is : 

C;, log< 

Ti+ti ri 


(Heat values from Marks h Davis' Steam Tables] 




0.,. P. 


27 1.. 

27.! In. 

28 in. 

28,S In. 



27 1.. 


28 In. 


' Win, 



















































































,0 73 




















































. 9.92 




















































































































10 74 

10 46 


9 73 






























































9.57 , 






















9 18 




































































































. 872 

































































































































































































in "7 























1 10.15 












1 9.S4 

















Entropy of moist steam is: 

By making these equal and solving 
for X2 there results : 


■■— (Cplog,— = \-7rr+<t>\ 

rj 1 J 1 1 


Tx = Absolute temperature at pres- 
sure pi. 

T2 = Absolute temperature at pres- 
sure p2. 

<t>i = Entropy of water at pressure pi. 

4>2 = Entropy of water at pressure pi. 

Example: Find the available energy 
of one pound of steam when expanding 
from 250-Ib. gauge pressure, with 250 
degrees superheat, to 29 in. vacuum, (0.5 
lb. abs.) 

Available energy 

Ih = 1202.3 
= 0.553 
r2 = 1046.7 

78 [//i + C^,-(?,+ 


r, =461+406.2=86 
r, =821.6 
rn = 1046.7 
To =461 +80 = 541 

■Vj = 


1 /„ ..„, 1117. 2 , 821.6 

867.2 ' 867.2 

0.0932 1 
,n,i^ 0-553 X 0.2546 + 0.947 
+ 5739 -0.0932 J 

0.5168 X 1.5685=0.812 
Dryness factor = 0.812 
Available energv = 

778(1202.3+0.553 X 250-(48+0.812X 
1046.7)1 = 778X444.3=346,000 ft.-lb. 

Gain by the Use of High Steam Pressure 

The theoretical gain due to the use 
of high steam pressure is well illustra- 
ted in Table II. It will be seen that by 
going from 200 lb. to only 500 lb. pres- 
sure there is a sa\-ing in fuel of 14.43 
per cent. What this would mean 
in money may be illustrated by tak- 
ing as an example a medium size 
central station burning about 900 
tons of coal per day. Operating at 
500 lb. pressure woiild save 130 tons 

218 March 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 3 

of coal a day, which at $5 a ton would amount 
to $650, and in a year would mean a sav- 
ing of perhaps $200,000. 

Theoretical Gain by Superheat 

The theoretical gain by super-heat is best 
shown by Table HI which is calculated on 
the basis of an initial steam pressure of 250 
lb. gauge expanding to 29 in. vacuum. 

Practical Gain by Superheat 

In an average well designed turbine of the 
impulse type, the magnitude of the total 
losses are made up about as follows when dry 
initial steam is used: 

Loss due to friction in nozzles and blades, 

and windage loss of disk and blades . . 20 per cent 

Leakage loss 3 per cent 

Rejected energy (due to residual steam 

velocity) 3 per cent 

Bearings, packings, etc 1 per cent 

Total losses 27 per cent 

Efficiency of turbine 73 per cent 

It will be seen that the first item is by far 
the most important one, and it is this item 
which is reduced by the use of superheat. 
The use of 200 degrees superheat will reduce 
the friction and windage loss about one 

quarter or to 15 per cent, and the total loss 
would then be 22 per cent, making the 
turbine efficiency 78 per cent. This reduc- 
tion is effected by the superheat reducing 
the moisture in all the stages. The reduction 
is best shown by the entropy-temperature 
diagram, Fig. 1. From this diagram it will 
be seen that starting with steam initially dry 
at 265 lb. absolute pressure and expanding it 
adiabatically to 29 in vacuum, through a 
turbine of 100 per cent efficiency, would result 
in steam of about 26.5 per cent moisture; 
whereas if the steam had been superheated 
to say 250 degrees this moisture would be 
reduced to about 19 per cent, a reduction of 
almost 30 per cent. In an actual turbine this 
percentage of moisture is of course a great deal 
lower, depending upon the efficiency. 

Fig. 2 shows a cross-section of a turbine 
having ten stages and gives approximately 
the condition of the steam in all the stages, 
assuming the turbine has 80 per cent efficiency 
is supplied with steam at 250 lb. gauge 
pressure, 250 degrees superheat, and is 
exhausting into 29 in vacuum. Table IV 
gives a comparison of the steam condition in 
this turbine had the steam been initially 




deg. F. 


Increase in 
total heat, 
per cent 

Available energy 
in ft. -lb. expand- 
ing to 28.5 in. 

Increase of 

available energy 

per cent 

Net gain in 
fuel, per cent 
































































Total avail. 

energy per lb. 

of steam 

Total B.t.u. 
per pound 

Per cent 

increase in 

coal to produce 


Per cent 

increase avail. 

energy due to 


Net theoret- 
ical gain 
per cent 


per cent 

net gain 
per cent 






(6) = (5-4) 


(8) =(7-4) 














. 506 



























































■ikroL. 1 



%Nf' '-" 


"« t 

- K/X;' 



^A 1^ 

- iuwa;* 



.1 AJ/t/ AT] 72501 tj 









A Ik K N, hJ 1^^'^ 



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- 1 

M iv^ 

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1 \l \ \ V llhl NJ\-rLI\lf' 


/ / 

/ /' 

1 \ \ \ fhJK/Jxfi IK r\i 

*■ '^^ 

yo'ni h / / j / / 1 /, 

\ \\ \/f\fNNNi\jf\ / ^ ' 

/fJ'^^A / '/- I i /! 

\ \ \ yAf/KiKiL rJ r\ J~^^ 



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'\ ' \ '\' X/ X/Ai A( /\ / 3s /i"v 



/ /< ,/i ./: \. 

\ \ \ v/y/Y/y. Av/ X 1 /I'* 

6/~-i /I / f 

' \' ' \ '\ V /V Ai /\ / /\ /N 



/ • / 7 


\ \ \ V/V; X r 1 1 j^ 









~^ — \ ' \^ — K/fJ^lrJr 







— lOOU 



.rr i 

— \ — \ — V~^^ — ^A.JV 7^/^ 





Tnr tt^"" 

\ V \ \ V ? y Y /'^ 1 





/.i ;/ 

L^r : 

- \ \ \ \ \/ A./'x 






. -r 

-1 / 

\ \ \ \ \/ A. /V 



14. 7Lb 








— f- 

-J. - 

' — V \ — — \ V — ~~\. / ^» / "^^ 








\ \ \ \ \/ 

riJ - 




^/: ■ 

: \ \ \ \ ^ 








/ - ' / 

h . . 

\ \ \ \ -^yA4--.;-i 








1 / 1 '/' 


^-^ \ \ ^^--^ ^ 










H^c — \ ' ^ ' V ^; 














■ ' 1 1 . 1 , 1 ■ 1 1 1 . 1 ; 

01 02 03 0.4 05 0.6 0,7 0.3 

0.9 1.0 I.I I.Z 1.3 1.4 

Entropy-Temperature Cu 

1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Z.O ?.l 2.2 2.3 24 

Effect of Moisture on Friction 

A great man\- formulae and cur\-cs are 
given by various authors based upon ex-- 
perimental and theoretical data for calculating 
the friction losses, and they all have a constant 
which varies according to the conditions 
of the steam. Prof. Meyer, for example, in 
his book on steam turbines gives a formula 
for rotation losses of buckets and wheel disks 
in which the constant is as follows 

100 (leg. superheat C = 0.875 

50 deg. superheat C = 0.93 

deg. superheat C = 1.00 

5 per cent moisture C= 1.08 

10 per cent moisture C= 1.25 

20 per cent moisture C = 2.00 

In other words, the frictionlossis twice as great 

with 20 percent moisture as it is with dry steam. 

The gain by the use of superheat is often 

expressed by saying that the water rate is 

reduced one per cent for a certain number of 





Quality oC Steam 

Drv Initial. 


Ouality o( Steam 
250" ' 160 

Degrees Superheat 


Pit Cent Moisture 
15 I 9.8 11.5 I 13 14.5 I 16 j 17.3 

Tor Cent Moisture 

30 .r. '- 4 6.5 I 8 


220 March 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 3 

degrees superheat. This decrease varies with 
different turbines, a figure frequently used is 
one per cent gain for every 12.5 deg. super- 

There is, of course, considerable saving in 
the size of auxiliaries b}^ the use of superheat, 
but this is outside the scope of this article. 

Effect of Throttling 

ThrottUng of dry steam alwaj's produces 
superheat; and it has often been said for 
this reason that there is practically no loss 
due to throttling, which is true as far as heat 

With 200 lb. pressure, dry steam = 270,800 

With 100 lb. pressure, 23.6 deg. superheat = 
240,200 ft.-lb. or a loss in available energj' of 
about 11 per cent. 

Gain by the use of High Steam Pressure and 

The gain by the use of high pressure and 
superheat is best shown by Fig. 3 which 
gives the ratio of available B.t.u. in steam 
to the total heat in the steam, returning 
the feed water at a temperature of 90 deg. 

Fig. 2. Section of Ten-stage Turbine, showing Condition of Steam in Each Stage 

is concerned. There is, however, a con- 
siderable loss of available energv. The 
amount of superheat obtained by throtthng is 
easily calculated because the total heat before 
and after throttling is the same. Assume 
that steam at 200 lb. absolute pressure is 
throttled down to 100 lb. absolute pressure: 

Total heat of dry steam at 200 lb. abs. = 

Total heat of dry steam at 100 lb. abs. = 

Assume that the specific heat of steam is 5 • 
1198.1 = 1186.3-t-0.5Xti = 23.6 deg. 

The available energy, however, assuming 
that the steam in both cases is expanded to 
28.5 in. vacuum, is: 

The present practice for power houses in 
this country is to use, with turbine drive, a 
steam pressure of 200 lb. gauge and about 
150 deg. superheat with a -v^acuum of 28.5 in. 
From this ciu^e in Fig. 3 it wiU be seen 
that the ratio of maximum available heat 
to the total heat is only about 31.25 per cent. 

Steam temperatures as high as 700 deg. 
Fahr. are now used in Europe, which -with a 
steam pressure of 500 lb. would give 233 deg. 
superheat. The ratio of heat available for 
work would then be about 36.3 per cent, 
a fuel saving over ordinary conditions of 16 
per cent. 

Turbine generator sets are now buUt having 
an overall efficiency of over 80 per cent in- 


eluding generator losses, which with 
a boiler efficiency of 80 per cent would 
give an efficiency from fuel amount- 
ing to: 

36.3X0.80X0.80 = 23.25 per cent 

1 kw-hr. =3412 B.t.u., therefore 
the B.t.u. required to produce one kw- 

hr. attheswitchboard = Y25 "" '^'^'*^*^^- 

On the other hand had 800 lb. pres- 
sure and 800 deg. temperature been 
used, the efficiency would have been 
38.75 per cent; and using a turbine 
efficiency of 85 per cent, and a boiler 
efficiency of 88 per cent (which is 
obtainable with Hquid fuel, forced 
draft, and preheated combustion air), 
a kilowatt-hour could be obtained by : 
38.75X0.88X0.85 = 29 per cent or 

^^ = 11.750 B.t.u. or 

lig2ib.offueloil = 0.62 1b. 

Advocates of Diesel engines claim 
0.55 lb. per kw-hr., but the fuel costs 
50 per cent more. 

It will, therefore, be seen from these 



1 1 

i ' 1 1 1 






i 1 "-^ 





^..-^"^ ^_^^^ 


^,^^^^^^ ^ 

36 3 









— T 





-^^---^ 1 



^ ■ ' ■ 






























fl 77 ^oo'f: 


/ / / / ' 



''^^. i 


Curifes snow/ng rac/o Of- avanaoie 
BXU. in steam to total heat m 
steam feed water at SO'temp 


If J 1 


/ I 



^^ m 





7-r % 



^^ m 



7f. ut 



7"; fit 






=.^ It 







.. ± 



zoo 300 400 500 600 700 
Pressure lb Absolute 

about that those who predict a great future for 

about Diesel engines have not considered improve- 

ments that can be made and are bound to 
figures be made in steam plants. 

222 March 191S 


Vol. XXI, No. 3 

Voltage Regulation of Three-phase Feeders by 
Automatically Controlled Induction Regulators 

By M. Unger 

Transformer Engineering Department, General Electric Company 

This article treats of the voltage regulation of a three-phase feeder by one three-phase automatic 
induction regulator and by two or three single-phase automatic induction regulators. These three means 
are each thoroughly discussed and the conclusion is drawn that two single-phase regulators will maintain a 
better regulation on a three-phase three-wire feeder, carrying mixed power and lighting load, than will a 
three-phase regulator (the cost, losses, and efficiency of either method of regulation will be practically the 
same). In case it is desired to obtain the best possible regulation on all the three phases, a third single- 
phase regiidator should be added. — Editor. 


The importance of maintaining constant 
voltage at the consumers' terminals at all 
values of load is so well recognized by operat- 
ing companies as to need no further dis- 
cussion. Methods of compensating for line 
drop in single-phase, two-phase, and three- 
phase feeders were discussed in the General 
Electric Review, December 1912, page 793. 
The following article wiU deal exclttsively 
with three-phase, three-wire feeders, and an 
attempt will be made to compare the results 
which are obtainable with the various means 
of regtdation described in the earlier article. 

The following means of controlling the 
voltage of tlxree-phase feeders are in successful 
use in a great number of installations : 

One three-phase automatic induction regulator. 
Two single-phase automatic induction regulators. 
Three single-phase automatic induction regulators. 

Connection diagrams of the three 
combinations are shown in Figs. 1,2, "^""^^ 
and 3. 

If the load is balanced, any one of 
these means of regulation will give 
correct results. If the load is -unbal- 
anced, the regulation of all three 
phases will be correct only in case 
three single-phase automatic induc- 
tion regtdators are used. Because of f^icS^PsSM 
the difference in cost, etc., of the ''""""""" 
three means of regulation, it is im- 
portant to know what the discrep- 
ancy in voltage of the unregulated 
phase or ]3hases may be for a cer- 
tain feeder, and a study of the varia- 
tions will be made in the following. 

It will be shown that the results 
when using the different means of reg- 
ulation will depend upon the following factors 

Line resistance and line reactance. 

Unbalancing of current. 

Power-factor of load. 

Phase rotation. 

What phase or phases are regulated. 

Because of the large number of factors 
influencing the regulation, it is evident that 
the solution of the problem will be somewhat 
complex; therefore the general method of 
determining the voltage of the unregulated 
phase or phases will be shown, and results 
will be worked up for a feeder where some of 
the factors are known. 
General Solution 
Vector Diagram 

The vector diagram of a single-phase line 
is shown in Fig. 4. 

A similar vector diagram for a three- 
phase feeder is given in Fig. 5 which 
shows the conditions for unbalanced load. 
The line drop is the difference between the 
balanced generator voltage ABC and the 
load voltage ^iBiCi. In order to maintain 
one or more of the phase voltages constant 

Current - 

Three 'phase . 

fiut/omoCic Induction 



I — X'^ — I 

Fig. 1 One Automatic Three-phase Induction Regulator Connected 
on a Three-phase System 

at the load, the line voltage (or voltage at 
the start of the feeder) has to be increas- 
ed The vector diagrams of the three 
means of regulation are shown in Figs. 6, 
7, and 8. 



ror Reguh'ic'r Vo'I 

'For f^equfatbr No 2 

0/1- Generator t/oltage 
OA- Load i/oitage 
Ola -Line Current 
IR -Ohmic Line, Drop 
IX' Reactive Line Drop 
Cos <i> ■ P. F. at Generator 
Cos <p,-P.F. at Load 
0/1-0 Ai = Total Line Drop 

Phase /fotation 


Fig. 2. Two Automatic Single-phase Induction Regulators Connected 
on a Three-phase System 

For f?egufator No 1 For Regulator No Z For Regulator No 3 
Cortact ftlcSing-^ 


Fig. 3. Three Automatic Single-phase Induction Regulators Connected 
on a Three-phase System 

Ph ase Ro tation 

ABC--Oenerator Voltaae 
A, AC,' Load Voltage 
joUh 'Line Currents 
I" ' Ohm(c Lin^ Drop 
1/ = Reactive Line Drop 

Fig. 4, Vector Diagram for Single-phase Feede: 

Phase Rotation 

ytBC -Generator foltaje 
^'BC'Line i/oftotfeat 
Station £nd. 

Regulation by One 
Three -phase ^iXomatic 
Induction Regulator 

Regulation by T>vo 

5 ing/e -(>nose jlutomotic 

Indijotion Regulators. 

Regulation by Three . 
Single -phost /lotomot^ 
Induction Regulators. 

Fig. 5. Vector Diagram for Three-phase Feede 

Figs. 6, 7, and 8. Voltage Diagrams of Three-phase 

Feeders Controlled by Automatic Voltage 


224 March 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 3 

In using a three-phase automatic induction 
regtdator, the voltage of all three phases is 
varied an equal amount, the amount depend- 
ing upon what the regulated phase demands. 

In using two single-phase automatic induc- 
tion regulators, the voltages of two phases 

Phase Rotation 

A'B' --AB 

ABC-Generator Voltage 
lB.C.-Lood mtage.No 

ABC-Toad Voifoge.With 

A"B'C"^Voltacfe at Station 

end a - _ 


Fig. 9. Voltage Diagram of Three-phase Feeder Controlled 
by Two Automatic Single-phase Induction Regulators 

are regulated independently of each other 
in accordance with the demand. The complete 
vector diagram of a feeder thus regulated is 
shown in Fig.- 9. In this diagram the 
generator voltage is represented by ABC, 
and A\B\C\ would represent the load voltage 
if no regulators were used. However, by the 
use of two single-phase automatic induction 
regulators, connected to the feeder at B and 
at C, the voltages of phases AB and AC may 
be controlled; and the diagram shows that 
voltage BB" is added to generator voltage 
AB, and CC" to generator voltage AC, 
so that the voltage at the station end of the 
feeder becomes AB"C" . As the line drop 
remains unchanged, it is apparent that the 
load voltage now becomes A'B'C. The 
voltages A'B' and A'C are determined by the 
adjustment of the line-drop compensators, 
and if these are properly made the voltages 
will be constant for all values of load. It is 
apparent that the load voltage B'C is not 
under control. 

In using three single-phase automatic 
induction regulators the voltages of all three 
phases are varied in accordance with the 
demand, but not independently of each other, 
as the movement of any one regulator to 
vary the voltage of its phase affects the voltage 
to some extent of one adjacent phase. 

and if it causes the regulator of this phase 
to move, it affects also the voltage of the 
third phase. Obviously, for any considerable 
change in load all regulators may move; 
however "hunting" as generally understood 
does not occur in practice. 

Line Resistance and Line Reactance 

The actual values of line resistance and 

reactance must be known. They can be 

calculated either from che dimensions of the 

line or from tests. 

It should be noted that the values of ohmic 

and reactive line drop for one conductor or 

line are /- = 58 per cent of the values 
between lines. 

Unbalancing of Current 

The actual values of the currents in the 
three lines should be known in order to solve 
the problem correctly. 

The amount of unbalancing in current is 
often given in per cent. This is meaningless 
unless properly defined; and as no authorita- 
tive definition seems to Kave been given, the 
following will be used: 

Per cent unbalancing = 

Maximum deviation from average 
Example: Ia=85amp. I(, = 103amp. l£ = 112amp. 
Average M (85-|-103-|-112) = 100 amp. 
Max. deviation = 100 — 85 = 15 amp. 
Unbalancing = 15/100 = 15 per cent. 

It should be noted, however, that the 
relative values of current in the three lines 
are not defined by the knowledge of the 
per cent unbalancing in current. This can 
readily be seen by referring to the preceding 
example and to Fig. 10. It is evident that 

Fig. 10. Current Diagram for Three-phase Feeder 

if the unbalancing is 1.") per cent one of the 
currents is either 85 or 115 per cent of normal. 
In the former case, the other two currents 
may have any value between 100 and 115 
per cent of normal; while in the latter case, 
they may have any value between 85 and 



100 per cent of normal, the average of these 
currents being in all cases 100 per cent of 

Besides the per cent unbalancing in current, 
it would also be necessary to have knowl- 
edge of the load so that the current in 
the three lines may be calculated or esti- 

The general solution of the problem is 
made somewhat easier by taking advantage 
of the fact that unbalanced three-phase 
currents can always be resolved into two 
components; one balanced three-phase and 
one single-phase current. 

The proof of this statement can readily 
be obtained by referring to Figs. 11 and 12. 
As the vector sum of the unbalanced currents 
la h Ic is zero, the vectors must form a 
closed- triangle if added geometrically, as in 
Fig. 12. In resolving the unbalanced cur- 
rents into their two components, the balanced 
three-phase and the unbalanced single-phase, 
any one of the three line currents may be 
chosen as the basis. In the diagrams, J^ has 
been chosen as the basis, and /;, is divided into 
two components one of which is In equal to 
and displaced 120 degrees from la- Similarly. 
Ic is divided so that la, hi, and /,i form a 

ABC-CeneraVor l/oltage 
la, Ir„Ic -Line Currents 

Figs. 11 and 12. Cu 

Diagram of Three-phase Feede 

60-degree triangle and represent the balanced 
three-phase current. It will readily be seen 
that components /(,o and /,■> are of equal value, 
and are 180 degrees displaced; these represent 
the single-phase cuiTcnt. It is generally 

preferable to choose the smallest ciirrent 
vector as the base for it will give a lagging 
single-phase component. 

It may be of general interest to state that 
no matter which one of the Une currents in 
the triangle is used as a base for the balanced 

component, the unbalanced components will 
in all three cases be of equal value, and will be 
displaced 120 degrees as shown in Fig. 13. 
It should also be noted that the unbalanced 
single-phase currents thus obtained may be 
either leading or lagging, even if the un- 
balancing is due to 100 per cent power-factor 

Although of no direct bearing upon the 
problem under consideration, it may be of 
further interest to note that the combination 
of a balanced three-phase current and a 
single-phase current of any power-factor can 
be resolved into a balanced three-phase 
current and single-phase currents on two 
phases, the single-phase currents being in 
phase with the voltages. The correctness of 
this statement can easily be proved by refer- 
ring to Figs. 14 and l.i. Fig. 14 shows a 
balanced three-phase current / and single- 
phase current i across phase BC. Fig. 15 
shows vectorially how the combined currents 
may be di\-ided up into the balanced three- 
phase current I\, and the single-phase current i\ 
across phase BC, and the single-phase current 
tj across phase AC, the power-factor of the 
single-phase currents being 100 per cent. 

Power-factor of Load 

It is necessary that the power-factor be at 
least ai^proximately known. 

Inasmuch as indicating power-factor meters 
are designed for use only on approximately 
balanced circuits, it is preferable under un- 
balanced conditions to estimate the power- 

226 March 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 3 

factor of the balanced and the unbalanced 
current components of the load. 

The power-factor at the load will generally 
be somewhat better than at the generator, 
on account of the reactance of the lines. It 
will simplify the problem to consider the 

14 and 15. C 

Diagram of Three-phase Feeder 

power-factor at the generator, and this can 
be calculated approximately from the data 
of the line and the load. 

Phase Rotation 

A study of the vector diagram will show 
that a reversal of phase rotation will generally 
have quite an effect upon the voltage of the 
unregulated phase or phases. In order to 
pre-determine what the voltage will be 
across the unregulated phase or phases of a 
certain feeder, it is therefore necessary to 
know the phase rotation. 

What Phase or Phases are Regulated 

When considering the regulation of one or 
two phases, it is not always apparent which 
phase or phases should be regulated in 
order to get the best results on the unregulated 
phase or phases. That the results may vary 
considerably will be shown in the following 


What will be the voltage at the center of 
distribution of a three-phase feeder when it 
is unregulated and when it is automatically 
regulated by a three-phase induction regulator, 
by two single-phase induction regulators, or 
by three single-phase induction regulators; 
the feeder having the following characteristics : 

Length, 3 miles 

Conductor No. 00 B.&S 0.365 in. dia. 

Conductor spacing 12 in. triangle 

Voltage (normal) 2300 volts 

Frequency 60 cycles 

Current (normal) 150 amperes 

Unbalancing 15 per cent 

Line current due to motors is about ... .50 per cent 

Line current due to lamps is about 50 per cent 

Power-factor of the motors is about. . . .75 per cent 
Power-factor of the lamps is about .... 100 per cent 

From the given information, the following 
data are calculated : 

Resistance per conductor (3 miles) 1.21 ohms 

Reactance per conductor (3 miles) 1.61 ohms 

Resistance drop per conductor at 150 amp . . 181 volts 
Resistance drop between lines at 150 amp. 

313 volts = 13.6 per cent 
Reactance drop per conductor at 150 amp . .242 volts 
Reactance drop between lines at 150 amp. 

417 volts = 18.1 per cent 

Cos 6' IS Per cent 
Cos 4'i'S3Pe''ceni 

Cos 4>--88.5 Per cent 
Cos 4i= 930 Per cent ^y^ 



93.0 109.6 
Figs. 16 and 17. Vector Diagram of Three-phase Feeder. 

As the cuiTcnt values in the three lines are 
not given, the extreme case for 15 per cent 
unbalancing will be assumed; i.e., 

la = 85 per cent = 127.5 amp. 
/(, = 100 per cent = 150.0 amp. 
/c = 115 per cent = 172.5 amp. 

The currents are made up of approximately 
75 amperes balanced motor currents at 75 



per cent power-factor, and the remainder is 
unbalanced lamp current at 100 per cent 

By means of the grayihic method shown 
in Fig. 12 (which is drawn to scale) the un- 
balanced current is resolved into a balanced 
three-phase component of 127.5 amperes and 
an unbalanced single-phase comyjonent of 
40 amperes. 

If the load were balanced and equal currents 
were taken by the motors at 75 per cent 
power-factor and by the lamps at 100 per cent 
power-factor, the combined power-factor of 
the load would be 93 per cent as shown 
graphically in Fi.c;. IG. 

being considered it would complicate the 
discussion. If it is assumed that the average 
power-factor of the balanced load component 
of the unbalanced load is 93 per cent a small 
error is introduced, but this is more than offset 
by the error that may be introduced from 
the lack of exact knowledge and subsequent 
assumption of current values for the three 
lines. In the following, therefore, the power- 
factor of the balanced component of the load 
will always be assumed to be 93 per cent. 

From the data now available, the relation- 
ship of generator voltage and line current 
may be drawn graphically as in Fig. IS for 
counter-clockwise and as in Fig. 19 for clock- 

Phase ffoUition i l^f 

Cos ()>--S8.S Per cent 
<p' 27.7 Degrees 

Cos tt"8S.5 Per cent 
• 27.7 Degrees 

Fig. 18. Vector Diagram of Three-phase Feeder, Counter- 
clockwise Phase Rotation 

The power-factor at the generator bus may 
be roughly estimated as follows. 

The reactance component of the balanced 
load at 93 per cent power-factor is 36.7 per 
cent, and the resistance component is 93 
per cent of the load voltage. The reactance 
drop of the line has previously been calcvilated 
to be 18.1 per cent and the ohmic drop 13.6 
per cent of the generator voltage. A rough 
approximation shows that the generator 
voltage will be about 18 per cent higher than 
the load voltage, so that if the line drop is 
referred to the load voltage the values just 
given will be 22.0 and 16.6 per cent respec- 
tively. Graphically, the power-factor at the 
generator is found to be 88.5 per cent as 
shown in Fig. 17. This value would be 
correct in case the load were balanced. With 
any kind of load the a\-erage power-factor is 
the ratio of the kilowatt- and the kilovolt- 
amperes of the load ; and while it is possible to 
determine the exact power-factor in the case 

Fig. 19. Vector Diagram Three-phase Feeder, Clockwise- 
phase Rotation 

wise phase rotation. These diagrams also 
show the voltage drop in the various lines, 
thus giving the voltages at the end of the line, 
or at the load. 




No Voltage Regulation 




Ai B, 85.6 

B, C, 81.0 

C, A, 78.4 


Average 81.7 


The results in Table I show that in a three- 
phase feeder with unbalanced load the voltage 

228 March 1918 GENERAL ELECTRIC REVIEW Vol. XXI, No. 3 

Phase Rotat/on - Counter C/ockwise Phase Rotation - C/ockwise 

25 O 5 10 J5 aO 25 

Per cent Unbalancing 

Fig. 20. Voltage regulation of a Three-phase' Feeder by one Three-phase Automatic Induction Regulator (IRT) and by T« 
and Three Single-phase Automatic Induction Regulators (IRS) 



at the end of the Hue will depend upon the 
Ijhase rotation; i.e., in order to determine 
the voltage at the end of a line carrying 
certain currents it is necessary that the phase 
rotation be known. 

It should be noted, howev-er, that if the 
phase rotation is reversed in a feeder which 
carries a definite unbalanced load the current 
\-alues in the lines will also change; so that 
while the drop across the various phases mav 
change, due to the phase reversal, the average 
dro]) will remain the same. 

It is apparent from the foregoing how to 
determine the voltages at the end of the 
line when regidators are used, and in the 
following only the results will be given. It 
may be stated that no account is taken of the 
resistance and reactance drop in the regulators 
as the values are small and will not materially 
affect the results. 


Regulation by a Three-phase Automatic Induction 

rom Phase 

Phase Voltage 

.Ai B, 







B, Ci 







C, A. 
















From Table II it will be seen that, with 
the various combinations, the voltage of the 
unregulated phases may vary from 1.2 to 
7.2 ])er cent from normal. The best regula- 
tion is obtained by regulating from pliase 
C'l .4i with clockwise j^hase rotation, in which 
case the voltage of the unregulated phases is 
1.2 per cent above and 6.0 per cent below 

From Table III is -nnll be seen that, with 
the various combinations, the voltage of the 
unregulated phase may vary from LS to (3.7 
per cent from normal or from 6.7 per cent 
below to 5.5 per cent above normal. 

The best combination is obtained by regula- 
ting from phases AiBi and ,4iCi with counter- 
clockwise phase rotation, in which case the 

voltage of the unregulated phase is 2.2 per 
cent below normal. 



Regulation by Two Single-phase Automatic 
Induction Regulators 




from Phases 



A, B, 

A, C. 











B, A, 

Bi C, 








C. A. 

C, B, 














Regulation by Three Single-phase Automatic 
Induction Regulators 



A, B, 

B, C, 

C, .A, 


from Phases 

A, B, 

Bi C, 

C, A, 




Table I\' shows that the use of three 
single-phase automatic induction regulators 
give correct results under all conditions. 

The specific problem is herewith solved and 
it shows: 

First — One three-phase automatic induction 
regulator gives perfect regulation of one phase; and, 
under most favorable conditions, one of the un- 
regulated phases will be 1.2 per cent above and 
the other 6.0 per cent below normal. 

Second — Two single-phase automatic induction 
regulators give perfect regulation of two phases; 
and, under most favorable conditions, the un- 
regulated phase will differ only 2.2 per cent from 

Third — The use of three single-phase regulators 
gives perfect regulation on all phases regardless of 

the unbalancing or phase rotation. 

Fourth — In regulating only one or two phases, the 
phase rotation and the selection of regulated 
phases will greatly affect the voltage of the un- 
regulated phases or phase. The best combination 
can be determined from theoretical considerations. 

230 March 19 IS 


Vol. XXI, No. 3 

If it is desired to maintain the voltage 
at the center of distribution on all phases 
within 4 per cent below or above normal, 
it is evident that two single-phase automatic 
induction regulators, taking into account first 
cost, will give the best results. 


Trial No 1 

U Current Generator 

w\ I I Regulato, 

Fig, 21. Connections of Two Single-phase Automatic Indu 
tion Regulators on a Three-phase Three-wire System 

General Discussion 

It is of interest to make a further study of 
this problem, assuming different percentages 
of unbalancing in current. It will be assumed 
that the motor load as well as the lamp load 
varies in such a way that the motor current 
equals the balanced part of the lamp current; 
i.e., the power-factor of the balanced current 
component remains constant at SS.5 per cent. 
The results of this investigation are given in 
Fig, 20 which shows the voltage at the 
center of distribution when using the three 
means of regulation with the counter-clock- 
wise or the clockwise phase rotation. 

These curves clearly show the importance 
of selecting the proper phase or phases for 
regulation in order to obtain the best resuli< 
on the unregulated phase or phases. While 
the selection can he predetermined from 
theoretical considerations, the required data 
are generally not readily obtained and it seems 
preferable to make the selection from trial 
since only three combinations are possibk', 
for the phase rotation in each case is fixed. 

Fig. 21 shows that such a trial can be 
made with comparative ease by merely 
changing the connections between the regula- 
tor and the outgoing line. This change will 
not reverse the phase rotation so that the 
load will not be disturbed in any way. 

The curves in Fig. 20 also show the excellent 
results obtainable by means of two single- 
phase automatic induction regulators. In 
selecting the proper phases for regulation, 
the error in the voltage of the unregulated 
phase is only slightly over 2 per cent even 
when the current unbalancing is as high as 
25 per cent. It should, of course, be borne 
in mind that the curves refer to a definite 
case, while any number of variations will 
occur in practice. Particular consideration 
should be given to the fact that the load dis- 
tribution on a feeder may vary from time to 
time so that the best location of the regulator 
at one time may not be best at all times, and 
in such a case the best average should be 

It wotild seem from these curves, and it has 
also been confirmed in practice, that the 
regulation of a three-phase three-wire feeder 
carrying mixed power and lamp load is most 
economically obtained by means of two 
single-phase automatic induction regulators. 
The cost, losses, and efficiency of two such 
regulators are generally not materially dif- 
ferent from that of a three-phase automatic 
induction regulator, and besides giving better 
regulation they allow of more flexibility: 
e.g., the single-phase regulator may be used 
for regulating a single-phase, two-phase, or 
three-phase feeder, and in case it is desired to 
obtain perfect regulation of all three phases 
of a three-phase feeder, a third single-phase 
regulator can be added. 

Size of Regulators 

It may be of interest to discuss the rating 
of the regulators for use on three-phase 

fine t hree -phase 

Two s i n g 1 e-p h a s e 

Three single -phase 



In the example considered it is necessary 
to increase the feeder voltage about 20 per 
cent in order to compensate for the Hne drop. 
It is not good practice to oVjtain this increase 
in voltage by regulators only as they would 
be needlessly large due to the fact that 
only their boosting range wotdd be utiHzed, 
no advantage being taken of the lowering 
range. It would, therefore, be preferable 
to boost the bus voltage permanently 10 
per cent, either by increasing the generator 
voltage or by providing an auto-transformer, 
and then to obtain the 20 per cent range in 
voltage by regulators which will boost the 
line 10 per cent and lower the line 10 per cent. 

In the case considered, the bus voltage 
should be increased to 2.530 volts and the 
regulators should be able to add or deduct 
230 volts, so that at the station end of the 
feeder the \-oltage is variable between the 
limits of 2300 and 2760 volts. 

Referring to Figs. 6, 7, and 8 it will be 
seen that in order to obtain a 10 per cent 
increase or decrease of the bus voltage ABC 
(AB = BC = CB = \00 per cent; and A'B' = 
B'C = C'B' = 90 or 1 10 per cent j the values of 
regulator voltage required are as given in 
Table V. 

The kilovolt-ampere capacity of a regula- 
tor is equal to the product of the line current, 
the voltage boost or lower (of each phase 
winding), and the number of phases, divided 
by 1000. Therefore, for the case considered, 
Table VI furnishes the data. 

This table shows that in order to obtain 
equal range in feeder voltage it is necessary 
to provide slightly larger combined kilovolt- 
ampere capacities of single-phase automatic 
induction regulators. This is, however, of 
only minor importance when considering that 
regulators of the nearest standard rating 
should be selected. 


Voltage per 
Phase Winding 


Regulator Kv-a 

Total Per Cent of Feeder 

One three-phase regulator 

Two single-phase regulators 

Three single-phase regulators 



66.2 10.0 
2x38.0 = 76.0 11.5 
3x25.3=76.0 11.5 

232 March 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 3 

Effect of Artificial Light on the Growth and 
Ripening of Plants 

By J. L. R. Hayden and C. P. Steinmetz 
CoNsin,TiNG Engineering Department, General Electric Company 

Of the myriad uses of electric light perhaps the most unique is its application to stimulate plant growth 
and fruition. A hitherto unpublished investigation of this application appears in the followmg columns. A 
description is given of the procedure, which was conducted in a scientific manner, and the results are instruct- 
ively presented m the form of progressive photographs, tabulations, and curves. Based upon these facts, the 
conclusions of the investigation show that under certain conditions electric light may be used with commer- 
cial success to accelerate the growth and development of plants. — Editor. 

The investigation described in this article 
was made to determine how much the growth 
and the ripening of plants could be speeded 
up by intense artificial illumination. 


Gas-filled Mazda lamps were used as the 
source of Ught since previous experiments in 
Dr. Steinmetz's laboratory had shown that 
the quality of light from this lamp is very 
efficient in its action on plant growth. 

As a check test the same kind of beans 
were planted in a box about 36 inches square, 
filled with the same soil and located on the 
other side of the room outside the rays of 
the Mazda lamps. 


The planting was done and the experiment 
started on December 13, 1916, and the 
experiment was discontinued 73 days later 
on February 24, 1917. 

Figs. 1 and 2. Check Plants Two and Four Weeks after Planting 

The investigation was made on beans as 
the nattiral life of the bean plant is relatively 
short, and it was therefore possible to get 
results in a fairly short time. 

A piece of ground 5 feet by 9 feet having 
good black soil was selected in Dr. Stein- 
metz's orchid house. 

Five 500-watt gas-filled Mazda lamps were 
hung in a row 36 inches above the ground 
and 17 inches apart from each other. These 
lamps had floodlighting reflectors which 
directed the light on the bed. The power 
consumption was 2.5 kw. 

Henderson's dwarf wax-bush beans were 
used, and three rows were planted 18 inches 

The Mazda lamps were kept burning con- 
tinuously, 24 hours per day, in addition to 
the daylight, whUe the beans in the check 
test had only the daylight. After 44 days 
three of the lamps were turned off and only 
two left burning during the last 29 days, 
representing a power consumption of 1 kw. 

Twenty of the 73 days were cloudy, about 
evenly distributed, representing about the 
average condition of climate in Schenectady 
during the winter months. 

The temperatvire of the greenhouse 
averaged 18 to 20 deg. C, but above the 
experimental bed, in the rays of the lamps, 
the temperature averaged about 2 deg. C. 


Records of the average height and the state 
and other conditions of the plants were taken 
almost daily, and photographs were taken 
every two weeks. 

Figs. 1 and 3 are photographs of the experi- 
mental bed and the check plants two weeks 

Experimental Bed Four Weeks after Planting 

after planting; Figs. 2 and 4, four weeks after 

Table I gives an abstract of the records 
taken during the progress of the experiment. 
Since individual plants, raised under the 
same conditions, vary materially in their 
growth two groups of observations were 
taken and recorded. The A data are of the 
average condition of the most advanced 
plants, about one quarter of the total num- 
ber; and the B data the average condition 
of all the plants. 

Fig. 5 shows the growth curves of the bean 
plants. Curves Ai and Bi are of those grown 
under intense artificial illumination; and 
curves A^ and Bi of those grown under day- 
Hght only as a check test. Curves Ai and Ai 
arc the average of the maximum advanced 
plants, Bi and B2 the average of all 
the plants. 

It is interesting to note the dififer- 
ence in the shape of the curves : the 
rapid growth of Si coming to a 
standstill six weeks after planting, 
when ripening begins, and the slow 
growi;h of B2 which is not yet com- 
pleted after nine weeks. 

Between 25 and 65 days Bi grows 
an average of 0.16 in. per day; be- 
tween 15 and 35 days Bi grows an 
average of 0.43 in. per day, or 2.6 
times as rapidly. 

Table II gives the number of 
days after planting when the dif- 
ferent stages of development were 
reached in the four cases, by the 
more advanced plants and by the 
average, under continuous intense 
artificial iUumination in addition 
to dayUght, and under daylight 

Table III gives the gain, in days 
and in per cent, in the develop- 
ment of the plants brought about 
by intense artificial illumination. 
. This gain is fairly uniform in the 
development of the foliage, in the 
appearance and development of 
the flowers and fruits, and averages 
46 per cent. That is, the artificial 
illimiination has reduced the time 
required for the development by 
46 per cent. 

This means that under the influ- 
ence of intense artificial illumina- 
tion the plants have grown and 
brought fruit in a little more than 
half the time required under day- 
light alone; in other words, the artificial light 
causes about double the rapidity of growth 
and development, or it saves about as much 
time as the time dvuing which the intense 
illumination is maintained. 

Discussion of Results 

2.5 kw.. used in five lamps for illuminating 
5 by 9 = 45 sq. ft. of ground, gives a power 
consiunption of 55 watts per square foot. 

With a lamp efficiency of 0.6 watts per 
spherical candle power, the total light flux 

234 Alarch 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 3 

4 7r V '7'inn 

of the five lamps is gg = 52,000 lumens. 

Of this probably about 60 per cent, or 31,000 
lumens, reaches the ground, the remainder 
being stray light or absorbed in the reflectors. 
This gives an intensity of Uluniination of 
about 700 lumens per square foot. 

The intensities of illumination are very much 
higher than any ever considered for illumina- 
tion and approach the magnitude of sunlight 
illumination. This is necessary to get results 
comparable with those of sunHght. 

Three quarts of string beans were gathered. 
At winter prices this represents about 90 

No. of Lamps 


No. of Days 

Ai. Average of Most Advanced Plants 


Average of All Plants 

Since Planting 

Height in In. 


Height in In. 










Germ leaves unfolding 






Germ leaves unfolded 




Center leaves unfolding 




Germ leaves unfolded 



Photograph, Fig. 3 



22° C. (19.5° C. room) 




Center leaves unfolding 





Center leaves unfolded 




Photograph, Fig. 4 









20° C. (18.5° C. room) 









5-in. bean 





1 qt. string beans 



1 qt. string beans 




Plants dving 



1 qt. string beans 


No. of Lamps 


No. of Days 
Since Planting 

Aj. Average of Most Advanced Plants 


. Average of All Plants 

Height in In. 


Height in In. 
















Germ leaves unfolding 

ly, and less 





18° C. 




6 and less 




Stems thicker and germ- 
leaves much smaller than 
under Hght 




Center leaves unfolding 


Germ leaves unfolded 



Three center leaves 


Center leaves unfolding 



17° C. 






3 small center leaves 













Small beans 




No bean large enough yet 

for use 



cents. The power consumed by the lamps 

was 2.5 kw. during 24 hours for 44 days, and 

1.0 kw. for 29 days, or a total of 3340 kw-hr. 

At a power rate of 5 cents per kw-hr., this 

would cost $167. Assuming that the power 

is kept on only IS hours per day 

during off peak, and a rate of 2 

cents per kw-hr. is secured, it would 

still represent a cost of $42 which 

is altogether out of proportion to 

the market value of the string 

beans. Thus it apparently would 

not pay to raise such relatively 

cheap products as string beans by 

artificial illumination. 

Such speeding up of the growth 
and the flowering of plants by 
intense artificial illumination may, 
however, be entirely economical 
and advantageous when the prod- 
uct has a high market value at 
some definite time, but largely 
loses its value after that time — for 
instance Easter lilies, poinsettias, 
etc. These flowers are required at 

Christmas or Easter, and are in but little 
demand afterwards. If then, by a period of 
cloudy weather, their flowering threatens to 
be retarded beyond the time when the flowers 
are in demand their value may be saved by 


/6i n I 

^-+J — ^ 

-A -9 A i^-.w^'i- 

5 I0_ 15 20 25 30 3S 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 

Fig. 5. 

Curve of Plants' Growth 



Coming up 

Germ leaves unfolding . . 
Germ leaves unfolded . . 
Center leaves unfolding . 
Center leaves unfolded . 


Beans appearing 

First crop gathered .... 
Second crop gathered . . 
Last crop gathered .... 


Average of Most 
Advanced Plants 




Average of Most 
Advanced Plants 






Per Cent 

Leaf formation: 

Germ leaves unfolding . 
Germ leaves unfolded . . 
Center leaves unfolding 
Center leaves unfolded . 




Total average 






236 March 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 3 

speeding up their development by intense 
artificial illumination for some days, and a 
considerable expense for power would then 
be economical. 

Assume, for instance, that the plants arc 
in 6-in. pots. By proper arrangement one 
500-watt lamp could illuminate a circle 6 
ft. in diameter, thus accommodating 144 
pots. Intense illumination for one week 
or seven days, 18 hours per day, would acceler- 
ate the development by about five days and 
would require 63 kw-hr. At 5 cents per kw- 
hr., this would cost $3.15 or a little over 2 
cents per pot, an expense which would be 
fully warranted economical!}^ if it makes the 
product salable at the high seasonal prices. 
Probably a materially higher cost for cor- 
recting a retardation of several weeks would 
be economical. 

To a much larger extent intense artificial 
illumination to accelerate plant growth and 
development in greenhouses may become 
economical if the electric current is generated 
at extremely low cost by the heating plant. 
Assume that a high-pressure steam boiler is 
used in the heating plant as is frequently 
the case. Instead of the usual pressure- 
reducing valves a simple and cheap non- 
condensing steam turbine with electric genera- 
tor is inserted between the high-pressure 
boiler and the radiators. In this case, the 
only cost of the light is the interest on the 
investment of the steam-turbine generator, 

depreciation, and attendance — the fuel costs 
nothing. The efficiency is, therefore, entirely 
immaterial; and a very simple, cheap, and 
fool-proof plant can be chosen, reducing the 
cost to a minimum. It must be realized that 
all the heat energy which is wasted by the 
inefficiency of the plant remains in the steam 
and is used in the steam heating, and that 
only as much heat energy is abstracted from 
the high-pressvire steam as is represented in 
the electric power generated. This power, 
however, is converted into light, and the light, 
absorbed by the ground and the plants, is 
converted into heat, and so the heat energy 
abstracted from the steam by the electric 
plant finally also reaches the greenhouse as 
heat. Under such conditions the use of 
intense artificial illumination to accelerate 
plant life would be economical also with 
plants of relatively low value. 


By intense artificial illumination, of the mag- 
nitude of 700 lumens per square foot, the rapid- 
ity of the growth and development of plants 
can be approximately doubled. Economi- 
cally such use of light for raising plants may 
be justified where the electric current is 
generated as a by-product of the heating 
plant, but at any cost of purchased power it 
would be economically justified only for tem- 
porary use with plants which have a market 
value only at a definite time. 




VOL. XXI, No. 4 

Published by 
General Etectric Company's Publication 
Schenectady, New York 

APRIL 1918 






NORfflfl " 



For Fractional Horse-Power Motors 

Precision: Friction in a bearing is bad enough. Impact added to friction is still 
worse. Lack of precision in a bearing permits vibration, which is simply impact 
multiplied a thousand times; a multitude of tiny hammer blows with a tremendous 
aggregate effect. The higher the speed, the greater the multiplication of this impact 
effect, helping to wear out the bearing. Fractional H.P. Motors are high-speed 
machines, hence the imperative necessity for precision in their bearings, to minimize 

" NORff^fl " Precision is maintained at a higher degree than 
elsewhere obtains in the bearing world. " NORfflfl " Precision 
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every " NORfflfl " Bearing, by the checking of every essential 
dimension by the Minimeter — the most accurate measuring 
instrument in commercial use. " NORWfl " Precision Bear- 
ings, in small motors, are a guarantee against the evils of 
non-precision bearings— vibration, noise, and rapid wear. 

See that your Motors are 
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THE mKm c9mPANy of AmERiCA 


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"NORfflfl" Engineers speed bearing specialists- offer 
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General Electric Review 

Manager, M. P. RICE Editor. JOHN R. HEWETT 

Ass'xiatc F.'litor, B. M. EOFF 
Assistant Editor. E. C. S.\NDERS 

Subscription Rates! United States and Mexico. $2.00 per year; Canada. $2.25 per year; Foreign, $2.50 per year; payable in 
advance. Remit by post-office or express money orders, bank checks, or drafts, made payable to the General Electric Review, 
Schenectady, N. Y. 

Entered as second-class matter. March 26, 1912, at the post office at Schenectady. N. Y.. under the Act of March. 1879. 

Vol.. XXI, Xo. 4 ,..G.^';i&l;/fl^,„,a,.: Apkm. litis 


Frontisi)iece 238 

Editorial: Tlie Electrical Testing Course 239 

Ventilation Systems for Steam Turbine Alternators 240 

By E. Knowlton and E. H. Freiburghouse 

Methods for More Efficiently Utilizing Our Fuel Resources 

Part XV: Absorption Method for Extracting Gasolene from Natural Gas . . 247 
By George A. Burrell, P. M. Biddison, and O. G. Obekfell 

Part XX'I: The Manufacture of Gasolene from Natural Gas 249 

By J. C. McDowell 

Economy of Electric Drive in Cane Sugar Mills 2.52 

By C. A Kelsey 

Oriental Hospitality to Americans 269 

The Automobile Electric Kitchen 277 

By AxsoN S. Rice 

The Capabilities and Economies of the One-man Light-weight Safety Car .... 2S1 

By J. C. Thirlw.\ll 

Standardized Flexible Distributing Systems in Industrial Plants 

Part II: Application 285 

By Bassett Jones 

Life in a Large Manufacturing Plant 

Part VIII: The Electrical Testing Course 300 

Bv C. M. Ripley 



Who in the electrical fraternity has held 
speed on a core loss test, or has "pulled" 
water boxes on a twenty-four hour heat run, 
who does not look back on his " test ' ' days with 
the same pride that he reflects on the years 
spent at his Alma Alater. Lying flat on his 
back sanding brushes on the underside of 
a huge commutator, with carbon dust sifting 
into his face until he emerges unrecognizable, 
is not of itself an enviable occupation for a 
college graduate, but it is by such roads as 
this that our foremost electrical engineers 
have arrived at success. Intimate knowl- 
edge of detail in construction and operations 
is the sine qua non of the real engineer, and 
a qualification that can be acquired only 
by close association with the practical, or 
sho]j side of the industry. 

How many engineering undergraduates, 
now shortly to receive their diplomas, realize 
the value of this kind of training? Rather, 
isn't the general frame of mind of many of 
these young men one of complacent self- 
sufficiency for the life tasks ahead — a not 
unnatural result of four to six years of in- 
tense study, constituting the period in which 
the knowledge increment is usually greatest. 
To these young men especially we refer the 
article in this issue on the Electrical Testing 
Course of the General Electric Comjjany. 

The great value of this training in fitting 
the young engineer for the duties of his 
Ijrofession can be best emphasized by a 
survey of the careers of those men who have 
made good. It is perfectly right to assume 
that the membership of the A.I.E.E. embraces 
the most prominent electrical engineers in 
the country. By checking the list of former 
(I.E. test men against the A.I.E.E. Blue 
Book, it was found that approximately one 
thousand ex-test men are members of the 
National Body of tlic Institute, among whom 
are many high officials in our large cor- 
porations — presidents, vice-presidents, general 
managers, and superintendents. The mem- 
bers of the Institute niimber ajiproximately 
8000, and to some of our readers the propor- 
tion of ex-test men may seem small, but it 
should be rcnK'ml)cr<.'il that t)ur list inckules 

the graduates of only one manufacturer's test 
course, although the largest. What per- 
centage of the Institute membership is 
composed of men who have undergone this 
splendid training in plants of other manu- 
facturers than the General Electric Company 
can be only roughly guessed; but the extent 
to which the investigation was carried by our 
contributor clearly indicates that the Test is 
the popular path between college and bus- 
iness by which the college graduate may most 
profitably enter the electrical field, whether 
his intention is ultimately to become a 
designing, commercial, or consulting engineer, 
or whether he has in mind research or 
educational work in the industry. 

This method of training young men for 
special positions in the electrical industry 
had its inception in the pioneer days of the 
industry at the plant of the Thomson- 
Houston Company, Lynn, Mass. In those 
days graduates in electrical engineering did 
not exist, and men for the test room were 
chosen from all walks of life, chiefly young 
mechanics who showed ability and were 
interested in what seemed to be a promising 
new field. The product of the company for 
the first few years was arc dynamos, arc 
latnps, and accessories of arc lighting installa- 
tions, and the entire practical exjjericnce 
of the test men was confined to this apparatus. 

The value to the organization of this 
specially trained corps of men was quickly 
demonstrated, and from the beginning the 
management has maintained the personnel 
of the Test on the highest plane by drawing 
on the most promising sources for recruits — 
today, the graduating classes of our en- 
gineering colleges. Hence we find the test- 
ing force composed almost entirely of these 
young men. 

From the student's standpoint the Test 
offers the best opportunity for rounding 
out his engineering education with valuable 
practical experience; and to the Company it 
provides a ready source from which to build 
and maintain its organization. A mutual 
advantage, therefore, exists that is unique 
in industrv. 

240 April 19 IS 


Vol. XXI, No. 4 

Ventilation Systems for Steam Turbine Alternators 

By E. Knowlton and E. H. Freiburghouse 
Alternating-cirrent Engineering Department, General Electric Company 

Part I. the design of the ventilating system 

More and more are engineers obtaining greater effort from a pound of material in engines, whether im- 
pelled by gas, steam, or water power. In the highly developed airplane engine a horse power is obtained 
from every two pounds of weight, while in our present turbo-generators as much as si.K times, or possibly 
more, power is got from a pound ot material as in the first large units. This, of course,^ means that pro- 
portionate quantities of heat must be dissipated per pound of material, and to prevent serious rises in tem- 
perature special means of coohng are necessary. For turbo-generators some sort of forced ventilation is 
usual. This article describes such a system, in which are incorporated those features which a thorough study 
of the subject has shown to be desirable. — Editor. 

Evolution of the Ventilating Problem 

The change from reciprocating drive to 
turbine drive for alternators resulted in a great 
increase of power output per pound of inate- 
rial, due to the higher operating speed. 

During the development of turbine-driven 
alternators changes in design were made 
which permitted additional power output per 
pound of active material. These changes in 
design which affected the ventilation involved 
the losses to be dissipated per unit weight of 
active material, distance in iron or insulation 
through which heat must be transmitted, the 
amount of surface exposed to the cooling air, 
and the quantity of air flowing through the 

Radical changes of this nature were made 
when the vertical alternator having many 
poles was superseded by the high-speed hori- 
zontal generator having greater length in pro- 
])ortion to its diameter. 

The lower speed of engine-driven and verti- 
cal turbine-driven alternators was not, how- 
ever, alone responsible for the greater weight 
per kilovolt-ampere output. The capacity 
of alternators designed some time ago was 
limited more by recjuirements for close 
voltage regidation than by dangerous heating. 
Although there is a value of voltage regula- 
tion which must not be e.\ceeded for machines 
carrying loads of variable impedance, still it is 
advisable to design alternators away from close 
regulation, in order to secure greater power 
per pound and better instantaneous short- 
circuit characteristics. Naturally, the losses 
in the alternator per pound of generating 
material have been correspondingly increased, 
thus making more difficult the problem of 
ventilation in machines and station. Some 
conception of this change in ventilation 

requirements may be gained from Table I, 
in which is given the rating in kv-a, the 
speed, and the relative losses per pound of 
active material, assuming the losses for the 
slow speed alternator as unity. 






Relative Losses per 

Pound of Active 



"^ -^ 



!^.^ " 






ss to ssc 

Capacity of Turbo-altemator as Affected by 
Temperature of Entering Air 

Effect of Temperature on Life of Alternator 

Excessive temperattire shortens the life of 
insulating material, decreasing it in propor- 
tion to the excess of temperature and the time 


(luring which it is maintained. Ail break- 
downs of insulation are not due to tempera- 
ture, or even to excessive temperature; hut 
to insure against those that are caused by 
excessive temperature and dirt it is necessary 
to secure an ample supply of cool, clean air. 

Load as a Function of the Temperature 

A curve giving the per cent of rated load 
on turbine alternators as a function of the 
temperature of the entering air is shown in 
Fig. 1, which applies to the present design 
of horizontal solid rotor alternators. The load 
is based on a given maximum temperature 
attained by any part of the windings. Since 
40 deg. C. is the chosen standard air temper- 
ature for electrical machinery, the load at this 
temperature has been taken as 100 per cent 
load. The air discharged from a turbine alter- 
nator must not be permitted to recirculate 
through the machine unless some means is pro- 
vided for removing the heat, otherwise its tem- 
perature will rapidly increase. This may be 
shown by an assiunption. Three 25,000 kilo- 
volt-amperes turbine alternators requiring a 
total of 165,000 cu. ft. of air per minute would 
fill a station having dimensions of 50 ft. by 
72 ft. by 150 ft. with air in less than three 
and one-half minutes. If the losses were 2.5 

















5 10 15 ZO ZS 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 
Thousand ffi/ovojt Ampares 
Fig. 2. Quantity of Air Required by Turbo-alternators 
of Various Capacities 

per cent, enough heat would be discharged 
in ten minutes to raise the temperature of the 
station air 30 deg. C. even if 50 per cent of 
the heat were lost by wa>" of doors, walls, 
etc. Since the permissible load on a turbine 
alternator depends in part upon the tem- 
perature rise of the ventilating air, the 
question is often asked whether the humidity 
of the air should be taken into account. The 
question is based on the knowledge that 

water vapor has a higher specific heat than 
air, and it is assumed that the more water 
vapor in the mixture the greater is its spe- 
cific heat. This is true, but the quantity of 
water vapor, even in a saturated mixture, is 
too small to have an appreciable effect on the 
thermal capacity of the mixture. 

As an example, consider the mixtures of 
air and vv.ater vapor, A, B. and C, Table II, 
each having a volume of 100 cu. ft. and rela- 
tive humidities of I(JO per cent, 50 per cent, 
and zero per cent. Sample A is saturated 
with water vapor, sample B has one-half as 
much water vapor as sample A, and sample C 
is absolutely dry, having no water vapor. 




The calculations are on the 

basis of. Original tempera- 
ture 32.2 deg. C. (90 dcg.F.) 

Rise in temperature of the 

mixtures 20.0 deg. C. (36 deg. F.) 

Final temperatures 52.2 deg. C.(126 deg. F.) 

Specific heat of air 0.2379 

Specific heat of water vapor 0.475 

Sample A B C 

Relative humidity 100<^ 50% 0^^ 

Weight of dry air in mixture, 

lb 6.896 7.067 7.22 

Weight of water vapor in 

mixture, lb 0.212 0.106 0.00 

Weight of mixture 7.108 7.173 7.22 

B.t.u. to raise air 36 deg. F. 

(20 deg. C.) 59.06 60.52 61.83 

B.t.u. to raise vapor 36 deg. 

F. (20 deg. C.) 3.63 1.815 O.lV.l 

B.t.u. to raise mixture 36 

deg. F. (20 deg. C.) 62.69 62.335 61.83 

The last items in the table show that the 
energy absorbed by the saturated air is only 
1^2 per cent greater than the energy- absorbed 
by perfectly dr>- air. 

Quantity of Air 

The quantity of air required for cooling a 
generator depends on several factors in design, 
but in general it varies approximately with 
the total losses of the machine minus those 
in the bearings. For reasons already given. 
the heat losses per unit of surface which must 
be carried away are relatively greater in the 
present than in the older turbo-alternators. 
A system of forced ventilation is absolutely 
necessar>-, since the natural windage of an 
alternator ha\-ing a solid forged rotor is 
negligible. The efficiencies of large capacity 
alternators are considerably higher than 
those of small sets and. on this account, the 
quantities of air per kilovolt -amperes are 

242 April 19 IS 


Vol. XXI, No. 4 

smaller for the former than for the latter. 
Fig. 2 shows the approximate quantity of 
air required by steam turbine alternators of 
capacities ranging from 1000 to .50,000 kilo- 

Control of Ventilation 

If a generator were operated by taking 
air from and delivering it to the room 
without ■ some arrangement for remo\'ing 
heat from the air, the permissible load 
would be rapidly reduced, as seen from the 
load temperature curve. The ventilation 
arrangement shown in Fig. 3 is recommended. 
This is such that the air passing through 
the generator may be admitted and discharged 

advisable to take part of the air from the 
station and part from outside, and discharge 
it in a similar manner. 


In Fig. 3, are shown various dampers for 
controlling the proportioning of air into and 
from the generator, as described above. A 
fire damper is indicated in each of the intake 
and discharge ducts, located as close to the 
generator as conditions will permit. The 
control of these two dampers should be posi- 
tive, handy, and quickly actuated in case of 
fire within the generator, thus smothering 
the fire with the least amount of combustion. 
After the dampers have been closed steam 


Fig. 3. Diagram of a Ventilation System for Turbo-alternator 

whoUv outside the turbine room, or wholly 
inside; or partly inside, and partly outside. 
This allows considerable control of generator 
and turbine room temperatures throughout 
the year. In hot weather the air to the gen- 
erator may be admitted from and discharged 
outside the turbine room, and the room 
itself cooled by opening windows and doors. 

During the coldest weather the air that is 
passed through the generator may be ad- 
mitted from and discharged inside the sta- 
tion. Between these extremes it mav be 

* See Article by M. A. Savage, Ge 
January 1918. 

,-ERAL Electric Re 

may be xeiy effectively used for quenching 
the fire.* 

Discharge of Air to Boiler Room 

The question of preheating the air used in 
combustion is being seriously considered, 
and to obtain this eft'ect in part the heated 
air discharged from the alternator could 
be used. In some installations, this is being 
done and considerable saving in fuel secured. 
There are no objections to this arrangement, 
unless it involves restrictions or excessive 
length in the air discharge duct which would 
impose too great a duty upon the fans and 



thus curtail the supply to the alternator. 
The volume of air su]5plied by the generators 
\-aries from 25 to (iO per cent of the total 
cjuantity required by the furnaces. 

Design of Station Air Ducts 

If there is a basement under the engine 
room the ducts may be made of sheet iron 
and suspended from the basement ceiling. 
The design of the station air ducts should be 
carefully studied in order not to impose too 
j;reat a duty on the fans of the rotor or on 
independent blowers. 

Too great a resistance to air flow in the 
ducts will materially reduce the quantity of 
air and possibly defeat the purpose for which 
the ducts are installed. The resistance of 
air ducts is dependent on (a), the change in 
direction and cross-section; (b), the condition 
of the surface of the ducts; and (c), the 
superficial area of the duct per unit of length, 
which takes into account the fact that for 
the same area of cross-section a round or 
square section has less friction than a rec- 
tangular section. Unless the deviation is 
great it may be neglected. 

Air moving in a duct exerts a certain pres- 
sure (impact head) on a plane at right-angles 
to its path, and a difTerent pressure (static 
head) on a plane ])arallel to its path. The 
dift'erence between the two is the pressure 
(velocity head) due to the velocity of the air. 
If the duct is unifonn in cross-section the 
velocity of the air and the velocity head do 
not change, but the impact head and the 
static head decrease by the same amount 
in the direction of the flow of air, due to the 
friction of the sides of the duct and to the 
friction of the eddy currents in the air. 

The ])ressure of air is usually measured in 
inches of water. This is conveniently accom- 
plished by having a glass .U-tube partly filled 
with water and each leg connected to the 
two points between which it is desired to 
know the difference in the pressures. The 
difference in the water levels in the two legs 
gives the difference in pressure desired. 
Pressure is usually required between a certain 
point and the atmosphere, and for such a 
measurement one leg of the tube is left open. 

Let r = Velocity of air in ft. per min. 

//r = \'elocilv head in inches of water. 

^'■■ = Umj 



r-= i(i,(io().()(M) H 

Since the drojj in pressure of air passing 
along a duct is dependent on the velocity of 
the air, it is convenient to consider this drop 
in terms of //,. (velocity head). Experiments 
ha\e given the following results for sheet 
metal duct. 

Let // = loss of static head, in inches of 

water due to friction. 
V = (as before) velocity of air in ft. 

per min. 
/» = greater dimension of rectangular 

duct cross-section, in feet. 
u' = lesser dimension of rectangular 

duct cross-section, in feet. 
L = length of duct in feet. 

For a sheet metal duct of rectangular cross- 


H = 

VL _y,h + rv 

12o()X 10« hw 

For a round or square sheet metal duct of 
liameter h 

()25 X 10«/j 
Substituting the value of l'- given in (I) 


// = 

W h 

This means that in a round or square sheet 
metal duct the loss in static head due to 
friction in a length of 39 diameters is equal to 
the velocity head of air. The friction of 
concrete ducts is about 50 per cent greater 
than that of sheet metal, and formula (3) 


H = 

26 /i 

Experiments have also shown that a right- 
angle tuni with an outside radius equal to 
the diameter results in a loss of static head 
equal to the velocity head. The loss in 
static head due to leaving a large chaml>er is 
also equal to the velocity head in the duct. 

To estimate the loss in static head in a 
round or square sheet metal duct. 

Hr =the velocity head 
a = the number of right-angle tunis 
/) =the number of abrupt reductions in 

c =the length of duct -;- diameter of 

The loss in static head is 

^^ =("+'•+ ;Ri) "' 

24-t April 19 IS 


Vol. XXI, No. 4 

This is the difference in pressure (expressed 
in inches of water) necessary to pass the air 
through the duct. 

For the average installation a velocity of 
1500 ft. per min. does not require too large 
a duct nor does it impose too great a duty on 
the air moving apparatus. This gives a 
velocity head of 

«.=0' =»»■»■ 

If a duct had three right-angle turns, two 
abrupt reductions in size, and was 42 diam- 
eters long, the pressure necessary to pass 
air through the duct at this velocity would 
be equal to 

(3 + 2 + ;|) 0.14 = 0.85 in. 

In a properly designed air washer the 
pressure necessary to overcome the resistance 
to the air in passing through the spray and 
eliminators should not exceed 0.375 inches of 
water. Including this resistance the total 
pressure to carry air through the external 
ducts and air washer is 1.225 inches. 

If the speed of the fan and the resistance of 
the air circuit is fixed, the volume of air and 
the pressure developed by the fan are also 
fixed. Moderate proportional increases in 
the resistance of the fan circuit do not appre- 
ciably affect the pressure developed by the 
fan, but part of the pressure is used in 
passing air through this additional resistance. 
For moderate proportional changes in resis- 
tance the volume of air may be taken as 
proportional to the square root of the ratio 
of pressure available to pass a given quantity 
of air through the generator alone under the 
two conditions. For instance, consider a case 
v/here a certain machine has no external duct 
and the fan produces eight inches pressure 
and passes through the machine 10,000 cubic 
feet of air per minute. Assume that there is 
added an external duct and air washer in 
which the total head lost is 1.225 in. The 
quantity of air under the second condition 
is closely given by 

Q= J§I^^?^X 10,000 = 9200 cu. ft. per min. 

The air washer alone reduces the amount of 
air which would have otherwise passed through 
the ducts and the generator by 2.5 per cent , and 
the ducts account for 5.5 per cent. If the fan 
produced the movement of air with a pressure 
of 3 in. the volume would be 

Q = JLA^^x 10,000 = 7700 cu. ft. per; 

In the first case the reduction in volume 
of air was 8 per cent, and in the latter case 
23 per cent. 

The turbine alternator manufacturer takes 
into account the fact that the station air 
ducts and air washer are desirable and makes 
allowance for such resistance. However, if 
the ducts contemplated are unusually long, 
small in cross-section, or have a large nurnber 
of elbows or abrupt changes in cross-section, 
the manufacturer should be consulted. 

If changes cannot be made in the contem- 
plated design of the ducts to secure lower re- 
sistance, it may be necessary to install a blower 
external to the generator, since but little addi- 
tional pressure can be secured by changes in 
the design of the fans on the generator. 

Effect of Dirt on Temperatures 

If the generator air passages are allowed to 
become filled with dirt the utility of properly 
constructed ducts will be defeated. 

There are little data available on the 
difference in the operating temperature be- 
tween a clean and dirty machine, but it is 
known that dirt soon collects in the air ducts 
and over the windings, greatly reducing 
the effectiveness of the air as a cooling 
medium. Such an accumulation is par- 
ticularly rapid where any oil vapor is drawn 
into the alternator by the ingoing air. The 
result of the two tests on machines in com- 
mercial service follow. The loads were the 
same under both conditions: 

Dirty Clean 

Machine 1, rise of armature winding....54 37 

Machine 2, rise of armature core 54 41 

Clean air may be obtained by passing it 
through cloth screens; however, it is far 
preferable to use an air washer which both 
cleans the air and reduces its temperature. 

Air Washer, or Humidifier 

These names briefly describe an apparatus 
for cleaning and humidifying the air. It 
consists of a chamber for housing a very 
fine spray of water and a series of eliminator 
plates for removing the free moisture and 
dirt from the air after passing through the 
spray of water. It is quite important that 
all free or entrained water be removed from 
the air before leaving the washer. If the 
water used in producing the spray is re- 
circulated, the water as well as the air will 
be brought to the wet bulb temperature of 
the entering air. The amount that the air 
is reduced in temperature depends upon its 
humidity before it enters the washer. If the 


air is saturated before entering, it is obvious 
that there will be no evaporation and no 
reduction in temperature. As an example 
of temperature reduction, consider the con- 
ditions which prevailed in New York at 
3 p.m., July 9, 1912. These conditions are 
selected, as they give the maximum reduction 
in temperature during the months of July 
and August of that year. 

Entering air at 96 deg. F. (35.6 deg. C.) 

Relative humidity 0.39 

Under these conditions the air would leave 
the humidifier with 100 per cent humidity, 
i.e., saturated with water vapor, and theoret- 
ically the temperature of the air leaving the 
washer should be 76 deg. F. (24.5 deg. C). 
Actually it will be slightly higher, but 2 deg. 
F. is ample allowance. The air, therefore, 
would be at a temperature of 78 deg. F. 
(25.6 deg. C). With the water circulated in 
the system as is customary it also maintains 
a temperature of 78 deg. P. (25.6 deg. C). 

Reference to Fig. 1 shows that the relation 
of the loads under the two conditions is 

f of permissible 

With air washer 1.14 per cent ) load with 40 de- 

Without air washer.. 1.04 per cent ] gree C. entering 

Under the most adverse conditions which 
have been recorded in New York City for 



O^ MU/^/0"^/£fK i 

Fig. 4. Sizes of Air Washers for Various 
Quantities of Air 

several years, the maximum exit tempera- 
ture of air froin a properh- designed and 
operated air washer would not exceed 82 deg. 
F. (27.8 deg. C). Reference to Fig. 1 shows 
that the load for this temperature is 112 
per cent of the load at an air temperature of 

40 deg. C. This is the minimum load based 
on a safe operating temperature which it 
would have been necessary to earn,- in New 
York City at any time during several years 
with an air washer in operation. 


- _ -L 2 _ 

_____ f 

i** t --i- -1 

^ I r -f- 

9« C J _ _ 2 

^ it 7 f 

U ^ 2 _ 

? hX 2 ' 

^■"^JZ-u- 4 t- J- 

i 1 ^^ f- 

i^ 4t ? 7 

r t ^^ 

U %^ 1 I 

5 t t ^ : 

\.o . t 4 t _ : 

s t 1 

w ^%.i: / _ 

° . \y\ ' 

l'^ J-JZ^ 

\ -iV / i 

l4 tjL"^ _1_ 

, ■ 


Fig. 5. Sizes of Air Washers for Turbo-altemators 
of Various Capacities 

In other localities than New York City the 
conditions differ, and more or less benefit 
will result. In Table IV is given the average 
reduction in the temperature of the air and 
generator which may be obtained with and 
without the use of an air washer. This 
covers the months of June, lulv, and August, 
1911 and 1912. It "should be noted that 
Table I\' represents average conditions. 
There are times when the gain is much larger. 
This is shown by comparing (for New York 
City) the average values in Table IV' with 
the maximum values for 3 p.m., July 9, 1912. 
This comparison is given in Table V. 

Figs. 4 and 5 are included to show the 
sizes of air washers made by three different 
mainifacturers for various amounts of air and 
capacities of alternators. 

The energy loss due to the resistance of the 
air in passing through a waslier varies as the 
square of the velocity of the air. If the 
velocity of the air in the waslier is 5(H) ft. 
per minute, this loss will Ix; approximately 
0.05 kw. per 10(X) cu. ft. of air per minute. 
For any gi\cn de.sign of washer the velocity 
of the air through the washer should not 
equal that which 'would cause suspended 

24(1 April 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 4 

water to be carried by the air from the washer 
into the generator. 

Overload Capacity of Old and Modern Turbine 

The early steam turbines could supply 
power greath' in excess of their rated capacity 
and the permissible load of the set was de- 
pendent on the generator temperatures. The 
reduction in 'temperature of air secured by 
the use of an air washer, therefore, made it 




Reduction in temperature of air and generator 
by the use of an air washer; also, gallons of water 
evaporated per thousand of cubic feet of air. 

Average values for the months June, July, and 
August, years 1911 and 1912. 

out Air 

1 Air 

tion in 

Gallons of 











Cu. Ft. 
of Air 

San Francisco, Cal. 





Bismark, N. D 





Jacksonville, Fla. . . 





Albany, N. Y 





Boston, Mass 





Chicago, 111 





New York, N. Y. . . 





Indianapolis, Ind . . 





San Antonio, Texas 





Phoenix, Ariz 





possible to carry part or all of such overloads 
on the generators of these sets with the same 
copper temperature as obtained for normal 
load and no washer in use. But these condi- 
tions do not exist with the modern steam 
turbine sets, as will be explained. 

In 1914 the American Institute of Elec- 
trical Engineers adopted a continuous maxi- 
mtun rating for turbo-alternators based on 
safe operating ternperatures when the enter- 
ing ventilating air is at a temperature of 
40 deg. C. The capacity of the steam turbine 

is predetermined with far greater accuracy 
now than formerly, and the set cannot be so 
greatly overloaded. The capacity of a clean 
generator is no longer dependent on tempera- 
ture, provided the ventilating air is consider- 
ably^ below 40 deg. C. (as is usually the case) 
for before the full benefit due to the lower air 
temperature could be realized the capacity 
would be limited by other factors. 

Present Usefulness of an Air Washer 

When operated with the modern steam 
turbine unit the principal useftilness of an 
air washer is the elimination of dirt. This 
is of extreme importance. Without a washer 
the air ducts in the generator become clogged 
with dirt, which reduces the quantity of air 
and renders the remainder less effective 
because of the high heat insulating qualities 
of the dirt. The effect is cumulative and 
may in a conijiaratively short time reach the 





OF JULY 9, 1912. 

stage where the capacity of the unit is limited 
by the temperature of the generator. Dirt 
around a steam station is liable to contain 
more or less coal dust which, when deposited 
on the end windings and connections, forms a 
conducting path to ground, thereby imposing 
dielectric stresses on the weakest parts of 
the insulation. 

Briefly, a washer should be used to prolong 
the life of the generator by providing cool 
clean air which carries no free water. The 
prevention of free water in station and 
generator will be discussed at length in Part 
II of this article. 


Methods for More Efficiently Utilizing Our 
Fuel Resources 


By George A. Burrell, P. M. Biddison, and C. G. Oberfell 
United States Bureac of Mines 

Bulletin 120 of the United States Bureau of Mines, "Extraction of Gasolene from Natural Gas by 
Absorption Methods," which has recently been issued, contains the following summary of data regarding the 
process. — Editor. 

The absorption method of extracting gaso- 
lene from natural gas consists in bringing the 
gas in contact with an oil heavier than gaso- 
lene, such as a petroleum distillate of about 
34 deg. B., to absorb the gasolene from it, 
and then separating the gasolene from the 
oil by distillation. The oil is used simply as 
a carrier of the gasolene from the absoqjtion 
tank to the still, and may be used over and 
over again. 

In plants using compression and condensa- 
tion methods only, casing-head natural gas 
that is comparatively rich in gasolene vapor — 
carrying upward of three-fourths of a gallon 
of gasolene per 1000 cubic feet of gas — is 
treated, whereas so-called "dry" natural gas, 
.such as is used in cities, towns, and factories 
for heating, lighting, and other purposes, can 
be treated bv the absorption process. In 1914 
about r)91,()()0,000,000 cu. ft. of this kind of 
natural gas was used in the United States. 
Most of this natural gas carries as much as 1 
to 2 pints of gasolene per 1000 cu. ft. of gas. 
Probably 75,000,000 gal. of gasolene per year 
could be recovered by passing the gas through 
absorption plants before it is marketed. It 
is also true that casing-head gas that is too 
lean to treat by compression methods can be 
treated by the absorption method. 

Advantages of Extracting the Gasolene 

The removal of the gasolene does not 
reduce the heating value of the gas to an 
appreciable extent. In the case of natural 
gas from two particular fields, extracting the 
gasolene lowered the heating value onl\- 3 
per cent in one case and 2.2 per cent in the 

A further advantage of the process, apart 
from the value of the gasolene recovered, lies 
in the fact that gasolene if left in the gas 
lines destroys the itibber in pipe couplings. 

The cost of replacing these rubbers and repair- 
ing broken connections, and the resulting 
loss of natural gas, has been a large item of 
expense in the operating costs of gas trans- 
portation companies. 

The im])ortance of the absorption process 
of extracting ga.solene from natural gas 
increases with the demand for gasolene. 
The method is practically identical with the 
process of extracting benzol and toluol from 
coke-oven gases. A difference lies in the fact 
that coke-oven gases are treated at about 
atmospheric pressure, whereas much natural 
gas must be treated at jjressures as high as 
200 to 300 lb. per square inch, because it is 
not desirable to disturb the carrying system. 

As nearly as can be determined the first 
large-scale installation for extracting gaso- 
lene from natural gas by the absorption 
process at high ])ressure was constructed at 
Hastings. Virginia, in 1913. The plant 
was built following experiments by G. M. 
Say bolt, of the operating company. 

Testing the Gas 

Two methods can be used in testing natural 
gas as regards the practicability of extracting 
gasolene from it by the absorption process. 
In the laboratory method the gasolene is 
frozen out of the natural gas and its pressure 
and volume determined. In the field method, 
a small absorber and a gas meter are taken 
to the well or pijie-line to be tested for natural 
gas, the gas is passed through the absorbent 
oil, and the extracted gasolene is distilled 
from the oil. The results duplicate on a small 
scale those in a commercial jjlant. 

All natural gas. except that which contains 
methane as the only combustible gas. contains 
gjisolene vapor. However, in gas from some 
wells the gasolene content may be small. 
This is sometimes because the gas is under 

24S April 1918 


VoL XXI, No. 4 

high pressure, and the gasolene vapor because 
of its greater density at this high pressure is 
not produced in quantity until the pressure 
is relieved. But even high-pressure wells 
represent potential sources of gasolene supply 
in that the gas will carry commercial quanti- 
ties of gasolene vapor as the pressure declines. 

Experimental Work 

Tests on natural gas from two different 
fields reported in the iDulletin* showed 1 pint 
and 1.5 pints, respectively, of gasolene per 
lUOO cu. ft. About 50,000,000 cu. ft. of natural 
gas per day was available for. treatment. 

The oils used in the experiments to absorb 
the gasolene were petroleum distillates that 
had a specific gravity of 35 deg. B., and which 
started to boil at 400 to 4S2 deg. F. It 
is necessary that the boiling point of the oil 
used be much higher than the boiling point 
of the gasolene to facilitate the extraction of 
the latter by distillation. 

Tests were made with a plant of fairly 
large proportions, capable of handling 15,000 
to 30,000 cu. ft. of gas per hour. The prin- 
cipal features of the plant consisted of an 
absorber where the natural gas and absorbent 
oil were brought in contact with each other, 
a heat exchanger where the oil with its 
absorbed gasolene was heated before going 
to the still, a steam still where the gasolene 
was extracted from the oil, a cooler where 
the hot oil from the still was cooled before 
receiving another charge of gasolene, pumps, 
and a weathering tank. 

ScA'eral different types of absorbers were 
tried. The one giving the best results con- 
sisted of a tower filled with pebbles, in which 
the oil flowed downward and the gas upward. 

An increase in the temperature of the oil 
in the absorber from 75 to 85 deg. F. lowered 
the gasolene yield about 0.3 pint per 1000 
cu. ft. of gas. An increase in the pressure 
of the gas from atmospheric pressure to 110 
lb. per square inch increased the yield from 
0.7 pint to about 2 pints of gasolene per 
lOOOcu. ft. ofgas. 

The gravity of the gasolene obtained varied 
between 77 and 85 deg. B. The boiling point 
ranged from 80 to 300 deg. F. The evapora- 
tion-loss was about 11 per cent in 24 hours 
as compared to 2.4 per cent from a "straight " 
refinery gasolene having a gravity of 60.4 
deg. B. The vapor pressure of the gasolene 
ranged from 1 lb. at 70 deg. F. to about 5 
lb. at 100 deg. F. This is important because 

it shows that the gasolene can be safely 
shipped in tank-cars. 

The Field for the Absorption Process 

The absorption process can be profitably 
operated at low pressures. 

As good results can be obtained from casing- 
head gas with the absorption process as with 
the compression process. However, where 
the residual gas from the plant has to be 
forced into a pipe-line at high pressure there 
is no advantage in installing an absorption 
plant, because a compressor would be needed 

A promising field for the absorption process 
lies in the treatment of gas from oil-wells 
producing from a sand into which air has been 
forced under pressure to increase the oil 
production. This gas, as it flows from the 
wells, can be treated by the absorption proc- 
ess and the gasolene it contains extracted. 

The amount of power required for the 
operation of an absorption plant will vary 
from 0.018 to 1.443 boiler horse power per 
1000 cu. ft. of gas treated per hour for gas 
containing 0.0625 to 5 gal. of gasolene per 
1000 cu. ft., and the amount of water from 
1.46 to 116.8 gals, per 1000 cu. ft. of gas. The 
rate of flow of the absorbing oil will vary 
from 6 to 60 gal. per 1000 cu. ft. of gas treated 
per 24 hours, for gas that contains from 1 
pint to 2.5 gal. of gasolene per 1000 cubic 

A successful use of naphtha as an absorbent 
for gasolene is found in the absorption in the 
naphtha of waste gases from compression 
plants treating casing-head gasolene. Some 
tests were made in which natural gas was 
passed into naphtha with a gravity of about 
55 deg. B. When the naphtha had absorbed 
all the gasolene that was desired it was 
removed and fresh naphtha substituted. The 
\"ield of gasolene was 300 to 500 per cent 
greater than that by the oil absorption and 
distillation process. In some tests the naph- 
tha, besides being increased in volume owing 
to the absorbed gasolene, was raised in gra\nty 
to 60 or 62 deg. B. An objection to the proc- 
ess lies in the fact that a large amount of 
naphtha has to be handled — at least seven 
tanks of naphtha for each tank of gasolene 
obtained. If the naphtha is permitted to 
absorb too much gasolene its vapor pressure 
is raised too high for safe transportation. 

There are possibilities in the application of 
the absorption method to casing-head natural 
gas, much of which is too lean to be treated 
by compression and condensation methods. 



By J. C. McDowEi.i, 
In General Charge ok the Doherty Oil and Xatl-ral Gas Pk<j1'krties 

Natural gas is one of our important fuel resources. This article reviews the natural-gas industry, and the 
processes which have been introduced in recent years to extract valuable condensates. These are blended with 
heavy naphtha in order to increase the production of gasolene. — Editor. 

The petroleum industry is a development 
of the present generation. The man is yet" 
living in Pittsburgh who purchased the first 
tract of land on which to drill for petroleum, 
upon the completion of the Drake well, near 
Titusville, Pa., in 1859. A small refinery was 
in operation in Pittsburgh prior to the com- 
pletion of the Drake well, however, running 
on crude oil obtained from wells drilled and 
operated for salt near Tarentum, Pa. The 
Drake well has been recognized as the pioneer 
well, probably because it was the initial ven- 
ture undertaken solely for petroleum. 

From the small beginnings of Oil Creek days 
in the 'sixties, the business has grown until 
its magnitude and importance attract general 
attention and increasing popular interest. The 
wide geographical range of its deposit, the ele- 
ment of risk and romance in its discovery, 
interesting tales of fabulous fortunes grasped 
in a day, of hopes deferred, hearts made sick, 
and final financial ruin in the quest for oil, are 
some of the features of public interest. But 
the real reason for the popular interest in the 
petroleum industry is that the products of 
petroleum have such an important place in 
every industry and ever}^ household, contribut- 
ing largely to the necessities and pleasures of 
htimanity in every grade of life, and dwellers 
in the remotest regions of the earth are 
touched by it through the energy of the men 
engaged in its trade. 

The development of another youtliful indus- 
try — the automobile and internal combustion 
engine — has revolutionized the oil industry and 
created a new and \'ital interest in it. Less 
than twenty-five years ago gasolene was a by- 
product of the refinery, difficult to dispose of 
at any price. Now the industry is taxed to its 
limit by the demand for motor fuel (gasolene) 
and lubricating oil, and it is a subject of gen- 
eral concern from what source the ever grow- 
ing requirements for these products are to be 

Natural Gas 

From the beginning of the oil industry, gas 
in more or less quantity has been found in 

* From the Doherty News, September 1917, p. 5. 

petroleum deposits and produced along with 
oil, and many wells drilled for oil produced gas 
only. Prior to about 1S80 but slight use was 
made of the gas other than to use it for fuel in 
boilers, and some use was also made of it for 
domestic fuel in dwellings on the lease. The 
great btdk of it, however, was wasted, its 
presence being a nuisance to the operator. 

About 18SU the qualities of natural gas as 
fuel began to be appreciated and the natural 
gas industry began. Its growth, slow at first, 
soon attained importance. The invention of 
the automatic pressure regulator, the rubber 
coupler joint (permitting the use of pipe of 
large diameter and consequent capacity), the 
gas compressor, and improved methods of com- 
bustion soon greatly enlarged the area of its 
profitable distribution, the cost of transporta- 
tion, and the safety of its use. At the present 
time it is one of the great industries of the 
United States and Canada, with an investment 
exceeding S.'5.jO.()()0,000 and an annual income 
of over §100,U00,(K)(). It has grown with ac- 
celerated speed, 1916 being the year of maxi- 
mum production and earnings. 

Natural-Gas Gasolene 

Although it has been known from the early 
period of the oil industry- that under some con- 
ditions light gravity condensates were recov- 
erable from natural gas, it is within the last 
few years, since gasolene became of great com- 
mercial importance, that this branch of the 
petroleum and natural-gas industr>- began to 
iie developed. 

In the gasolene industry-, natural gas is 
classified in two di\-isions — "wet" gas and 
" dry " gas. Gas produced from the same sand 
as oil is known as wet gas, while gas produced 
from strata (sands) that produce gas only is 
termed dry gas. Yet there is no clear line 
of demarcation between so-called wet gas and 
drv gas. When a well is first drilled, the 
quantity of gas escaping with the oil is fre- 
quently great, the gas flow in time diminish- 
ing. When gas comes with the flowing oil the 
two can be separated by a gas trap, and plants 
are frequently erected to extract gasolene from 
this wet gas. Oil wells that have ceased 

250 April 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 4 

flowing and are being pumped, usually con- 
tinue to produce much gas at the casing head . 
It is this casing-head gas from which the bulk 
of natural gas condensate is now being re- 

Natural gas is a mixture of hydrocarbons of 
the paraffin series, also usually containing 
very small portions of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, 
and water vapors. A sample of wet gas 
recently analyzed showed the following com- 
position : 

Methane 37.4% 

Ethane 32.0% 

Propane 20.1% 

Butane, Pentane, Hexane, etc 10.5% 

Total Inc. 1.03 Nitrogen 100.0% 

The dry gases are usually very high in 
methane, sometimes containing as much as 
95 per cent. Methane cannot be liquefied by 
ordinary commercial methods, consequently 
the gasolene content of natural gas is re- 
covered from the lower hydrocarbons, ethane, 
propane, butane, etc. 

There are two general methods of recover- 
ing condensates from natural gas. Briefly, 
the}- may be described as follows: 

(a) The Compression Method — Compress- 

ing the gas by means of an air com- 
pressor adapted to the purpose. 
Cooling the compressed gas by means 
of condensing coils, by use of water, 
air, or artificial refrigeration. 

(b) The Absorption Method — Passing the 

gas through towers or receptacles 
in contact with heavy oils (used as a 
menstrum); then heating the oil in 
ordinary stills to a point where the 
light vapors absorbed by the men- 
strum pass off as \^apors, which 
vapors are reduced to condensates 
b}' the usual methods of condensa- 

Compression Process 

A plant for recovering gasolene from casing- 
head gas was erected in the vicinity of Titus- 
ville, Pa., near the Drake well in 1904. The 
equipment was crude. The gas was com- 
pressed by gas pumps and condensed by 
means of a pipe coil in a water tank, the 
condensate dripping into a wooden barrel. 
The product, when first obtained, had a 
gravity of 80 to 90 degrees Baume scale and 
the loss from evaporation was large. Other 
plants were soon installed in that locality. 
These ventures proving a commercial success. 

plants of better design and equipment were 
installed in other oil regions. 

At first, ordinary gas pumps at pressures of 
50 pounds were used; at present, compressors 
— usually two-stage — of modern design are 
installed and the gas is compressed to from 
100 to 250 pounds per square inch, depending 
upon the quality of the gas and the resultant 
gravity of the condensate. 

Speaking generally, the higher the gas is 
• compressed , the higher the resultant conden- 
sate. At above SO degrees Baume the evapora- 
tion of the product at atmosphere is very rapid. 
The quantity of gas consumed or utilized in 
the recovery of the gasolene is but a small per- 
centage of the total voltnne compressed. The 
waste gas, or gas from which the gasolene has 
been recovered, can be used for fuel or inter- 
nal combustion engines. The recovery of gas- 
olene from casing-head gas is from two to 
eight gallons per thousand cubic feet of gas, 
depending upon the quality of the gas. 

The. average compression plant is small, in 
some instances a plant handling 100,000 cubic 
feet in twenty-four hours is profitable. A 
plant passing 2,000,000 cubic feet is con- 
sidered a large one. The installation of a 
plant involves connecting up all the wells, 
from which gas is to be used, by a pipe line 
system to convey the casing-head gas to the 
compression plant, as well as suitable tankage 
and shipping facilities. Several hundred oil 
wells are sometimes connected in one pipe line 

Absorption Process 

The absorption process is of more recent 
adoption than the compression process, and is 
usually installed to recover condensates from 
dry gas transported through pipe lines to more 
or less distant markets. The operation is 
essentially as follows. 

The plant is erected close to the pipe line, 
preferably at a gas pipe-line compressor sta- 
tion. By suitable connections the gas is 
diverted through the absorbers; the flow of 
gas through the pipe lines is undisturbed. 
The gas passes into the bottom of the absorb- 
ers, up through the oil and out at the top, and 
thence on to the market. In passing through 
the absorber, the gas mingles with the oil com- 
ing into the absorber from the top, broken 
and spread by baffles and other devices. 
The oil in descending absorbs gasolene from 
the gas, and is pumped from the bottom into 
a still where the gasolene is distilled from the oil 
by live steam. The oil, stripped of the gasolene, 
is then pumped into the absorber to absorb 


more gasolene, the operation being a contin- 
uous circuit of the heavy oil. A weathering 
tank is in the circuit to get rid of some of the 
lighter condensates before the oil enters the 
still. There is also a heat exchanger for cool- 
ing the oil before it returns to the absorber. 
Recently, some absorption plants arc also 
equipped with a compressor plant which 
takes the light gases from the weathering 
tank; and the tail pipe of the condensers 
reduces them to a liquid and mingles it 
with the gasolene recovered through the 

The heating value of the gas after passing 
through the absorber is not appreciably low- 
ered, and the deleterious effect of gasolene on 
the rubber couplings of the gas pipe line is 

The recovery of gasolene from dry gas by 
the absorption method is comparatively small 
and depends somewhat on the quality of the 
gas , but is usually about one pint for each one 
thousand cubic feet. 

Absorption plants are usually installed 
where large volumes of gas can be treated — in 
some cases from forty to fifty million cubic 
feet in each twenty-four hours. 

The Condensate 

The term "condensate" is a more suitable 
name for the liquid obtained from natural gas 
by either process, for some of the liquid ob- 
tained is so volatile that it does not come 
within the meaning of the trade name "gaso- 
lene. " 

At present, practically all natural-gas con- 
densate is mixed with low-grade naphtha — a 
refinery product — before it is marketed. This 
process is called "blending." 

In the early days of the industry, "weather- 
ing" for evaporation of the light vapors of the 
condensate was necessary for safety in ship- 
ping and use. The process of "weathering" 
frequently caused a loss of from M to 7") per 
cent. By blending, a product is obtained 
which has a mvich lower rate of evaporation 
than the natural-gas condensate, and which 
can be shipped and used with safety. Several 
methods of blending are in use. The one in 
most favor now in the mid-continent field is 
that of spraying the heavy naphtha into the 
hot compressed gases as they lea\'e the com- 

pressor. Both the naphtha introduced — 
mostly gasified by the heat of the com- 
I^ressed gas— and the compressed gas are 
then passed into the condensers, and the 
resultant gravity reduced to a com]jaratively 
stable jjroduct. 

The use of this method results in a recover)' 
of from 2.) to .50 per cent more merchantable 
product than when the blending is done simply 
by mixing the condensate and low-grade re- 
finery najjhtha. 

It is customary to test the gas which it is 
proposed to treat to determine its gasolene 
content before installing a plant, and a close 
determination of the true re.sult can be arrived 
at by such tests. 

Growth of the Industry 

The production of gasolene increased from 
about 4()(),0()() gallons in l!t()4 to (m.OUO.OOO 
gallons in 1'.)].'). The increase for H>\'.i over 
1912 was 100 per cent. During 191."), 
6.i,3()4,()(i5 gallons were extracted — a gain of 
'•>:i per cent over 1914. An average price of 
7.9 cents per gallon was received for the un- 
blended product, the value of the year's out- 
put being S.'),I.')(),S2.3. It is estimated that 
twenty-four billion cubic feet of natural gas 
was utilized in the manufacture, with an 
average recover)- of 2. .57 gallons of gasolene 
per thousand cubic feet. 

It is estimated that the production of 1916 
was approximately 100,000,000 gallons yield- 
ing a revenue of over $12, .>()(), 000. 

Future of the Industry 

While e\er\- gas well is a potential pro- 
ducer of gasolene, there arc many reasons 
whv they will not lie utili/.ed for this purpose. 
Among these reasons are: 

(1) Insufficient yield of gas. 

(2) Unfavorable location. 
(.3) Poor quality of gas. 

Yet there are many millions of dollars' 
worth of casing-head gas now going to waste 
that will be utilized. The time is near when 
a gasolene plant will he as much a part of a 
well-equipi)ed oil lease, as the power plant for 
pumiiing the wells. The business is profit- 
able, under proper conditions, and conserva- 
tion is always popular when it is profitable. 

252 April 191S 


Vol. XXI, No. 4 

Economy of Electric Drive in Cane Sugar Mills 

By C. a. Kelsey 
Power and Mining Engineering Department, General Electric Company 

Last month we published "Electricity in Beet Sugar Factories," by E. M. Ellis; and below we publish a 
complementary article on electrification of cane sugar mills. It is not a coincidence that electrical operation 
is most advantageous in both the cane sugar and beet sugar mills; it is simply an added dual example of the 
fact that electrification of our industries is beneficial. In the present article analysis is made of the general 
and the specific advantages of electric drive, particular attention being given to the direct-connected motor- 
driven centrifugal pumps. The fuel requirements of steam and of electric drive are discussed in detail. The 
advantages and economy of electric drive are further demonstrated with respect to labor, supplies, repairs, 
production, water supply, illumination, and traction. — Editor. 

motors which receive electric energy from 
an electric generator which in turn is driven 
by a steam turbine, than by a steam engine 
direct. However, a decrease in operating 
expense and an increased yield results from 
the use of economical direct motor-driven 
centrifugal pumps, the electrification of all 
mechanical drives, and the decrease in the 
exhaust steam from the centralized power 
generating equipment. 

When the output of a mill is to be increased 
by equipment of greater capacity, it will 
be found that this can be accomplished at 
a minimum cost by the coincident substi- 
ttition of electric drive. Also, the capacity 
of the sugar apparatus of a mill can be in- 
creased by the changeover to electric drive. 
To obtain the maximum benefits, however, 
it is usually necessary to make some slight 
changes in the sugar apparatus to balance 
the capacity of the several stations. The 
saving in operating expense and the increased 
yield pay for the cost of changing over an 
existing mill in two or three years. 

When a new mill is considered, there are 
additional reasons for adopting electric drive. 
The motor-driven machinery costs less, it 
can be more advantageously placed, it is 
smaller and lighter, and costs less to install. 

The new mills in Cuba and those that have 
been changed over from steam to electric 
drive have demonstrated the reliability, 
economy, and superiority of electric drive. 

The advantages of electric drive in cane 
sugar mills will now be considered in detail. 


Favorable working conditions in a mill 
tend to increase the output of the operators 
and act as an inducement to continuous 
employment. An electrically driven mill will 
be cooler, cleaner, quieter, and better hghted 
than one which is steam driven. In the 
operation of the pumping, power drives, 
and the milling plant, the benefits of electric 
drive are especially pronounced. 

The prominence of sugar in the list of food 
products has been accentuated by the war- 
created shortage of the supply. 

The cane sugar industrj^ is perhaps the last 
of the food industries to adopt electric drive. 
The reluctance on the part of sugar mill own- 
ers to replace their steam-driven pumps and 
engines by electric motors has been due largely 
to the process of manufacttire and to the em- 
ployment of unskilled laborers. 

As the evaporation of the juice and the 
concentration to crystal form requires a 
great amount of heat, and as the exhaust 
steam from the steam pumps and engines 
met the steam requirements for heating, 
the steam drive was considered satisfactory. 
The introduction of more efficient cane 
crushing inills and evaporating apparatus 
and the use of maceration water* rendered 
steam drive tmeconomical because the de- 
mand for fuel increased beyond that which 
could be entirely supplied by the waste cane 
or "bagasse" that had usually been sufficient. 
Furthermore, the decrease in net profit 
realized on raw sugar from year to year 
compelled a reduction in operating expenses. 

A reportf issued by the United States 
Department of Commerce gives details of 
the cost of producing cane sugar in Cuba, 
Hawaii, Porto Rico, and Louisiana. This 
report shows the great variance in the several 
items of manufacturing cost, which is caused 
by the different climatic and labor conditions, 
and manufacturing methods. 

The figures applying to Ctiba will be 
compared in this article becatise of the extent 
of the Cuban cane stigar industry and the 
dependence of this country upon Cuba for 
over half of our sugar supply. 

Advantages of Electric Drive 

It is not self-evident that sugar machinery 
can be more advantageously driven by electric 

* Maceration water is water applied to the cane in its passage 
through the crushing rolls to assist in the extraction of addi- 
tional juice containing sugar. 

t"The Cane-sugar Industry," United States Department of 
•Commerce, Miscellaneous Series No. 53. 


Central Australia. Cuba. Erected and Electrified 1915 

Central Mercedes. Cuba. Electrified 1915 

El Prottcro Suuar Mill. Mexico. Elected and Elc -f.:-,. 

254 April lUlS 


Vol. XXI. No. 4 

Steam engines and pumps require careful 
handling while starting and constant atten- 
tion when running. Condensation in the 
steam line and cylinders will break cylinder 
heads and pistons unless the pet cocks are 
opened, the water drained, and the engine 
or pump brought slowly up to speed. Recip- 
rocating steam pumps will knock when the}- 
lose their suction and steam engines which 
are commonly run without speed governors 
will race when the load is thrown off. The 
fluctuating steam pressure will cause pro- 
portionate changes in the flow of the liquids 
pumped and in the speed of the driven ma- 
chinery. A -large number of attendants is 
required to prevent damage to the pumps 
and engines and to maintain constant the 
flow of the material. In order to insure that 
the pumps will deliver the required pressure 

Where variable speed is required or slow 
starting is desired or the motor is large 
compared to the capacity of the power plant, 
a controller with a number of starting or 
running points is used. The high starting 
torque brings the loaded motor rapidly and 
smoothly up to normal speed. The centrif- 
ugal pump is well suited to rapid increase 
in speed. The pressure at bhe pump increases 
with the speed, so that the flow of the liquid 
is gradual!}' established. 

The speed of the constant speed motor does 
not materially change with a change in load, 
since it is primarily dependent upon the 
speed of the electric generator. As the speed 
of the generator is closely maintained by a 
sensitive turbine governor, irrespective of 
changes in load or steam pressure, the speed 
of the motor-driven pumps and machines 

ower Plant, Central Lequeitio, Cuba. Two 300-kw., 480-volt, 

Alternating-current Curtis Steam Turbines with Oil Engine 

and Electric Motor-driven Exciters. The Oil Engine 

Driven Exciter is Used for Lighting in the Dead Season 

Two 500-kw.. 480-volt, Alternating-current Curtis Steam 
Turbine Generators. Central Agramonte, Cuba 

in the liquid with reduced steam pressure, 
the steam cylinders are made oversize. Care 
must be exercised in closing the discharge 
valves in connection with the throttle valve 
or a high pressure may form at the liquid 
end sufficient to blow the packing, start 
leaks, or even break the pump. 

The electric motor requires no careful 
handling at starting nor attention when up to 
speed. As the majority of centrifugal pumps 
and mechanical drives are operated at con- 
stant speed, the simple and mechanically strong 
squirrel cage induction motor is largely used. 
Motors of five horse power and smaller are 
started by simply closing a line switch. 
Larger motors are started by a controlling 
device having an operating handle with 
one starting position and a running posi- 

will be constant. The amount of liquid dis- 
charged by a centrifugal ]jump can be closely 
regulated by throttling the discharge. This 
does not materially increase the pressure 
at the pump; in fact, the discharge valve 
can be entirely closed without producing a 
dangerous pressure. The power required is 
proportional to the liquid delivered, so that 
as the discharge valve is closed the load on 
the motor decreases. All pumping cannot be 
done by centrifugal pumps ; plunger pumps are 
more suitable for the scums, massecuites, and 
molasses due to the viscuous nature of these 
liquids. The three pistons of the triplex single 
acting pump produce an approximately uni- 
form crank eff^ort so that the operation is 
smooth and the flow of the liquid is constant. 
When the pumps are electrically driven, the 
flow of the liquids through the pipes is steady 


inslcad of ])ulsating as with steam pumps. 
As the friction of liquids in pipes increases 
with the square of the velocity, a greater 
average pressure — and therefore power — is 
required of the steam-driven pumps than of 
the motor-driven pumps. 

The electric motor is readily adapt- 
able to locations which best suit the 
pump or driven machine, arid the 
control can be placed to meet the con- 
venience of the o])erator. The oi)era- 
tor need give no attention to the 
motor in starting; and the pump or 
driven machine is automatically 
brought up to normal speed as soon 
as the controlling device is set at the 
running position. 

Protective devices shut off the 
electric power in case of overload 
on the driven machine. The over- 
load devices can be adjusted to 
operate only after a sustained over- 
load on the motor or to act instantly 
in Hmiting the pump pressure. This 
latter feature finds a valuable appli- 
cation in filter press pumping and 
results in a considerable saving in 
damaged plates. Automatic starting 
ecjuipments start and stop air com- 
jjressors within specified limits of 
pressure, and service water tanks can 
be maintained within given water 
levels. These devices are not subject 
to clogging as with similar steam op- 
erated devices. Electrically operated 
brakes are available on drives such as 
cane hoists or elevators to hold the 
load from slipping back or for cjuick 
and positive stopping. 

Grinding Rolls. 

All the ]jrobk'ms of power dri\'es in a cane 
sugar mill find their counterpart in other 
industries, and they have been successfully 
solved. While applications closely approxi- 
mating the ]jower requirements of grinding 
rolls are numerous in steel, paper, and rubber 
mills, the methods adopted in these latter 
industries are not suited to the conditions 
found in the sugar mill. The motors are 
idle during the dead season when the atmo- 
sphere is hot and damp, and they must operate 
continuously during the crop under the care 
of unskilled attendants. The operation of 
the whole mill depends upon the reliability 
of the grinding roll drive. The electrical 
apparatus should, therefore, be sin^ple in 
design and mechanically strong. Moreover, 
the initial cost must be in keeping with that 

of a good steam engine drive. The inherent 
advantages of the induction motor for all 
other power ai)i>licalions dictates its exclu.sive 
use in the whole mill. The allernaling- 
current speed regulating motor generator sets 

lotor-operattd Side Tilting Car Platform. Cmtra. Ulacia. Cuba. 
The control is located on the oppojite side with the operator 

i<- Car Unloartcr. i.c-.u.:ii Mr.>v.,> . A :-.- 

pump replaced the steam pump for supplying the wmta 

ordinarilv used in sieel mills are objection- 
able in sugar mills from the standpoint of 
cost, of the number of sets required, and of 
their comparative comiilication. 

In order to oiitain the maximum output 
and extraction at all times, it is ncoessar>- to 
adjust the relative speeds of the rolls. It 
is also necessary to retluce the speed of all 
the rolls, and to ]>reserve the same relative 
speeds, to keep the mill in operation when the 
cane supply is below normal. t)|>oration at 
reduced cajiacity must be accompHsheti with 
approximately the same efficiency as at nor- 
mal output. The steam engine satisfactorily 
meets the requirements of reduced output, 
but to keep down the steam consumption 
group drive is essential and this allows of 
onlv approximate relative speed adjustments. 

256 April 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 4 

Cane Crushing Rolls. Central Lequeitio 

A method of electric drive has recently 
been developed and built for operation during 
the present season. It is effi- 
cient and simple, meets all 
the imposed conditions, and 
includes automatic speed con- 
trol of the motors to maintain 
the prescribed relative speeds 
of the rolls and a variable 
speed turbine generator to 
regulate the speed and out- 
put of the tandem. 

Each motor driving a set 
of rolls has a speed governor 
and is served from an individ- 
ual control panel which con- 
tains electrically operated 
switches for regulating the 
speed of the motor. Master 
controllers which control the 
motors through the panels are 
grouped at a con\'enient point 
on the mill platform and give the operator 
complete control of the motors, excepting that 
general speed changes of the mill are made at 
the turbine governors. The several motors are 
operated from a turbine independent of the 

sugar house, and speed changes of the mill 
will not, therefore, affect the normal opera- 
tion of the motor-driven pumps and mis- 
cellaneous drives. 

The control provides one point forward 
and one point reverse to 75 per cent 
speed with automatic acceleration, two points 
forward giving SO and So per cent speed 
by manual control, and ten points from 85 
per cent to normal load speed with automatic 
speed governing. Automatic control is also 
included for the two points of manual control, 
and the master controller can be quickly 
brought to any desired operating point with- 
out overloading the motor. While a range 
in relative speed is provided up to 15 per 
cent with normal load torque, it is not 
expected that all the motors will operate at 
the same time over this range. 

Operation of the whole mill over a range 
in speed of 3U per cent is obtained by chang- 
ing the turbine speed, with constant excita- 
tion of the generator, without disturbing the 
relative speed adjustments. Under these 
conditions the power of the motors varies 
with the speed; and, as the amount of 
bagasse is proportional, the power is suffi- 
cient at the reduced grinding rate. 


Rare is the steam-driven mill in which 
the bagasse is sufficient to evaporate the. 
normal amount of juice and yet give a fair 

ntrol Panel for 200-h.p. Variab.e Speed Inductic 
Motor for Driving Cane Crushing Rolls 

yield. The consumption of fuel additional 
to the bagasse has been found to be pro- 
ductive of increased profits in a well designed 



steam-driven mill. This fuel is required to 
evaporate the maceration water. The eco- 
nomical proportion of maceration water and 
hence the additional fuel is dependent upon 
the market price of sugar and the cost of 
the coal or wood used. 

On the other hand, in a well-designed 
electrically driven mill, the bagasse is more 
than sufficient to evaporate the normal 
juice and the maximum effective degree of 
maceration water can be applied, which 
results in a high yield. Uses can be found 
for the excess bagasse in the operation of 
remote pumping plants, lighting the adja- 
cent town, or for electric traction around the 
mill. The bagasse becomes sufficient due 
to the reduction of the total power required, 
the decrease in the amount of steam required 
per horse power of work, the smaller radia- 
tion and leakage losses, etc. 

It has been demonstrated that power can 
be generated by a large steam turbine, 
transformed through an electric generator, 
transmitted to motors, and transformed into 
mechanical work at the driven machines 
more efficiently than by a large number of 
small steam engines and steam pumps. 

The adoption of the electric motor per- 
mitting the use of high-speed centrifugal 
pumps tends toward a smaller amount of 
power required for pumping. Energy is lost 
in a steam pump through external friction 
which is not recoverable, while the losses in 
a centrifugal pump go to heat the liquid 
pumped, which, in general, is desired. The 
continuous efl'ort exerted by the electric 
motor permits the use of chain or gear drive 
in place of the less efficient belt connection 
usual with engine drive. The motor can 
l)c more closely connected to the driven 
machine, thus avoiding the losses involved 
in the use of the counter-shafting and long 
belts which are required by the steam engine. 

The amount of steam required to produce 
the same amount of useful work is materially 
reduced, mainly by the generation of power 
from a large steam turbine instead of from 
a large number of small steam cylinders. 
The amount of steam required per horse 
power in a steam cylinder operating by throt- 
tle control, or non-cxpansivcly between the 
limits of pressure common in sugar mills, 
will range from To to 100 pounds, whereas 
the amount required by a steam turbine 
operating expansively between the same 
pressures will be half of the lower figure. 
This amount can be further reduced by higher 
steam pressures and superheat, to which the 

steam turbine is eminently suited but which 
is detrimental to the operalion of the steam 

The large engines driving the crushing 
rolls and flywheel type \acuum pumps, 
when equipped with Corliss valve gear, can 
be made to approximate the performance 
of the steam turbine operating between 
these pressure limits. However, there are 
objections to the use of the steam cylinder 
because of the need for internal lubrication 
and the greater maintenance ex[x:nse. 

Radiation and leakage losses contribute 
largely to the extra fuel bill. A detailed 
study of a mill producing 179 tons of sugar 
per day disclosed the fact that electrification 
would remove 7500 square feet of high- and 
low-pressure piping serving steam pumps 
and engines. Conser\-ative estimates of the 
radiation losses showed that the loss of heat 
from this cause alone accounted for $4,000 of 
the extra fuel bill or 20 per cent of the total 

The increased efficiency of heating and 
e\aporating apparatus resulting from sur- 
faces free from oil is a factor which, while 
varying widely with the individual mill 
equipment depending upon the measures 
taken to separate the oil from the exhaust, 
will effect a certain saving in fuel. With a 
given equipment and amount of juice handled, 
the exhaust steam pressure can be reduced 
thus decreasing the radiation losses and the 
heat lost in the condensate. 

The reduction of the total amount of 
exhaust steam from the prime movers has 
a bearing on the practical operation of the 
mill. Even with the large loss from radia- 
tion and with remote engines and pumps 
exhausting into the air. there are times when 
exhaust steam will escape through the pres- 
sure relief valves. This is due to the tempo- 
rary shutdown of some part of the plant using 
low-pressure steam, and results in a direct 
loss of heat which may have been generated 
from additional fuel. 

Where the amount of exhaust steam from 
the steam pumps and engines is just equal 
to the normal low-pressure steam require- 
ments, a reduction in the use of exhaust 
steam is sure to cause a loss of a greater 
amount to the atmosphere. Assuming the 
power-consuming units to continue under 
normal load, a decrease in the use of exhaust 
steam will raise the back pressure and will 
thus result in an increase of steam from the 
engines. The crushing roll engines will 
require a later cutoff to maintain thdr 

25S April 19 IS 


Vol. XXI, No. 4 

normal speed, pump throttles must be 
further opened to pump the normal amounts 
of liquid, and hence the boiler pressure will 
drop increasing further the demands for 
steam. Whether the engine speeds are 
maintained or allowed to drop, thus decreas- 
ing the bagasse, extra fuel must be fed to 
the furnaces. 

In an electrically driven mill, the exhaust 
steam from the turbines is less than that 
required for the low-pressure system. A 
certain amount of high-pressure steam must 
therefore be added through reducing valves 
in order to maintain the pressure in the 
low-pressure system. . This high-pressure 
steam is sujjerheated in passing through 

particularly when the bagasse is not accu- 
mulated with a sacrifice in mill efficiency. 

The amount of extra fuel consumed in 
Cuban mills during the 1912-13 crop has 
been determined by the Government as 
amounting to 75 cents per ton of sugar pro- 
duced. This season is chosen as representing 
the normal manufacturing period (preceding 
the world war) and as not being materially 
affected by the considerable number of old 
and new mills electrified since that date. 


The labor item in a mill constitutes the 
greatest proportion of the manufacturing 
cost. In normal times it ranged from 4 

25-h.p. Back-geared Motors Driving Main Bagasse Conveyors, 

Central Delicias. The motors are mounted directly under 

the conveyor while the starters are on the operating 

floor below 

10-h.p. Back-geared Motor Driving an Excess Bags 
Conveyor. Centra! Santa Rosa 

the reducing valve and re-evaporates some 
of the moisture in the low-pressure system. 
A reduction in the use of low-pressure steam 
will now cause a reduction in the amount of 
high-pressure steam through the reducing 
valve, and will effect an equal saving of heat 
without affecting the operation of the steam 
turbine or any of the power drives. 

It is possible under these conditions to 
accumulate excess bagasse for use during 
a temporary shut-down of the milling plant 
or a reduction in the grinding rate occasioned 
by a shortage of cane. An excess of bagasse 
is desirable for use at the end of the crop. 

to 10 per cent of the total cost of the sugar, 
depending upon the country. The former 
figure is the average for Hawaii and the 
latter for Cuba, with Porto Rico and Louis- 
iana intermediate. The great increase in 
wages during the last few years makes, the 
reduction of the manufacturing force very 

The reduction in the number of attendants 
by electrification has been shown in a general 
way. In a steam-driven mill a detailed 
study was made of the number of ojjierators 
and repair men which would be affected by 
a changeover to electric drive. After com- 



putinjj ihc wajjjcs chars^cal)lc to steam engine 
and pumj) attendance and determining the 
attendants known to Vje required with electric 
motor drive, it was found that the electrically 
driven ])lant would reduce the manufacturing 
and maintenance labor $38. G4 per day. This 
mill was producing 1100 bags of sugar, .'i'i.') 
l)ounds each, per day. This would result in 
a reduction of 21. (i cents per ton of sugar. 
The force would be reduced by 20 men. 
This reduction would also efifect a reduction 
in the clerical force in the general office. 
The men remaining in the mill would be 
better paid and have more congenial tasks, 
while the lower grade laborer removed would 
be made available for increasing the forces 
in the cane fields. 

by the exhaust steam and becomes a source 
of trouble, either by collecting on the engine, 
pump, or floor, or being carried into the 
steam-heating coils and calandria. In an 
electrically driven mill, however, the oil 
returns to the oil wells of the pump and 
motor bearings and is again carried up to 
the shafts, thus being used over and over 
again. No oil is used inside the turbine. 
so that the exhaust steam is entirely free 
from oil. 

The oil, grease, packing, waste, pijie cov- 
erings, soda, re-agents, and replacement of 
worn-out parts in a steam driven mill average 
.")() cents per ton of sugar. Of this amount 
a saving of 1!) cents per ton is effected by 
electric driv-e. 

Three SO-h.p. Motors Driving 2-stage 450-gal.-per-i 
Limed Juice Pumps. Central Mercedes 

Two Motor-driven Scum Pumps, Central Australia. The 

starters mounted on the column have overload relays 

adjusted to shut the motors down when the pre«- 

sure on the filter presses reaches a given value 


The reduction of mill supplies efTccted by 
electrification is a very strong argument for 
the adoption of electric drive. Lubricating 
oil, and pump and engine piston packings 
are big items of expense. The electric motor 
and centrifugal pumj), consisting of only 
revolving elements mounted in oil-ring type 
bearings, require a very small amount of oil. 
The pump packings surrounding the rotating 
shafts last a long time. The steam tur- 
bines and generators in the power house have 
similar oiling systems and likewise require 
very little oil. 

In the steam-driven mill the lubricating 
oil runs from the bearings or is carried off 


The elimination of reciprocating steam 
pumps and engines and the substitution of 
centrifugal pumps and electric motors reduce 
the wear and breakage of parts to a negligible 
amount. Steam and pump cylinders require 
frequent renewal of packing rings, and crank 
bearings must be often tightened. The 
packing rings in centrifugal pumps arc 
longlived and the bearings of the pumps 
and motors, being well lubricatetl, run 
inilofinitely without adjustment. 

It is common practice in steam-driven 
mills to dismantle pumps and engines at 
the entl of each crop and slush the wearing 
surfaces with a rust preventive. Parts re- 

260 April 19 IS 


Vol. XXI, No. 4 

quiring repairs are then attended to during 
the dead season; and before the beginning 
of the crop all machinery is cleaned, adjust- 
ments made on all bearings, and the machines 
are assembled. 

An electrified mill requires a very small 

.fwK " ^ 



^^K^ . ^^^^^H 

Two 100-h.p., 1200-r.p 

.m. Motors Driving 4500-gaI.-per-i 
Pumps. Central Santa Rosa 

Four 75. h. p.. 720-r.p.m. Motors Driving 1900 Cu. Ft. per Min. Vacuum Pumpi 

and 464 Cu. Ft. per Min. Air Compressors. Central Mercedes 

The idler pulleys permit short belts to be used 

amount of labor to prepare it for the dead 
season and for the beginning of the crop. 
The motors need only be covered over to 
protect them from dripping water. The 
centrifugal pumps may readily be opened 
up to clean out the juice or syrup. In 
starting up the mill there is practically 
nothing to be done but to uncover the motors. 

drain and refill the bearings, and repack 
the centrifugal pump shafts. 

Another important item is the cleaning 
of steam heating coils. The oil deposited 
on the inside surface of heating coils by the 
exhaust steam of engines and pumps must 
be occasionally removed. The 
presence of a small film of oil 
materially reduces the heat- 
ing and evaporating capacity 
of heaters, evaporators, and 
vacuum pans. The cleaning 
operation is expensive, be- 
cause of the material required 
and of the necessity in some 
cases for scraping the sur- 
faces. The e.xhaust steam in 
an electrified mill being abso- 
lutely free of oil saves this 
item of cleaning expense. 

The foregoing items of 
repair expense are incurred 
mostly in the dead season, 
the slight repairs necessary 
during the crop being charged 
to the maintenance account. 
The Government reports 
$1.71 per ton of sugar for 
machinery and building re- 
pairs. Electric drive can be 
shown to reduce this amount 
by $.09. 


In an existing mill the 
output is limited by the 
available cane, by the grind- 
ing capacity of the rolls, by 
the capacity and arrangement 
of the heaters, evaporators, 
pans and tanks, or by the 
continuity of operation of 
the machinery and appara- 
tus. Electric drive will in- 
crease the output of sugar 
which in a steam-driven mill 
may be limited by any of the 
foregoing conditions. 

An increased yield from a 
given amount of cane is pos- 
sible through the use of an abundance of 
maceration water. The steam economy in 
an electrically driven mill permits the evapor- 
ation of the maceration water without the 
consumption of extra fuel. Maceration has 
been credited with an increased yield as high 
as 15 per cent above that before its use, but it 
is doubtful if the total gain observed was due 



wholly to the maceration water added. 
When a mill is electrified the evaporating 
apparatus is usually altered and the efficiency 
of the rolls is also increased, both of which 
contribute to the increased yield. 

The use of maceration water is now em|)loyed 
quite universally as it is found that even the 
additional fuel required in a steam-driven 
mill renders a greater return in the value 
of the increased yield of sugar. Molasses 
is used where its value as such is less than 
the cost of the corresponding fuel value 
of coal, wood, or oil. The amount of water 
used is undoubtedly less than the economic 
limit that could be used to produce the 
maximum profit. 

With the conservation of bagasse resulting 
from electrification, a greater amount of water 
will be used with a corresponding gain; but 
even under these conditions there is still an 

3S-h.p.. 600-r.p.m. Back-geared Motor Drivme Open Crystalliztrs 

1150 Cu. Ft. Each, a Magma Conveyor and First and Second 

Magma Pumps. Central Santa Rosa. The motor is 

mounted out of the way on a platform of the 

closed crystallizers shown 

economic limit if extra fuel is required for 
the pumping or transportation that could 
be replaced by electric iiower generated from 
the bagasse. 

The saving in fuel by electrification has 
previouslv been considered with maceration 

as usually practised in steam-driven mills. 
An increase in the amount of water may be 
conservatively assumed to increase the yield 
5 per cent additional. With sugar coslinj; 
$40.00 per ton at the mill, the increased 
vield will have the effect <<f nd'vi"" the 

cost of production by a like amount or $2.(M) 
per ton. 

The yield can be increased by electrifica- 
tion for other reasons than increased macera- 
tion. With a proper electric drive applied 
to the rolls, higher extraction is obtained 
due to the ability to control the relative 
speed from roll to roll and to adjust the 
grinding rate to accommodate the var^-ing 
supply of cane. The meters on the motors 
driving the individual sets of rolls give a 
continuous indication of their oijeralion and 
each set of rolls can be adjusted to operate 
at maximum effectiveness. 

The capacity of the heaters, evaporators, 
and pans is increased because of the clean 
steam heating surfaces due to the absence 
of oil in the exhaust steam. The capacity 
is also increased as the vessels do not have 
to be taken out of service to have the oil 
film cleaned oft". 

Continuity of scr\-ico in a sugar mill is of 
utmost importance. It is customar>- to 
operate the mill to the utmost capacity 
during the harvesting of the crop. Any 
shut-down period reduces the amount of 
cane ground and, as the lalwr expense and 
fixed charges go on. the cost of manufacture 
is thercbv increased. Electric drive has won 
the reputation of being the most reliable 
means of power application. There are many 

2(32 April 191S 


Vol. XXI, No. 4 

cases of continuous operation of electric 
motors for periods of several years without a 
shut-down due to the electric system. . It 
is customary in an electrified mill to install 
spare pumps with motors where the con- 

and steam pumps. Engines frequently stop 
on dead center and time is consumed in get- 
ting started after adjustm_ents have been 
m.ade. The shut-down periods of mills due 
to slipping can be practically eliminated- by 


3TiiHniBi__' ^ ^-^-ffflri 






*lMMp « VB B^^gl 



Induction Motor Direct Driven 40 In. by 24 In. Centrifugals. Central Violeta, Cuba. Some of the control panels are shown 
mounted between the motors. The master control switch is combined with the brake lever 

tinuous operation is essential and spare motors 
for replacing any motors on power drives. 
The relatively low cost of the electric motor 
and centrifugal jjump and the ease of sub- 
stitution of one motor in the place of another 

Eight 40-in. and ten .16-m. Centrifugals, each Bank Dr 

a 75-h.p., 720 r.p.m. Motor. Each motor also drives 

the mixers, conveyors, and sugar elevators 

with each bank. Central Australia 

make possible the stocking of spare units 
without objeclionable expense. 

The majority of interruptions in a cane 
sugar mill arc due to slipping of the rolls 
and to repairs necessary for the steam engines 

electric motor drive through the indica- 
tions of the power meters of the indi- 
vidual motors. By a re-adjustment of the 
relative speeds of adjacent sets of rolls, the 
rolls can be made to take their proper 

division of the load and sHpping can thus be 

Assuming that the rolls are shut down for 
ten minutes daily, due to slipping or for 
repairs to the engines or pumps, it will be 



found that the time lost will amount to 
an increased cost of 3.7 cents per ton of sugar. 
This figure is calculated on the basis of the 
average manufacturing cost per ton of sugar 
after deducting the cost of cane and sugar 
containers, as it is considered that these 
items of expense are not incurred with a 
reduction in the amount of cane ground. 
With the mills shut down and with extra 
fuel alreach' consumed, still more fuel will be 
required, and it is found that the cost of the 
additional fuel will equal the labor expense. 


The group drive of centrifugals by the 
electric motor contributes to the general 
benefits resulting from electric drive. The 
adoption of direct coupled motors to the 
individual machines effects further marked 

A special motor has been designed for this, 
aiiplication. The motor is of the vertical 
semi-enclosed type and has a base suitable 
for connection to the centrifugal base. The 
motor shaft drives the centrifugal shaft 
direct through a flexible coujjling. No 
l)elts or clutches are employed. The motor 
control switch is combined with the brake 
lever so that all operations are controlled 
through one handle. The motor has a 
phase-wound rotor with external resistance. 
This permits 'the use of an additional resis- 
tance to give slow speed for a mechanical 
discharger. The motor is designed to operate 
on a 2f^-minute cycle. This increases the 
output per machine and operator consid- 
erably on final sugar above that possible with 
other types of drive. A smaller number of 
units and operators is thus required. 

Another type of direct motor drive has 
been very popular. The method of con- 
nection is similar excepting that a centrifugal 
clutch is interposed between the motor and 
centrifugal. The motor jumps up to speed 
very quickly and the clutch pulls the cen- 
trifugal after it. The wear of the clutch 
shoes is rapid when adjusted to give quick 
acceleration and low speed operation for 
mechanical discharging is not feasible. 

The direct coui)led drive requires 10 per 
cent less power than the belled group drive 
and 20 to ,'50 per cent less than the water 
drive. The drop in voltage oxiierienced in 
some installations when the centrifugals arc 
started up can be overcome by the use of 
a voltage regulator. 

The absence of belts and clutches removes 
the greatest sources of trouble foinid with 

centrifugal drive. The maintenance exjxjnse 
is thereby practically eliminated. The initial 
cost is greater per machine than with group 
drive; but considering the smaller number 
of centrifugals required, lower cost of ojjcra- 
tion, labor, and niaintcnance, it will be found 

15-h.p., 900-r.p.m. B«i.k-uc»i<;a Inua^i 
Two Sugar Elevators and Conveyors. 

Central Deliciaa 

that direct drive will prove cheaper even 
for the first year of ojjeration. 

Water Supply and Repair Shops 

A supply of pure fresh water is required 
at all mills. This water is usually obtained 
from a nearby stream or well and must be 
pumped to the mill. The distance makes 
it necessary for a steam driven mill to pro- 
vide a boiler plant with the nece,ssar>- attend- 
ant. The small size power plant and the 
constant service of an attendant bring the 
unit cost of water delivered at the mill to 
a high figure. 

The unit cost of water at an elcctricaUy 
driven mill, on the other hand, is low and 
comjiarable to the cost of pumping at the 
mill. No boiler plant is required at the 
inmiping station as the electric power can 
be transmitted over a transmission line 
from the mill. The loss of energy- over the 
transmission line can be limited to a few 
per cent, and the power is generated from 

264 April 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 4 

the bagasse at the high efficiency of the 
large turbine-driven generator. Even the 
services of a regular attendant at the pumping 
station can be dispensed with. The pump 
can be started and stopped by suitable 
control equipment located at the mill. Such 
an equipment is shown below. An ammeter 
at the mill will indicate the proper operation 
of the pump. Automatic starters can be 
furnished to start and stop the pumps and 
maintain the level of the water in a storage 
tank within prescribed limits. In this 
manner a supply of water is always 
at hand while the pumping outfit runs only 
for the time required to maintain the sup- 

anced by other items of expense in a steam- 
driven plant which do not appear in one 
electrically driven. On the basis of 15,900 
tons of sugar per year, the cost will be reduced 
by 14.3 cents per ton. 

The electric drive of repair shops is attended 
with similar economies. While machine 
shops are commonly located in the mill 
building, carpenter shops are usually in a 
separate building and have their own boiler 
plants. The saving in fuel and labor is diffi- 
cult of determination as they are run so irregu- 

The fuel consumed by the machine shop 
will be less with electric than with steam 
drive due to the higher efficiency of the 


^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 



i W ■ 

•- 1 


- — ^i¥''"^.aa 



Compensators in the Power House for Controlling Pumps at s 

Distance. Central Santa Rosa. One compensator controls 

a pump motor at the station, another at 

a dam two miles distant 

35-h.p. Induction Motors Driving Supply Water Pumps 
in the Pump House at Central Chaparra 

The amount of water and distance from the 
mill will vary widely for different mills and 
it is difficult to make an assiunption that 
will be representative, but it may be assumed 
for a steam-driven mill that the fuel expense 
will amount to $1,000 per year, and constant 
attendance is required. The wages of two 
men per day, each working half a day, will 
amount to $3.50 or $1278 per year. The 
total yearly expense for fuel and labor 
amounting to $2,278 can nearly all be saved 
by electric drive. The fuel is furnished by 
the bagasse during the grinding period 
while extra fuel is required during the dead 
season. Since the power for the dead season 
is generated in an efficient central plant by 
a small auxiliary power unit, the amount 
of fuel chargeable to the pumping plant is 
small and may be considered as being bal- 

larger power unit in the main power house. 
It may be assumed that the carpenter shop 
operates from waste wood but a fireman 
is necessary for the boiler. 

The electric drive is particularly of ad- 
vantage in repair shops where the operating 
periods are irregular. The tools can be 
started up at any time without waiting for 
steam or for an engine to warm up. Where 
the tools are individually motor driven, 
power and hence fuel are consumed only 
while they are in operation. 

Tools can be located at the point most 
convenient for their use, such as the car shop, 
engine house, and mill. An example of 
the last is shown opposite. A motor with a 
back gear reduction was connected to a roll, 
and the roll trued or grooved wthout remo\- 
ing it from its bearings. 




A survey of the lighling of cane sugar 
mills leads to the conclusion that in many- 
cases considerable economic advantage can 
be secured by the proper application of Mazda 
lamps with modern reflector 
equipment. The lighting 
circuits can be connected to 
the mill power system. 

Proper illumination is prob- 
ably the most effective single 
agent in accident prevention. 
Statistics show that a large 
percentage of accidents results 
from falls. Good illumination 
readily i)ermits a workman 
to avoid obstructions and 
dangerous conditions. Dan- 
gerous positions in mills 
should be well lighted. This 
is particularly true around 
the cane unloading shed, 
grinding rolls, defecators and 
filter presses; all of which 
present dangers to workmen 
which can be minimized by 
proper illumination. Light 
is also a preventive of acci- 
dental or malicious injury to 
machinery and apparatus. 

Good lighting facilitates quick and sure 
movements on the part of workmen, thus 
increasing their output and reducing losses. 
It further promotes supervision, and thus 
is a deterrent to idleness. The cheerful 
atmosphere of a well-lighted mill is an incen- 
tive to greater activity. In a cotton mill 

district, the relighting of one of the mills 
drew employees away from adjacent mills 
to such an extent that the latter were 
required to provide better lighting in order 
to retain their working force. 

50-h.p. Motor 

15-h.p. Back-gcarcd Induction Motor Driving n C;t 

Crushing Roll for Turning Off the Surface. 

Central Mercedes 

Jr-ving a Rip Saw and a 25 h. p. Motor Driving a Planer and 
rking Tools in the Carpenter Shop. Central Delicias 

The cost of good lighting, figured as a liunp 
sum, sometimes seems large but compared 
with the payroll it is verj- small; so that 
an average increase of one or two per cent 
in the accomplishment of employees will 
usually more than repay the entire lighting 

In the manufacture of food products, 
cleanliness is always important. Dark cor- 
ners and poorly lighted spaces furnish oppor- 
tunity for untidiness and dirt collection. In 
all processes connected with the manufacture 
of sugar, it is essential that adequate illu- 
mination be pro\-ided to promote extreme 
cleanliness that the yield and quality of the 
sugar mav he high. 

The Mazda lamp is now the universal 
electric illuminant for interiors, because of 
its adaptability, convenience, and high eco- 
nomv. The same lamp meets the require- 
ments of the office, the mill, and the >-ard; 
the only difference is in the size of the units, 
reflectors, and arrangement. 

Mazda 1 lO-vtilt lamps range in size from 
10 to 1(100 watts, and give from two to four 
times as much light as the old carbon lamps, 
and usually t>vcr double the light of the 
enclosed arc lamp. 

2G(i April 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 4 

The scientifically designed reflectors for 
each size of lamp meet all requirements. 
Porcelain enamel direct lighting steel re- 
flectors meet the requirements in the manu- 
facturing department, while for the offices 
and li\'ing-rooms either direct or semi- 
indirect opalescent glass reflectors are 

A scheme of general illumination for the 
mill is usually preferable where conditions 
will permit. This system consists of utilizing 
medium or large size lamps with proper 
reflectors, symmetrically spaced, thereby 
producing approximately even illumination 
over the entire floor area. Where it is 
desirable to illuminate particular areas 
more brightly, lighting units should be . 
located with respect to the work, utilizing 
the small or .medium sized lamps so as to 
secure proper distribution and direction of 

The adequate lighting of the yards is quite 
essential, both to facilitate night work and 
as a matter of protection. Fixtures such 
as those used for ordinary street lighting 
meet these requirements. The series lighting 
system is the most economical and is well 
suited for extensive lighting although the 
multiple system, gives good results for a small 
amount of lighting near the mill. Flood- 
lighting projectors also give very satisfactory 
results where it is desirable to light a por- 
tion of the yard located at a considerable 
distance from the source of supply. For 
such service as patrol work, loading and 
unloading cars, boats and carts, very efTec- 
tive illumination may be obtained by the 
use of these lighting units. 

In the grading of raw and refined sugar, 
it is necessary to match the color with 
standards under daylight conditions. Arti- 
ficial illuminants simulating daylight in 
color value are available to meet these re- 

Where the greatest accuracy is necessary, 
color matching lights should be used; e.g., 
the Moore light which produces light by 
electric discharge in a glass tube filled with 
carbon dioxide gas or the Trutint color- 
matching unit which utilizes the regular 
Mazda C lamp contained in a reflector 
housing, beneath which is supported a color- 
correcting glass plate. Both of these units 
produce light approximating north sky light. 
In processes where extreme accuracy is 
not essential, Mazda C-2 (special blue 
bulb) lamps will be found to give good 

Electric Traction 

The reduction in fuel required for the mill 
proper and the use of this fuel for power 
outside the mill has been mentioned. Electric 
traction offers an attractive means of util- 
izing the excess power with great benefits. 
The extent to which railroad electrification 
will pay depends upon the amount of power 
available, the length of the lines, the grades, 
and the train schedules. 

The steam locomotive is wasteful of fuel. 
The heat in the exhaust steam lost into the 
atmosphere could be put to good use in the 
mill. The fuel burned while the locomotive 
is idle entails further waste. The majority 
of cane fires originate from sparks of passing 

The electric locomotive is highly efficient 
and where excess bagasse is available the 
extra fuel is saved. Power is consumed only 
while running. As there, is no fire on the 
electric locomotive, the number of cane 
fires is greatly reduced. 

It will pay to employ electric traction, 
at least adjacent to the mill. For placing 
cane cars on unloading platforms electrically 
driven winches are well adapted. The 
winch, page 267, is suitable for installation 
outdoors on a foundation. The electric 
motor inside is started or stopped by a pedal, 
thus leaving the operator's hand free to 
handle the rope on the winding drum. 

The switching around the yard can be- 
accomplished by a small trolley type loco- 

The 60-ton trolley type locomotive shown on 
page 267 is suited for hauling cane trains from 
the cane fields and loading stations to the mill. 

The direct-current power required by 
the trolley system can be derived from the 
alternating-current mill circuit by means of 
of a synchronous converter equipment. This 
direct-current power can then be readily 
utilized for driving the cane loading hoists. 

Electrical Equipment 

The applications of electrical apparatus 
in cane sugar mills are shown in the various 
illustrations and their adaptability is de- 
scribed from different economical points 
of view. The electrical apparatus consisting 
of turbine driven generators, switchboards, 
inotors, control apparatus, and wiring should 
be of the simplest form and strongest con- 
struction possible, consistent with the service. 
This is desirable in any installation, but the 
unusual operating conditions in cane sugar 
mills require somewhat special equipment. 


The mill is usually operated duriuj,' the 
dry season and the apparatus therefore lies 
idle during that part of the year whea there 
is the maximum amount of moisture in the 
air. During the operating period, motors 
and control apparatus are subject to occa- 
sional s]-)lashes of water and juice, and may 

Three-phase, 44()-voll, OO-cycle alternating 
current has been generally adopted as an 
economical, safe, and reliable form of electric 
power distril>ulion. This permits the use 
of the simjjle induction motor, of which the 
squirrel cage type is found to be suitable for 
90 per cent of the power drives. 

1,111 Trull.-y Typ. Kl< in. 1,. 

at times be enveloped in a cloud of steam. 
The motors and control, therefore, ha\-c 
moisture-resisting insulation. 

Simplicity in design anil mechanical 
strength are essential for the continuous 
operation in a cane sugar mill. The ma- 

idi for Plac 


chinery must operate ^\^thout interruption 
at least from week to week, for a period 
averaging !,")() days. The attendants are 
usually unskilled in operating maclunery 
and the electrical apparatus must be eciuipped 
with safety de\-iccs to protect botli the 
machinery and the operator. 

All electrical terminals and contacts in 
a mill should be insulated or enclosed to 
prevent shocks. The wiring for connecting 
to motors and control apparatus should 
preferabh- be run in underground metal 
conduits. The motors and control apparatus 
should be equipped with conduit terminal 
connections to effectively cover the terminal 

It is sometimes cx])ensive to open up a 
concrete floor and install conduits in an 
existing mill, in which case the main feeders 
of single conductor cable can be run hori- 
zontally overhead on insulators to the centers 
of distribution, and then vertically by triple- 
conductor cables through metal conduit 
mounted on pillars adjacent to the motors 
or control. An example of this method is 
shown on jjage 26S. 

Because of the size of the cables and the 
connections to lamps located overhead, the 
lighting system is best installed in ctmduit 
overhead. Junction and lixture boxes facili- 
tate this method of installation. The lamp. 
receptacle, and .shade holders can l>e fastened 
ilirect to the boxes and thus there are no 
exposed wires. Panel boards for controlling 
groups of lights slu^uld be installed at centers 
of distribution. 

268 April 191S 


Vol. XXI, No. 4 

Total Economy 

In stating the benefits of electric drive an 
attempt has been made to place a money 
value on the savings. This has been possible 
of quite accurate determination in the case 
of fuel, labor, supplies, and repairs; but for 

Oi>---n WiruiK in .in Existing Mill 

Horizontal lines are carried on insulators and anchored by 

tum-buckles. Vertical connections are made through 

iron conduit to the control apparatus 

increased yield, shutdowns, and pumping 
of supply water certain assumptions have 
been made. For other items, such as repair 
shops, transportation, administration, and 
welfare work the local conditions vary so 
widely that it is not feasible to evaluate the 
expenses or savings. These must be deter- 
mined from a study of the individual mill. 

The savings from the definitely determined 
items are so great that the decision to elec- 
trify can be made upon these alone. More- 
over, these figures ha\'e been taken from 
data collected on a conservative and impar- 
tial basis. Details have been given as far 
as possible, so that a mill owner can com- 
pute the figures applying to his own mill. 
Table I summarizes the various items on a 
basis of the average Cuban mill, producing 
102 tons of sugar per day or a total of 15,900 
tons in a crop of 156 days. The aggregate 
savings are considerable and will pay for the 
cost of changing over an existing mill in a 
very short time. If only the interest on the 
added investment is considered, the net 
saving per year increases the net profits 
by a large amount. The market value of 
a mill is increased by a greater amount than 
the cost of the improvements. 

Blectric Saving 

Fuel i$l 1,925.00 

Labor (Mfg.) 42,930.00 

Supplies j 8,900.00 

Repairs i 27,190.00 

Shut-downs (Labor).! 590.00 
Water supply and 

miscellaneous .... 2,278.00 

Increased yield, 

Total reduction per 

Reduced cost per ton 
of sugar 

39,500.00; 3,430.00 








Oriental Hospitality to Americans 

It is a pleasure to know that our relations with the Orient are not limited merely to doUars-and-cents 
trade, but embody mutual respect, confidence, and friendliness. This fact has been exemplified recently by 
the hospitality extended to and the honors conferred upon American business men while in Japan and China. 

We reproduce some addresses, editorials, and articles clipped from those enterprising Japanese and 
Chinese magazines and newspapers which contain sections printed in our language. These clippings should 
be of particular interest to the electrical fraternity, as they refer to the recent trips to the Orient by Mr. 
E. W. Rice, Jr., President of The American Institute of Electrical Engineers, and by Mr. Gerard Swope, 
Vice-President and General Sales Manager of The Western Electric Company. 

An agreeable reminder of American history is contained in the Japanese editorial reference to the work 
of Commodore Perry in promoting adequate trade agreements with Japan. This important event is recog- 
nized on both sides of the Pacific Ocean as the beginning of the international camaraderie now 6rmly 
established between the Old and the New World. — EnitdR. 

(Magazine Article) 


MR. E. W. RICE, JR. 

From the far country across the Pacific, Mr. 
Rice, the President of the General Electric 
Company, has come. With what feeling' has 
his visit to our country been 
expected by the electrical circles 
in Tokyo, since it was first an- 
nounced here some time ago! 
It is almost impossible for us to 
give free vent to our heartfelt 
joy now that we have received 
such a great guest amidst our- 

He represents the greatest 
organization of its kind in the 
world, and we owe to his com- 
pany so many thanks for the 
most part of the present devel- 
opment of electrical engineerint; 
in Japan, which was only made 
possible by the good will and 
invaluable assistance of the com- 

When we hold a welcome 
meeting in honor of Mr. Rice 
tonight, we can not but indulge 
in the recollections of those days 
when yoimg Japan had to strug- 
gle for her life on the brink of a 
fatal precipice and when the 
nation whom Commodore Perry 
awoke from a deep slumber, began to thrust 
aside the veil of ignorance and isolation to see 
the wde civilized world with its achievements 
and possibilities of all kinds. From those 
early days of her maturity Japan has been 
indebted to the United States of America for 

Decoration of Third Ordtr of 
Rising Sun 

Orders of the Rising Sun were con- 
ferred upon E. \V. Rice, Jr., and Gerard 
Swope by the Emperor of Japan. 

her unparalleled friendship and good will. 
and today the two powers arc cordially united 
and ha\e promised faithfully to continue 
the good relation between themselves which 
the unprecedented event of the present year 
has made far more perfect and intimate than 

May our esteemed guest enjoy 
a fine time of it during his 
sojourn on this side of the 
iicean. and see with his own eyes 
liow grateful not only the people 
but also the country itself feels 
toward the nation to whom it 
owes the most i>art of its de- 
\elopment, and may the nations 
who have liccome close friends, 
especially in the field of electri- 
cal engineering, remain for ever 
faithful to each other for the 
sake of human progress and 
universal brotherhood. 


(Copied from 0*iii. January 19181 
Mr. E. W. Rice. Jr.. the 
President of the General Elec- 
tric Co., who was decorated with 
the third order of the rising 
sun from H. M. the Japanese 
Emperor, was entertained at 
the Scivoken Hotel, Tsukiji. on the 2;}rd 
Nov., 1917, by the members of the Electrical 
Society, Japan, joined with the Illuminating 
Engineers' Society. Japan. 

The room was profusely decorated with 
crimson leaves of the native maple, miniature 

270 April 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 4 

Luncheon at Osaka by Illuminating Engineering Society of Japan 

Electrical Officials and Guests after Luncheon at Osakji. Jupa 



electric lanterns painted with Japanese and 
American flags hanging among the leaves. 

About 150 eminent engineers attended 
the meeting, most of whom once visited Sche- 

After the dinner, a cinema picture was 
shown, which Mr. Rice brought with him. 
Mr. Rice's explanation of the cinema as 
well as his speech on the dinner table, to- 
gether with Prof. Yamakawa's speech, repre- 
senting the Illuminating Engineers' Society, 
are given on the following pages. 

President of the Illuminating Engineering Society 

"It is my great pleasure and honor to sa}- 
a few words in this meeting on behalf 
of the Illuminating Engineering Society of 
Japan, of which I am the President. This 
dinner has been arranged by the members of 
the Japanese Institute of Electrical Engineers 
and the Illuminating Engineering Society 
of Japan and others who are connected di- 
rectly or indirectly with both of these insti- 
tutions, to welcome Mr. E. W. Rice, the 
President of the American Institute of Elec- 
trical Engineers and the President of the 
General Electric Company in America, who 
has been so kind to visit us on occasion of 
his pleasure trip to the Far East. 

"Everybody knows that modern civiliza- 
tion is only a ripe fruit of the progress of 
science and its application to all phases of 
human life worked out by eminent scientists 
and engineers. We, electrical and illumi- 
nating engineers, take great pride in the 
important part which we play both in scien- 
tific researches and practical applications 
in the range of the electrical and illumi- 
nating engineerings to the embellishment of 
our life in this world of science and industry. 

"No one can but recognize the admirable 
achievements and contributions of the Ameri- 
can Electrical Engineers, who are represented 
by our great guest here tonight, since it 
was they who brought about so many great 
inventions and discoveries in this line ot 
science and industry. Especially, the branch 
of the Illumionaling Engineering science which 
is now established as an independent science, 
owes its present stage of marvelous develop- 
ment mostly to their energy and efTorls. 
Moreover, the American Society of Illumi- 
nating Engineers is the first of its kind in 
the world, to be followed by the societies in 
England and other countries. 

Besides the well-known inventions of epoch- 
making illuminants which revolutionized the 
lighting industry and alTord invaluable advan- 
tages to human life as Oem lamps, mercury 
vapor lamps, Mazda lamp, and gas-filled 
lamps, the progress of the economical and 
scientific methods of their applications in- 
cluding the latest invention of the floor light- 
ing system, have developed the field of the 
lighting industry to such an extent, that it 
may not be long before we can see the realiza- 
tion of Mr. Edison's dream of changing night 
to day. 

"And all these things, among many other 
valuable contributions, have been accom- 
jjlishcd mostly by the Institution of Electrical 
Engineers and Manufacturers, represented 
here tonight by our distinguished guest. 

"Now, it is a fact known all over the world 
that new Japan owes its civilization to 
America, and the progress of science and 
industry in this countn,-, so far as electricity 
is concerned, up to the height of the present 
stage of development would have been 
imi)ossible without friendly guidance and 
kind co-operation of the American people, 
who have sjiared no pains in educating our 
youth, training our engineers, and opening 
the doors of their factories to our \-isitors. 

"Our Illuminating Engineering Society is 
yet young, being started only a year ago. 
There is yet a big field in this line of science 
awaiting for cultivation, and it will be a long 
time before we can leave the present stage 
of illuminants behind ourselves to reach 
the goal of the so-called cold light, as it is 
dreamed now. But our illuminating engineer- 
ing science should a'so throw its stones, few 
as they may be. to the pile of ]jrogTcss of 
this science for the sake of the ])rosperity and 
hai)piness of mankind, and it is our earnest 
desire we wish to be conveyed to our American 
friends through the kind instrumentality of 
our distinguished guest that we should like 
to ask them to advise and assist us hence- 
forward just as before. 

"We wish to congratulate the American 
Institution on their success in past, present 
and future, and I avail niyself of this oppor- 
tunitv to express our hearty thanks and 
ajjpreciations to the distinguished guest of 
tonight for the kindness and assistance he 
extended to our students and engineers who 
visited his country to study this branch of 

"Gentlemen. I should like to propose to 
drink for the prosperity of the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers." 

April 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 4 

Speech Delivered by Mr. E. W. Rice, Jr., at a 
Dinner Given in His Honor at the Tsukiji, 
Seiyoken Hotel, on November 23rd, by the 
Japanese Institute of Electrical Engineers and 
the Illuminating Engineering Society. 

"To the Members of the Japanese Institute 
of Electrical Engineers and of the Illumi- 
nating Engineering Society and friends who 
are assembled here this evening to extend to 
me this great honor, I wish to express my 
sincere thanks. I would not be human if 
I were not tremendously impressed by the 
friendship and hospitality shown here tonight 
and by the beautiful decorations so unique 
and so characteristically Japanese. 

"I have never in all my travels seen such a 
beautiful country; there are, of course, beau- 
tiful things and beautiful scenery in America 
and in other portions of the world but I have 
never seen such continuously beautiful scenery 
as in your country. Environment has a 
powerful influence on the people of a country 
and we therefore may expect that people who 
live in such a country should be wonderfully 
virile, versatile, and artistic, which I firmly 
believe you are. 

"I have been greatly impressed by the 
wonderful industry of every one in this 
country, everybody seems to be doing some- 
thing and to be busy. The next thing that 
impressed me was your constant cheerful- 
ness; as we say in America you seem to have 
a smile "that won't come off." Well, now, I 
have been told by your critics that this 
characteristic smile of yours is due to your 
government which orders you to smile. I can- 
not believe that there is any organization so 
great or Government existing that can make 
sixty millions of people all smile all the time 
— ^it must be due to a natural and sunny 

"You have all been kind enough to speak 
in the most complimentary way of the 
accomplishment — industrial undertakings — 
which I have the honor to represent and the 
the assistance which our organization has 
rendered to Japan. I can only say that we 
are glad, very glad, if we have been able to 
help you. 

"We are proud of the G-E Japanese boys; 
they have "made good" as far as I can see 
wherever they are in this country. I under- 
stand that many of the gentlemen I have 
the pleasure of addressing now have worked 
in the G-E Factories in America and that 
makes me feel as if I were at home amongst 
my friends. We are glad to have had you 

there, and we shall be glad to have more of 
you come to us. 

"Dr. Saitaro Oi, President of the Electrical 
Society of Japan and Dr. Gitaro Yamakawa, 
President of the Illuminating Engineering 
Society, have spoken of my position as 
President of the American Institute of Elec- 
trical Engineers. The position is one of great 
honor — I am deeply conscious of my great 
responsibility in representing such an insti- 
tution, whose past Presidents have included 
such peers in Electrical Science as Alexander 
Graham Bell, inventor of the telephone, 
Elihu Thomson, inventor of the electric 
welding and systems of electric lighting, 
Sprague, pioneer of the electric street car 
and others equally distinguished — a Society 
which also included amongst its members 
such men as Edison, Carty, Scott, Lamme, 
Weston, Steinmetz, Whitney and Coolidge. 
It gives me most intense pleasure to bring 
to you here in Japan a message of goodwill, 
congratulations, and best wishes for future 
work and co-operation from our great organ- 
ization. The American Institute of Elec- 
trical Engineers, in which message I know 
that every one of our members, including 
those illustrious ones which I have mentioned, 
would heartily join if they were present. 

"While today we in America and you in 
Japan are companions in arms, fighting a 
righteous war for the preservation of all 
the ideals that we both consider essential 
to the preservation of a human and happy 
civilization, yet we engineers and scientists 
are naturally men of peace, devoted to ideals 
of co-operation and helpfulness, not to 
strife. We are truly international in spirit. 
We use the same scientific methods, symbols 
— the American ampere is the same as the 
Japanese ampere — the volt, the watt, the 
Henry, the Kelvin are the same in England, 
in France, in America and Japan, and even 
in darkest Germany. 

"I like to believe that eventually through 
science and its beneficial works, the real 
brotherhood of man \vill eventually become 
firmly established; that mankind everywhere 
will come to believe that co-operation is 
better than competition, that a spirit of 
tolerance, of appreciation of each other's 
good qualities and patience with each other's 
shortcomings will take the place of deprecia- 
tion and prejudice, founded largely on ignor- 

"I firmly believe that the future welfare of 
the world lies largely in our success in bring- 
ing about universal scientific education. 



which will dispel ignorance, the twin brother 
of prejudice, will remove the principal forces 
which make for misunderstanding and for 

(Abstracted from the Denkisekai, Dec. lo. 1917) 


Address of Mr. E. W. Rice, Jr., accompanied by 
Cinema of the same title 

''If in my remarks and illustrations tonight 
I seem to limit myself to General Electnc 
apparatus, I beg of you to believe that I 
am not unmindful or unappreciative of the 
magnificient work done by other engineers 
and manufacturers. My excuse is that I 
am naturally more familiar with the G-E 
apparatus. Besides, in my hurried visit to 
this country, my time is so occupied that it 
would be impossible for me to prepare any- 
thing original, or dealing with matters which 
would reqiyre very special preparation. I 
wish to particularly acknowledge my in- 
debtedness to Mr. B. H. Morash, who is 
largely responsible for the material which 
I have employed. 

"It is my impression that japan not only 
needs more railways but that even now or 
certainly in the near future, her existing 
railways will be entirely inadequate to take 
care of the traffic which will exist. One of 
the great economic advantages which elec- 
trification of steam raih\-ays has to offer, is 
a very substantial increase of capacity to 
handle traffic, over the same existing tracks 
and grades. It is not too much to claim that 
electrification of a single track railroad, 
especially over mountain grades, will practi- 
cally double its capacity, or be equivalent 
to double tracking the road. The first cost 
of such an enterprise will be also much less 
in normal times than the cost of double 

"Another great advantage of electrification 
follows from the ability to thereby utilize 
water power, with manifold advantages 
to the country in the saving of coal and the 
development of other collateral industries. 
It seems to me that you would, therefore, 
be interested in a brief description of a notable 
instance of electrification of a steam rail- 
road in America which involves the use of 
water power, and which is otherwise notable 
for its size, engineering feature, and great 
success. I hope also to add something to 
the interest of the occasion by showing 
you by a "movie" show the interesting 
feature of this great enterprise. 

"The demands upon the steam railroads in 
America are becoming more severe ever>' 
year with the growth of both passenger and 
freight traffic. The steam locomotive has 
reached a high state of development but its 
best performance fails to meet the require- 
ments in many instances. Railway execu- 
tives are seeking means to increase the freight 
tonnage of the present tracks, and to effect 
economies of operation. Rates are controlled 
by various governmental bodies, and with 
labor, fuel, and supplies continually mount- 
ing in cost, some solution to offset these 
adverse factors must be found, if capital is 
to be secured for the extensions which are 
absolutely necessary-. If a substitute type 
of motive power is to be emplo\'ed, it must 
not only be more reliable and economical 
and offer greater hauling power than the 
best steam locomotive, but the net result 
of a company's earnings must justify the 
investment. The most thorough and pains- 
taking investigators concede that electrifi- 
cation offers an admirable solution in most 

(Tlie Japan AdTtrtisrr. Toltj-o. November 34. 1917) 


Mr. E. W. Rice, Jr., Speaks at Banquet Given Him 

by Japanese Electrical Leaders 

Expressing the hope that through science 
and its beneficial works the real brotherhood 
of man will eventually become firmly estab- 
lished, Mr. E. W. Rice, Jr., president of the 
General Electric Company, Schenectady, 
N. Y., spoke at the banquet tendered him last 
night by the Japanese Institute of Electrical 
I'-iigincors and the Illuminating Engineering 
Society of Japan. Mr. Rice's position as 
the guest of these bodies bore all the more 
imi)ortance from the fact that he was recently 
elected i)rcsident of the American Institute 
of Electrical Engineers. 

Two hundred and fifty guests attended the 
banquet, which was held at the Seiyoken 
Hotel. Tsukiji. Japanese prominent in the 
electrical field of this country were present, 
including Dr. Oi, president of the Japanese 
Institute of Electrical Engineers, who wel- 
comed Mr. Rice in a short sj>eech. He stated 
that the Japanese electrical society, estab- 
lished thirtv vears ago, now had a membership 
of over .'iOOO. 

Japan's Industry Impressive 

Mr. Rice, at the beginning of his s^ieech. 
said he had been impressed by the wonderful 
organization of indu.stry in Japan — even.-- 

274 April 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 4 


At the Factory of the Osaka Lamp Company. Note the Japanese Electric Sign 

■k IKI §i 


'~J- {-t--^-, ^ ^B^H :»^gaB' «fc 



EE. ! ^> 




-:^= '« "^WF" ' ff 




- L 


1' :-^ 

{^^^"jEnLiyr a|P IJ 


^4,9- f'tr«t,| 


«» ^<Sfc.» 


-^ 1 « ' 13» ^ ^« ^^ir. JlBfc[i 



Right t>, kft. first row— 1, Tsiang Shi Sing; li, Mr. Hart; 3, 
6, Yen Kung Cho; 7, W. F. Carey; 8, Kwan Keung Lun. 
3, Mr. Hussey; 4, Chow Kia Yi; .5, Tsieng Tsuen Yi; 6, Su 
Third row— 1, W. A. Mitchell; 2, 0.;,T. Chen; 3, R. Kankir 

ud Uucsls, Peking, China 
Sze Lai Chuen; 4. E. W. Rice; 5. V. Meyer; 

Sicond row- 1. Fung Su; 2, Kiang Tien To; 

Chun Siao; 7. Ho Ue Cheng; 8, Suen Toh Yu. 

4 Au Tung. 



body was doing something — and he had also 
been forcibly struck by the cheerfulness that 
seemed to prevail everywhere. 

The guests included Dr. Count Shiba, 
Y. Yamakawa, vice-president of the Japa- 
nese Institute of Electrical Engineers; Prof. 
Kamo, Dr. Kishi, Prof. Nagaoka, Dr. Tagawa, 
K. Iwatdare, T. Matsuntoto, president of the 
Fujikura Wire Co., Dr. 5. Kiniura, Y. Shinjo, 
J. R. Geary and others representing all fields 
of the electrical industry in Japan. 

Mr. Rice, who has been extensively enter- 
tained in Tokyo, will return to America on 
the ''Shinyo Maru" December 3. 

(Abstracted from the Japan Adierlisfr, Tokyo, Sunday. 
Dec. 2. 1917) 

Mr. E. W. Rice, Jr., and Gerard Swope Have 
Promoted Industry at Home and Co-operation 
with Japan 

When His Majesty the Emperor of Japan 
conferred decorations upon Mr. E. W. Rice, 
Jr., president of the General Electric Com- 
pany, and Mr. Gerard Swope, Vice-President 
of the Western Electric Company, he honored 
two men whose achievements have marked 
them as leaders in the electrical world of 
America. Both men have just finished tours 
of Eastern Asia investigating industrial fields 
which this part of the world oft'ers the 
electrical industry. Mr. Rice will sail to- 
morrow for the United States, w-hile Mr. 
Swope left Yokohama for America, via 
Vancouver, yesterday noon. Below is a 
sketch of the two men and their accomplish- 

When it was announced that Mr. Rice 
would receive the Third Order of Merili 
with the Middle Cordon of the Rising Sun, 
the "Yorodzu Choho" said: 

" Mr. Rice, the head of the General Electric 
Co., the largest of the kind in America w-ith 
a capital of over 225,000,000 yen, is ,">() 
years of age. He is the President of the 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers. 
He is one of the best friends Japan can over 
have in America and countless number of 
students, Government officials and engineers, 
have received his direct attention in the study 
of electricity at his works. 

"He is also directly instrumental for the 
development of the electrical industry in 
Japan, by taking a part in the working of the 
Shibaura Engineering Works and the Tokyo 
Electric Company." 

(From the Peking Daily News. Pckin. China. October 5. 1917) 


Mr. Carey as Host Yesterday. Entertainment by 


Mr. W. F. Carey, of the Siems-Carcy Com- 
pany, gave a dinner to Mr. E. W. Rice, 
President of the American General Electric 
Company of New York, last evening. Many 
Cabinet Ministers and Vice- Ministers also 
attended. The function was a great success. 

Tonight, Mr. Hsiung, Hsi-ling, former 
Prime Minister of Agriculture and Commerce, 
Mr. Chang Kwo-Kan, and Mr. Liang Chi- 
chiao. Minister of Finance, will give a dinner 
in honor of Mr. Rice in the new building of 
the Ministry' of Foreign Affairs. 

Air. Rice was introduced to all the Cabinet 
Ministers by Mr. Wei Yih, a member of the 
Ministry of Finance, and Secretary* of the 
Directorate-General of Conservancy and 
Flood Relief, of which Mr. Hsiung Hsi-ling 
is Director-General. He saw Minister Liang 
Chi-chiao on Wednesday and they discussed 
the financial situation of the count^)^ Mr. 
Rice is a great financier, and wields much 
influence in his own country. As reported 
before, since the visit of Judge Gar>', another 
important American financier, he is the 
second captain of industry' that has visited 
Peking within the year. It is said that Mr. 
Rice is even more influential than Judge 
Gary, President of the Steel Corporation 
in New York. 

Mr. and Mrs. Rice expect to stay in Peking 
for a few more days. More entertainments 
to be given in their honor have been planned 
by Chinese officials. Mr. Rice's \-isit and the 
recent visit of Admiral Knight. Commander 
of the United States Asiatic Fleet, who left 
for Japan a week ago, are bound further to 
strengthen the friendly relations between 
China and America. Several high Chinese 
officials have expressed their wish to a repre- 
sentative of the "Peking Daily News" that 
more Americans holding influential positions in 
their own country should visit China, as they 
believe that such visits tend to remove much 
ignorance prevalent in the United States 
relative to conditions in this countn.-. 

iFrnm the China Prns. Shan(th.M. Oct. 11. 1917^ 


President of General Electric and Ladies Trovel 

on Donkeys and Handcars 

A panv made up of Mr. E. W. Rice. Jr., 

President of the General Electric Company 

27(3 April 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 4 

of New York, Mrs. H. Parsons, sister of Mr. 
Burchard, Vice-President of the General 
Electric Company, Mr. Geo. P. Hart, Presi- 
dent of the great Stanley Works of New 
Britain, Conn., and Mr. W. A. Mitchell, 
President of the American Chamber of 
Commerce of Tientsin, wandered joyfully 
into town last night after a long and adven- 
turous trip from Peking. 

The party left the capital last Saturday 
at midnight in a private car provided by the 
Vice-Minister of Communications. They 
were traveling down over the Peking-Hankow 
line. All went well until they got to Shin 
Le-hsien on Sunday morning. Here they 
ran across the path of the flood or rather 
the path ran across them. Undaunted by 
the devastation they set out for Lin Hsin- 
shwang, tra^feling by sampan, donkeys, work 
train, hand car and baggage car and crossing 
one stream on a pontoon bridge. 

At the van of the cavalcade were Chinese 
carrying flags bearing the legend : ' ' Ladies ! 
Special guests of the Peking- Hankow Rail- 
way." At Chung-chow they connected with 
the new Langhai line and made their way to 
Hsuchowfu, where they rested Tuesday night, 
departing for Shanghai yesterday morning. 

Mr. Rice said last night that they met 
with perfect courtesy everywhere. He is 
sailing for Manila tomorrow but plans to 
make another trip to China in the near future. 

Mr. Mitchell, who has had a not-to-be- 
forgotten experience with the floods at Tient- 
sin, says that their seriousness cannot be 
exaggerated. Fifteen thousand square miles 
to the south and west of Tientsin is under 
from three to ten feet of water. 

(From the Manila Times. Manila Island of Luzon, P. I., 
Oct. 2.3. 1917) 


Merchants' Assn. will Give Dinner Dance at Hotel 

A dinner is to be given in honor of the Rice 
party at the Manila Hotel on Friday evening 
at eight o'clock, October 26th, under the 
auspicies of the Manila Merchants Associa- 

The members of the party are to be guests 
of the Association members and their friends 
at the Manila Hotel, and following the dinner, 
a dance will be held. A short speech of 
welcome in behalf of the Manila Merchants' 
Association will be delivered by Victoriano 

na Conferring the Third Order of the Rising Sun, of which this Medal 
! the Insignia, bears the Signature of the Japanese Emperor 
and the Great Seal of the Empire 

The Automobile Electric Kitchen 

By Anson S. Rick 


The equipment described in this article would serve a long-felt want in many inslanc-es, such as at 
hastily organized labor camps, etc., but its principal present interest is in connection with its use at army 
encampments. The kitchen is mobile and entirely self-contained, and its construction is such that cooking 
operations may be conducted while under way. The advantages of cookini; by electricity are well known; 
fire risks are reduced to a minimum, control of temperature is effected by the turning of a switch, and the 
quality of the food is superior to that prepared by any other method. The capabilities of the outfit are well 
demonstrated by tests made at the direction of government officials, the results of which are given at the con- 
clusion of the article. — Editor. 

The automobile electric kitchen described 
in this article was designed and built 
by the Duparquet, Huot & Moneuse Co., 
primarily for army use. It consists of 
a standard Ford touring car and Smith 
Form-A-Truck attachment on which are 
mounted a small direct-current generator 
and a number of insulated cooking com- 
partments. The cooking compartments are 
fitted with electric heating units and provided 
with passages for the exhaust gases from the 
engine, the heat from which materially 
assists in the cooking operations. 

The vehicle body is 10 feet long and 4 feet 
wide, and is fitted with a canvas top of the 
regulation army type, with sides extending to 
]jrotect the operator from the weather. Eight- 
een-inch hinged side platfonns are fitted 
which, when in position, provide access to 
all cooking departments, and when closed 
lie within the clearance line of the vehicle. 

The generator is of standard General 
Electric con.struction, totally en- 
closed, and is rated 6}/2 kw., 125 
volts, 1800 r.p.m., and is designed 
for continuotis operation at rated 
load. The generator is driven from 
the transmission shaft of the auto- 
mobile by silent chain. The driving 
shaft is connected to either the 
generator driving sprocket or to the 
rear axle of the car by means of a 
positive clutch mounted on the 
transmission shaft and supported b>- 
roller bearings on each side. This 
clutch is operated by a lever which 
in one ]josition engages the gene- 
rator, and in the opposite position P'k- ' 
the driving mechanism of the auto- 
mobile. Voltage is judged by pilot 
lamp and regulated by the speed of the 
engine, no instruments being necessary. Pro- 
tection against short circuit and overload is 
provided by a General Electric overload cir- 
cuit breaker and fuses. A larger, and for 
many purposes more desirable, eqtiipment cm- 

ploying a 12-kw. generator, could be mounted 
on a 2-ton truck. 

Water for cooling the engine is contained 
in a heavy galvanized steel tank located in 
an insulated compartment at the rear of the 
vehicle. The water is circulated through 
the engine and radiator by means of a 
centrifugal pump mounted on the engine. In 
the demonstrations described later, SO gallons 
of water was raised from CO degrees to the 
boiling point in less than two hoius. This 
cooling water may be used for culinarj- pur- 
poses, Lf the pipes, radiator, etc., are occa- 
sionally flushed out and cleaned. 

Fireless cooking is accomplished through 
the heat -retaining properties of the insula- 
tion. This insulation is superior to that of 
the ordinary cooker in the amount 
and quality of material used, and a further 
advantage of this equipment is that addi- 
tional heat, either from the electric units 
or the engine exhaust, can be applied at any 

Automobile Eleclnc Kitchen ihowing Cookina Com(>anniciiti 
and Water Tnnk (at rrarl Mounted on Truck Platfonn 

time to hasten the proce^. No hot disks 
or similar devices are required. When the 
cookers are nearly filled and the contents 
are brought to the boiling point, a cooking 
temperature will be maintained for 26 
hours. In domestic t>-pes of tireless cookers 

278 April 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 4 

a cooking temperature is retained for only 
about five hours. 

Frying, Roasting and Baking Compartment 

This compartment is 18 in. wide, IS in. 
high, and 24 in. deep. It is provided with 
six removable racks and will hold six shallow 
baking pans or two large roasting pans. It is 
heated by four 9 in. by 12 in. lOOO-watt 
cast-iron electric hot plates. The sides, 
top, and doors are heavily insulated. The 
doors are supported by pin hinges and can 
be quickly removed when the oven bottom 
is to be used for frying or making griddle 

All methods of cooking, with the excep- 
tion of broiling, have been provided for. 
Broiling can be done by installing an 
electric broiler in the top of the oven. In the 
model such a broiler was used for grilling 
frankfurters, etc., while crullers were fried on 
the oven bottom at the same time. 

Underneath the oven, and heated by it, 
is a wanning closet large enough to hold 
roasting pans. This closet is fitted with 
drop doors on both sides for serving purposes. 
Under the warming closet are located the 
switches, circuit breaker, and all fuses for 
heating circuits. 

Fireless Cooker Compartments 

There are four fireless cooker compart- 
ments, each having a capacity of 30 gallons. 
The insulation, which is two inches thick. 

Fig. 2. Automobile Electric Kitchen with Regulation , 
Type Canvas Covering in Position 

is fireproof, self-supporting, light in weight, 
and the most efficient of any commercial in- 
sulation known. Monel metal was selected 
for the fittings, interiors, and insulated covers 
because of its strength and non-corrodible 
qualities; it is undoubtedly the best metal 

obtainable for cooking purposes. These com- 
partments have semi-hemispherical bottoms 
to facilitate cleaning and draining, and are 
provided with draw-off faucets. A special 
screw plug is fitted which can be replaced 
with a strainer when desired. All seams are 
welded or silver soldered, and if heat is acci- 
dently turned on, with no water in the vessel, 
no damage will re,sult. A closet with drop 
door is located under each vessel for storing 
utensils. These compartments are heated 
by the engine exhaust, and by two General 
Electric sheath wire units wound on steel sup- 
ports, combining strength with light weight. 
No porcelain parts, lava, or other fragile sub- 
stance is used for insulating these units. 

A single large equipment, or two smaller 
equipments, will easily prepare the regulation 
rations, consisting of four courses, with coffee, 
for a company of 250 men, or coffee and 
one pint each of stew for 500 men. In army 
camps or elsewhere where regular ranges 
are available this equipment can be ad- 
vantageously used as an auxiliary. For 
instance, it may be employed for making 
stews and cooking vegetables and cereals 
by the fireless cooker method, or for making 
coffee or French frying — for all of which 
purposes it would be superior to a camp 
range. It would not be necessary to supple- 
ment the range by cooking in galvanized 
ash cans over wood fires or similar methods, 
as is now practiced in some of the 
camps. Where electric current is 
available all of the equipment, with 
the exception of the hot water 
tanks, can be operated without 
running the engine or generator. 
For stews, the superiority of the 
fireless cooker method is unques- 
tionable. It is peculiarly adapted 
for all gelatinous meat, such as 
knuckles, head and feet, and for all 
tough fibrous meats, because of the 
fact that long continued moderate 
heat in the presence of moistvu"e is 
the best way of converting gela- 
tine and tough fiber into edibles. 
These preparations will not only 
be edible but palatable, thus pre- 
venting the great waste which is suffered 
when meat is not properly cooked. It is a 
well-known fact that when meat is roasted 
in an electric oven it is superior in flavor and 
undergoes considerably less shrinkage than 
when roasted in a coal or gas range. 



All of the fireless cooking compartments 
are adapted for French frying in deep fat 
or oil. Croquettes and similar preparations 
are much nicer when cooked in this way, as 
are also many kinds of fish. French fried 
potatoes, bacon, salt pork, doughnuts and 
crullers, hash balls, etc., can be improved by 
cooking in this manner. 

The arrangement of the compartments 
permits easy clarifying of the oil and fat so 
that it can be used over and over again. 
The amount of food which can be cooked in 
a short time with this equipment will supply 
a greater number of persons than appears 
obvious from the rated capacity of the 

A special Monel metal dipping basket is 
provided for French frying and for steaming 
meats, puddings vegetables, etc. 

For making coffee special close-weave 
cloth leeches are furnished, which can be 
used in any of the compartments. Coffee 
made in this way is superior to that produced 
by the usual methods common in camps, 
where a large pot of coarse ground coffee is 
jilaced on the range and allowed to simmer 
for several hours. 

Good cooking requires patience, experience, 
good judgment, and a knowledge of the effects 
of moist and dry heat upon certain foods. 
Hastily and poorly prepared dishes cannot 
be placed in the fireless cooking compart- 
ments and taken out as delicious triumphs 
of the culinary art. The fireless method of 
cooking, however, requires less attention 
than the common method and there is no 
danger of burning the food if ordinary care 
is taken when applying the initial heat. 

High efficiency is obtained by employing 
the exhaust heat from the engine to assist 
in the cooking operations and by utilizing 
the heat ordinarily wasted in the engine 
radiator to heat the water in the hot water 
tanks. The ultimate economy of the equip- 
ment will depend upon the conditions under 
wliich it is operated. For instance, when 
traveling on the road the exhaust and other 
heat from the engine is a by-product or waste 
and may be figured to cost nothing. On 
the model described the consumption was 
5H to 6 quarts of gasolene an hour when 
running the generator at its full rated load 
of 6} 2 kw. 

Because of the efficient insulation of all 
cooking compartments it is necessary to 
operate the generator at its full capacity lor 
only a short time. In ordinary cooking 
operations the fuel consumption will, of 

course, also depend upon the extent to which 
the operator takes advantage of the fireless 
cookers. Cooking can be done as long as 
the engine runs. In case of complete break- 
down current can be supplied from the 
generator of a second car, if this is available. 
and the exhaust heat from this car used to 
continue the cooking operations, thus keeping 
both kitchens in service. The second car 
could also tow the disabled one, if neces- 

The electric generator could also be used 
to supply light or power for any purpose 
within its capacity. For instance, the 6}^ 
kw. generator could supply current for 246 
25-watt lamps or 650 10-watt lamps, or 


Heating Elements 

Fig. 3. Plan and Elevation of Fircle«« Cooker OjupailiucDt 

power for the electrical equipment of a field 
hospital for X-ray work, sterilizing, etc. 

While performing this ser\-ice the exhaust 
heat could be employed for cooking and 
heating the water, the generator on the 
larger equipment could, of course, furnish 
correspondingly more power. 

2S() April 191S 


Vol. XXI, No. 4 

In freezing weather, when the engine is 
not running, it will be necessary to close the 
valve at the bottom of the hot water tank 
and to drain all water from the pipes, pump, 
engine, and radiator. The water in the tanks 
will retain its heat for a considerable length 
of time. A non-freezing mixture could be 
put in the tanks if desired, but this, of course, 
should not be poisonous. 

In general, the entire equipment is con- 
structed of the best material and is well 
made. Special attention has been directed 
toward making the apparatus easy of opera- 
tion and as near fool-proof as possible. Any- 
one having the knowledge and skill necessary 
to drive an automobile can easily operate 
this kitchen. The heating elements are con- 
structed to withstand excessive voltages due 
to accidental speeding up and are arranged 
so as to be easily replaced when necessary. 

First Morning Demonstration 

Operators were requested to furnish coffee 
and stew for dinner. Started with every- 
thing cold at 9 a.m., using electric and 
exhaust heat on one 27-gallon kettle. Stew 
(lamb) was cooking, and kettle sufficiently 
heated to permit all heat to be shut off at 
10:20 a.m. Stew continued to cook (fireless 
cooking principle) until noon, when it was 
served to 110 men. (Partial capacity one 
kettle onlj'.) 

During this time exhaust heat only was 
turned into one other kettle containing about 
IS gallons of water. At 10:22 electric heat 
was also turned on. Water was boiling and 
ready for coffee at 10 :35 a.m. Served to 250 
men at dinner. (Partial capacity one kettle 

Afternoon Demonstration 

At 3.2o electric heat only was turned on 
oven. At 3.35 about 60 lbs. of beef was 
placed therein. Two roast pans of about 
IS in. by 24 in. were used. At 5 p.m. first 
pan was removed, meat being thoroughly 
cooked. At 5.15 p.m. second pan was re- 
moved, the fifteen minutes difference being 
due to larger pieces of meat. All of the meat 
was well cooked (according to army cook) 
with the exception of one very large piece, 
which was then placed in the coal range oven. 

It could have been replaced in the electric 
oven for another few minutes had the cook 
wished, as the electric oven was at a much 
higher temperature than the coal range. 

From 5.05 p.m. to 7.40 p.m. generator 
furnished two mess buildings with 40 lights, 
25 watts, 120 volts. (Small fraction of 

During the demonstration about 120 gals, 
of hot water was heated and used in mess hall 
and kitchen. 

Weather conditions were bad: very cold, 
drizzling rain, with cold and constant wind. 
Average temperature, 45 degrees F. 

Second Morning Demonstration 

Cooking started at 9.10 a.m. All heat 
turned off at 11.40 a.m. Stew was served 
to 216 men and coffee to 246 men at 12 m. 
(About half full capacity.) 

Afternoon Demonstration 

At 1.50 p.m. operators were requested to 
have coffee ready for 300 men at 4 p.m. 
At 2.30 p.m. operators were informed that a 
change had been made in plans, and it 
was to be served at 3 p.m. At that hour 
40 gals, was served and wth the stored heat 
(fireless cooker) 20 gals, more was made for 

These demonstrations did not give an 
opportunity to demonstrate the entire pur- 
pose of the kitchen, as the fireless cooking 
method was used very little. In order to do 
this it would be necessary to have a pre- 
arranged menu, at which time these features 
could be properly brought out. 

If the one-ton truck equipments were used, 
probably two of them would be necessary 
for a company of 250 men. The advantages 
would be the comparative simplicity of the 
trucks, and the fact that in case of break- 
down of one engine current could be supplied 
from the other generator; or one truck could 
if necessary tow the other. The amount of 
equipment is limited by the size of the truck. 

The 2-ton truck equipment should easily 
handle rations for a company of 250 men, 
or coffee and stew for 500. 

Obviously the various compartments could 
be changed as might seem necessary, or 
larger equipments could be built. Probably 
a 5-ton truck equipment would take care 
of 1000 men or more. 


The Capabilities and Economies of the One-man 
Light-weight Safety Car* 

By J. C. Thiri,vvall 
Railway and Traction Engineering Department, General Electric Company 

The light-weight safety car was developed to furnish the public an improved service at a decreased cost 
to the operating company. In the introduction of the following article are set forth the factors which led up 
to the design of the particular type of car described. Illustrations of the car and of the more important parts 
of its equipment are included. The latter part of the article analyzes the comparative service, operation, and 
cost of the new and the older types of car on a typical road; and the results are greatly in favor of the light- 
weight safety car. — -Editor. 

When the jitneys first invaded Texas some 
two or three years ago, the author in com- 
pany with C. O. Birney of the Stone & Web- 
ster organization made exhaustive studies of 
the situation and observed that : when a street 
car came along where a crowd was gathered 

Light-weight Safety Car in Bellingham. Washington 

a great majority boarded the car; however, 
when a car was not in sight and a steady 
stream of jitneys came roUing by, the average 
person took the first vehicle going in his direc- 
tion regardless of any other consideration. 
Careful study, however, indicated that the 
question of speed entered into the situa- 
tion to a large extent. The short-haul 
rider took the first vehicle passing. The long- 
haul rider would take a jitney in preference to 
the street car in order to save time in getting 
to his destination. 

The average rider taking a street car that 
makes eight to nine miles an hour will require 
something over twenty minutes to go three 
miles. A jitney with its speed of 13 to 14 
miles an hour will make the distance in 

•Extract of a talk before the New England St. Ry. Club. 
Boston, Mass.. October 25, 1917. 

13 to 14 minutes. AllowHng for a wait of two 
minutes for the jitney and a possible ten 
minutes for the street car, the time required 
for the respective trips woidd be 10 and 31 
minutes. These conditions led Western roads 
to adopt the safety car, a car of high speed 
which is very essential in meeting jitney com- 
j)elion. This speed was attained V»y cutting 
down the size of the unit to reduce the number 
of passengers (thereby automatically decreas- 
ing the number of stopping places) and by 
constructing a unit that could be accelerated 
freely and braked rapidly in order to secure 
the highest possible schedule speed in frequent 
stop service. The acceleration of the Birney 
safety car is more rapid than the average 
operator of double-truck cars believes possible. 
Rates of acceleration as high as 2' 2 to 3 m.p.- 
h.p.s. are frequently used and schedules in 
se\eral cities, where these cars have been 
installed, are based on average rates of 2'2 
m.p.h.p.s. both for acceleration and braking. 
The highest average rate of acceleration with 
double-truck cars in city sen-ice is about a 
mile and three-quarters. Anything more rapid 
than this with a double-truck car throws the 
passengers around on account of the pendu- 
lum effect due to swinging bolsters when a 
heavv body is accelerated. It causes dis- 
comfort and, where there is a drop platform, 
might cause accidents in many ca-ses. 

The low-wheel type of car with an extremely 
light bodv, Hush platform, and low center of 
gra\-ily, with the body tied rigidly to the 
truck so that there can be no j>endulum effect, 
can be smoothl>- accelerated and braked at 
high rates of speed. The s^-teed that the 
public demands is thus supplied in the light- 
weight safety car which max- not be quite as 
fast as the automobile on long runs but is a 
close competitor. 

Frequency of service is another important 
factor. Where headways are 10, 12. lo. or 20 
minutes as they are in many cities — even on 

282 April 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 4 

many lines of the largest cities it is found that 
the standard car of today cannot be profitably 
operated on shorter headways — a great many 
people walk, especially up to the 15-minute 
or longer headways. A person can walk a 
mile in fifteen minutes and a tremendous pro- 

Light Weight, 25-h.p. Motor Designed for the Light-weight Safety C 

portion of short-haul riders are not secured 
when headways are lengthened to that point. 

The new type of car is cheaper to operate. 
Its platform wage, its power consumption, and 
its maintenance charges for equipment and 
track are so much less than for older types 
of cars that it is possible for a given amount 
of money to run twice as many car miles. In 
other words, for a given amount of money 
spent in operating cost, the public can be 
given 100 per cent more service with the new 
type of car. In one fairly large city of the 
West, the Electric Railway Journal reports 
that an increase of 100 per cent in service 
resulted in an increase of 100 per cent earn- 
ings. Each car added to the run earned 
just as much as every car had previously. 

The Stone & Webster organization has 
studied this question more than any other 
group of railway operators in the country and 
apparently aims for an improved service which 
runs from 40 to 50 per cent. That is to say, 
about so many more cars per hour pass any 
given point. To give 50 per cent more service 
requires, with the additional speed of the cars, 
approximately one-third more cars in opera- 
tion on a given line. After giving 50 per cent 
more service it has been found without ex- 
ception that the operating costs are still ma- 
terially reduced, running from 20 to 30 per 
cent less than with the heavier cars; the 
financial results have shown a very material 
increase in the amount of riding and conse- 
quently in the volume of receipts. The 
operating ratio has thus been reduced from 

about G5 to 70 per cent to about 45 to 50 per 
cent, leaving the net revenue tremendously 

A fairly typical instance was recently 
worked out for a road in the middle W^est 
where conditions are fairly typical of the 
average manufacturing town or city 
in the East. This city is a manufac- 
turing community in Ohio with an 
extreniely heavy rush-hour traffic and 
a fairly light riding the remainder of 
the day, which is typical of some lines 
in every city. The operating costs 
were fairly typical of the average road 
as well as the method of operation, etc. 
This line is 3} 2 miles long and double- 
truck cars are now used, these seating 
forty-four people and weighing 44,000 
pounds fully equipped. The running 
time for the round trip of seven miles 
is 50 minutes or a little over eight 
miles an hour. The all-day headway 
is ten minutes, requiring five cars. 
It was proposed to replace these cars with 
the new light-weight type seating 32 people 
and weighing 13,000 pounds, thus reducing 
the weight per seat from 900 to 400 pounds 

ConUol and Air Brake Equipment Installed < 
Light-weight Safety Car 


which would cut down the power per car 
mile 60 per cent. This change would also 
cut the cost of maintenance of track and 
equipment. It was suggested that a seven- 
minute headway be operated in place of the 
present ten-minute headway, a six-minute 
headway during the rush hour instead of the 
ten-minute, and a running time of 42 minutes 
in place of GO which is a very conservative 
estimate of the possibilities since it is prac- 
ticable under most city conditions to obtain 
schedule speeds of 10 to 11 miles an hour with 
these cars. With this arrangement one more 
car would be required during the day and two 
more during the rush hour. The seating 
capacity would be practically identical with 
that obtained at present, thus giving the public 
fully the equivalent of the present service. 

The number of car hours per day would 
be increased from 95 to 118, and the 
number of car miles, on account of the 
higher schedule speed, would be increased 
from 793 to 1173, an increase of 48 per cent 
which is a direct measure of the improved 
service that the public would receive. On 
the basis of the operator of the one-man cars 

1 parallel Controller for Us 
Light-weight Car 

receiving somewhat increased wages, the 
annual cost of platform labor would drop from 
$18,724 to $12,891, a decrease of about 33 
per cent. 

The cost of power on this property is a little 
above the average on account of the road 

being situated a long distance from the central 
station; the extremely heavy line drop makes 
the cost of delivered power about 2 cents per 
kw-hr. The present rolling stock with a fairly 
low-speed schedule is taking about 2J-2 kw-hr. 
per car mile, so that the energy is costing 5 

Motor-driven Air Compressor for Supplying Air to 
Operate the Brakes, Doors, Steps, and Sanders 

cents per car-mile. The proposed new car 
would take about 1 kw-hr. under the same 
conditions, which means a cost of 2 cents per 
car mile or a reduction of 60 per cent. The 
maintenance of way at present costs 1.3 cents 
per car mile. With a reduction of two-thirds 
— nearly 70 per cent — in the weight of the 
cars used, a very conservative estimate would 
be a reduction of at least one-half the cost 
of maintenance per car mile; i.e., 0.6 cents 
per car mile. 

Maintenance of equipment on the cars now 
in service is probably higher than the average, 
approximately 3 cents per car mile. The 
cars are about 18 or 20 years old and are 
equipped with an obsolete type of motor, 
four motors being used instead of two as 
on the new car. It has been figured that 
a reduction in maintenance costs could be 
made from 3 cents at present to 0.8 cents 
for the new cars. 

Summing up, the total operating cost for the 
sj-stem would drop from $52,454 to S;J4.449 
or more than SIS.OOO which is equivalent to 
30 per cent. The present receipts are 
$()0.46() and the oi^rating ratio is 71 per cent. 
With the .iO per cent more service which the 
new equiiimcnt would furnisli there should be 
at least 20 per cent more riding, making a new 
gross income of §83.000 and increasing the 
present §17,000 net income to $49.00*1. To 
accomplish these results would require eight 
cars seven being required for rush-hour serv- 
ice and one as a spare. The cost of eight 
cars at present would be about $4.),000. 

284 April 191S 


Vol. XXI. No. 4 

This return of $32,000 on 
an investment of $45,00(1 
means that the cars would 
pay for themselves in eighteen 
months; or in another way 
we might say that the in- 
crease in fixed charges in- 
curred by the purchase of 
eight new cars (allowing ir> 
per cent to cover interest, 
depreciation, insurance, and 
taxes) would be only about 
$7,000 leaving a net profit of 
$42,000 per annum on a line 
that is now showing only 
$17,000 above operating costs. 
In other words, the change- 
over would turn a line that 
is probably not paying one 
cent of dividends into a very 
good dividend-paying propo- 

Similar results could be 
shown in almost every city 
in the country. An official 
of one of the biggest systems 
in New York City has made 
the statement that he be- 
lieved that one-third of the 
service could be handled by 
this light-weight car and cer- 
tainly no city in the United 
States has more congestion 
than New York. 

In conclusion, it should 
not be forgotten that there 
is an even bigger and more 
important question than the 
financial side. The nation is 
calling for men and we must 
conserve man-power. The 
nation is trying to conserve 
its natural resources, particu- 
larly coal. Nothing that we 
can do will cut down the coal 
consumed by the transporta- 
tion industry' so much as the 
adoption of this type of car. 
It so greatly reduces the 
power consumption per pas- 
senger handled that in the 
long run the amount of coal 
burned at the power station 
is very much less, and a 
saving in this respect is of 
vital interest to the entire 

Standardized Flexible Distributing Systems in 
Industrial Plants 


By Bassett Jones 

Electrical Engineer, Associated with Henry C. Meyer, Jr., New York City 

The first installment of this article, which was publishe'l in our March issue, outlined the method thai 
has been evolved by the author for determining in advance the power requirements in industrial plants, and 
the principles of the system of installing a flexible distributing system to take care of these requirements. 
The concluding installment describes the application of this system to a new factory of the Sprague Electric 
Works at Walsessing, N. J. As we have previously pointed out, standardization in this line of work is fully a.-; 
practicalile and desirable as standardization in the generation and control of electric power, and it would seem 
that Mr. Jones has taken a big step forward in the fulfillment of this desideratum. — Editor. 


The study outlined in Part I was under- 
taken with a view to determining the best 
method of electrically equipping a new build- 
ing of the Sprague Electric Works in Bloom- 
field, New Jersey. It was argued that the 
factory of a manufacturer making all the 
multifarious apparatus and devices used for 
tool drive, motor control, and the construc- 
tion of distributing and lighting systems 
should i^resent an example of the most 
modern, practical, and economical methods 
of tising such equipment. It should not be 
remembered, as is so frequently the case, 
in connection with the adage of the cobbler's 
children. Fortunately, during the construc- 
tion of this building it was possible to partially 
apply the same method to the building now 
used by the Switchboard Department in 
Philadelphia. In so far as was possible, and 
in view of the fact that the Philadelphia 
building was practically completed structur- 
ally before it was taken over, these two build- 
ings represent the application of a standard- 
ized distributing system. Generally, the 
various parts and assembly groups in the 
two buildings are identical and interchange- 

Furthermore, it should be stated that the 
writer is in accord with both the Switchboard 
Department and the Industrial Control 
Department as to the importance and value 
of "dead front, safety first" equipment. 
This will account for se-\'eral features em- 
bodied in the design. In the course of ordi- 
nary operation it should be impossible to 
accidcntly touch a "live" part anywhere, 
from the power hotise switchboard to the 
motor on the tool. 

A typical floor jilan, showing the floor 
distribution for power, and the tools in one 

department connected to the tool cut-out 
boxes on the columns, is given in Fig. 6-A. 
This plan also shows a typical section of the 
underfloor passages and floor trenches; A — 
as actually used, B — located as experience 
has shown would have saved some of the 
small amount of floor cutting necessary. As 
tools are commonly grou]3ed on the column 
axes across the building a passage or duct on 
these axes is more generally useful than one in 
the center of the bays. 

On the basis of what has been said pre- 
viously regarding location of risers, two riser 
points are required in this building. They are 
located against "tower" walls, so that the 
switchboard at the foot of the riser will 
be situated out of the way in the tower. 
Also, because of proximity to passage-ways, 
stairs, elevator openings and doors, these 
walls will be free from tools. 

It is probable that this will be a fairly 
average diversified machine shop; therefore, 
on the basis of 2.2.") average watts jx^r sq. ft. 
total floor area, two No. 4/0 mains per floor 
are required. They are located near the 
interior columns with tap boxes at each 
colunm as indicated. As a preliminar>- 
arrangement, each main is fed by a No. 4 
feed from each riser point, the typical floor 
junction therefore being initially pro\-ided 
with two 2()l)-ampcre circuit breakers. The 
breakers are not installed on the junctions 
until the actual load distribution is known. 
Then, for instance, three breakers may be 
installed on one junction and none on another. 
In the case where three arc used, a rein- 
forcing feeder to some section of either main 
is required to meet some local load con- 

What has been said of the installation of 
breakers is also true of the copjxr. All main 

286 April 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 4 

Fig. 7. Looking into Switchboard Room Through 
Switchboard Opening 

Fig. 8. Foot of Riser Shaft 

Fig. 9. Typical Floor Power Riser Junction 

Fig. 10. Safety Circuit Breaker 




Xtm irrmrffya. 

fker Tool di^mcHCS. 





copper is No. 4/0, all riser copper 300,000 
cm. The necessary average amount is 
ordered and installed where required. Over 
some dead areas no copper will be necessary 
— over manufacturing areas the average watts 
per sq. foot may rise to 4.5 or even more. 
Just how the copper should 
be arranged can be quickly 
determined in the manner 
previously described from the 
tool layouts when received. 

Originally it was thought ^ 
that no power would be re- 
quired on the sixth floor. 
Therefore only hanger inserts 
were installed. Not even floor 
junctions or riser copper was 
ordered. At present one end 
of the floor fed from riser A 
is used for manufacturing. 
The copper required was 
simply not installed in some 
region of some other floor, 
which by reason of this 
change is now used for stock 
and packing. Thus the aver- 
ages work out as expected. 

The original allowance for riser copper was 
determined on the basis of a 300,000 cm. 
riser from the first floor switchboards to 
each floor junction, except on the sixth. 
Some of these have since been increased. 
At the present time five sets of riser feeders 
run up riser A to the fifth floor, all the extra 
feeders being for special equipment, the load 
demand having been decided upon after 
many tools were in operation. The controller 
test department, occupying about 6,000 sq. ft. 
and finally located on this floor, required 
about 200 kw. Baking ovens distributed on 
three floors required about 300 kw. more. 

In practically every other case the original 
riser feeders have proven to be of proper 
size. In two cases other than the one men- 
tioned, they have been duplicated. 

Having thus installed extra riser feeders, 
it is necessary to provide additional control 
for them. This is accomplished by installing 
the necessary additional circuit breakers on 
the riser switchboards, which operation is 
made simple and possible by the fact that 
the board itself is standardized, and the 
breakers used are only of two sizes, both 
occupying the same amount of space. 

Details of Installation 

Let us now begin at the foot of the riser 
and follow back over the svstem to the tools. 

with photographs to help our understanding, 
and remembering the general diagram given 
in Fig. 4. 

In Fig. 7, from the first floor hallway in one 
of the towers, we are looking into the switch- 
board room through the hole which will 

Fig. 11. General Arrangcfnent of Power Junctions 

later receive the switchboard at the foot of 
riser A. Passing out of the tower into the 
main first floor of the shop we look back, 
in Fig. S, to the foot of riser B. Here we see 
the riser conduits passing through the second 
floor nipples. (Note Fig. 5.) Near the first 
floor ceiling they pass through a hole in the 
wall into the switchboard room. We also 
see the beginning of the first floor distribu- 
tion originating at the floor junction — in the 
photograph only a steel box on legs. The 
circuit breakers have not been mounted. 

Passing up the riser to a typical floor in 
Fig. 9 we are looking closely at one of the 
floor junctions. Here we see the riser conduits 
to floors above passing back of the box and, 
below it, the floor nipples through which they 
pass. Eventually this box will contain a 
junction bus panel, and on it will be set 
circuit breaker boxes. The circuit breakers 
themselves are dead-front safety-first, and 
incidentally, the first time such breakers 
have been used. A character drawing of a 
complete floor junction is shown in Fig. 11. 

A Dead Front Safety First Circuit Breaker and 
The general appearance of the circuit breaker 
is shown in Fig. 10. It is a standard breaker 
to which have been added arc blow-outs and 
a special operating rocker mechanism, and 

2!^S April 191S 


VoL XXI, No. 4 





S^B ^ 1 





is enclosed in a locked steel box. The operat- 
ing handle protrudes through the side 
of the box. The handle can be inter- 
locked with the cover so that the cover 
can not be opened unless the breaker is open. 

The riser switchboard to be installed in the 
opening into the switchboard 
room (Fig. 7) is shown in Fig. 

l.'j-A. It is built up in standard 

circuit breaker and dead front ^'-~^-~--zr^. 
safety-first knife switch units 
as needed. 

When the board is assem- 
liled with switches and 
t)reakers it presents an un- 
broken face of sheet steel on 
which are no live parts. 
Such a board can be installed, 
unguarded, with safety in 
o])en shop spaces if desired. 

and tool connections was prepared and 
ordered in advance by the use of averages 
much as the copper was averaged. The re- 
sults were close to actual requirements. 

These remarks are merely made to show 
that with this system, in emergency cases. 

Floor Distribution 

Now let us step back from 
the riser to the far row of 
columns. Looking toward the 
riser in the Bloomfield build- 
ing, we see in Fig. 13 the floor 
feeds extending out to the 
mains, and the mains running 
both ways. The main con- 
duits and tap boxes are evi- 
dent as this picture was pur- 
posely taken before the 
painting had been completed. 

It is interesting that this 
particular view shows a floor 
which, at the time the picture 
was taken, was structurally 
completed with floors laid. 
Yet the writer does not know what load will 
be required on this floor, how it will be dis- 
tributed, or where any tools will be placed. 
No more difTiculty will be experienced in 
installing tool connections than on any of the 
other floors where manufacturing is now in 

A floor in the Bloomfield building where 
tools are installed and operating is shown in 
Fig. 13. This is a part of the department 
whose tool layout is shown in Fig. 6-A (ancl 
for which load data have been given). 

When tool layouts are received and the 
copper in main distribution proportioned 
therefrom, locations of tool cutout boxes 
are dctennined and indicated, together with 
the tool branches (as shown in Fig. 6-A). All 
of this material including cut-out boxes, 
fuse gaps, and cojiper and conduit for tap 

ytw/flf Mv/rc^ -^ 

Fig. ISA. Dead Front Safety First Built-up Switchboard 

or when delivery is bad, it is possible to 
order ahead and so not hold up the work 
when the final tool layouts and the tools 
actually come through. 

Tool Connections 

Let us now start at the tap boxes in the 
mains and follow down to the tools. 

Fig. IC) shows a typical column in the 
Bloomfield building. On the left hand side 
is a tool cut-out box and tap connection 
from the tap box in the main overhead. 

Where a large number of tools are to be 
placed, a cut-out box is installed on every 
column. (Fig. 14.) In a few cases two are 
l>laced back to back on a single column. 
Should revisions occur, the boxes and their 
lap connections may be moved to other col- 
umns and re-installed. This view shows that 

290 April 191S 


Vol. XXI, No. 4 

Fig. 16. Typical Column, Bloomfield Building 

Fig. 17. Tool Connections, Sprague Works 

Fig. 18. Controllers on Colu 

Fig. 19. Tool Connections, Philadelphia Building 


some tools are placed and connected. Others 
are being connected, and still others are yet 
to come. Note that so far only one tool has 
been connected to the cut-out box in the 
immediate foreground as shown by the fact 
that no connections are run in the open header 
trench, and one connection goes around the 
column to the next bay back. 

Fig. 17 shows a close-up of one cut-out 
box in the Bloomfield building with all fuse 
gaps installed and all connections made in rigid 
conduit above the floor and flexible conduit 
below. None of the covers have been fitted to 
these boxes. Note the connections entering 
the under floor passages. The starter for the 
tool nearest the column has been mounted 
on the column under the box as no suitable 
location could be found for it on the tool. 
Similar cases occur where the controllers are 
complicated and large, as shown in Fig. IS. 
In the Philadelphia building, as shown in 
Fig. 19, the flexible conduit is run up to 
the cut-out box. This is somewhat cheaper 
than using rigid conduit above the floor, 
but not so neat in appearance. The different 
methods of supporting the cut-out box are 
also worthy of attention. In the Philadel- 
phia building pipe stands were used, the top 
of the stand being secured to the column by 
two hook bolts gripping the column reinforc- 
ing, the outer concrete being chipped out to 
permit this and later filled in. In the Bloom- 
field building four hook bolts, two at the 
top of the box and two at the bottom were 
used, clamping the box to the column rein- 
forcing and also serving as braces. This 
method is cheaper than the pipe stand 
arrangement and both are cheaper than 
employing bands around the columns. 

In the case of Fig. 20, only four connections 
have been made to the box, and therefore two 
double fuse gap slabs have not been installed. 
It should be noted that the busses are back of 
the fuse slabs so that the slabs can be easily 
removed. They are interchangeable between 
30 and 200 ampere fuses. The main s^^•itch is 
a standard "dead front — safety first" type 
adapted to this particular arrangement. 

Floor Cutting 

When the location of a tool is established 
a single upper floor strip is cut out from the 
tool location back to the nearest under-floor 
passage, and the connection fished through. 
See Fig. 21. The under floor is then grooved, 
the upper floor strip notched where the lead 
is to come out and relaid. This shows about 
the maximimi amount of floor cutting neces- 

sary. Of course, in many cases the tool comes 
very close to a passage or trench, when no 
cutting, and notching only is necessary. See 
Fig. 20. 

The first floor at the Bloomfield building 
is laid with paving blocks. Here trenching 
did not seem feasible, so the only recourse 
was to make the runs from the cut-out boxes 
to the tools as short as possible by careful 
placing of the boxes. Where the conduits 
do not cross passage-ways they are run 
exposed over the floor. Across passage-ways 
the blocks are raised, the connections run 
in the resulting trench, and the blocks split 
and re-laid. See Fig. 22. Where the tools 
are near the outside walls, the boxes were 
set on these walls and the connections run 
exposed on the floors, along the walls as 
shown in Fig. 23. 

It will be noted how neat and workmanlike 
is the whole appearance of the tools, starters, 
controllers, and their connections, shown 
in Figs. 17, 18, and 20. Every unit or 
assembly group from switchboard to starter 
is literally brought in a box ready to mount. 
There is practically no piecing together of 
details in the field — and all apparatus is 
under lock and key. No live parts are 
exposed, nor are there any exposed connec- 
tions or leads. Leads from starters to motor 
terminals are run in conduit clipped to the 
tools, and motor terminals are protected by 
metal boxes, so that a hand tool or work 
carelessly used or dropped cannot strike a 
]We part. 

Lighting Distribution 

Before the distributing system for lighting 
can be logically designed it is necessan,- to 
study the general form that the illuminating 
system will take. As will be shown later, 
the general ilhunination of factories can be 
so arranged that flexibility in the distributing 
system for lighting will not be essential to 
the same degree as flexibility in the distribut- 
ing svstcm for power. However, some degree 
of flexibility must be pro\-ided so that the 
general and separate control of the lighting 
can be arranged in different departments, 
wherever they may come, as well as local 
control in offices and other small rooms. 
In addition it must be possible to rearrange 
the lighting or provide special lighting over 
anv area for special conditions, small part 
stock cases and the like with proper controL 
Extensions of the lighting system may be 
required at any time and at any place to meet 
such special conditions. 

292 April 19 IS 


Vol. XXI, No. 4 

Fig. 20. Tool Connections 

Fig. 21. Tool C. 

Fig. 22. Tool C 


1 1 is well to avoid expensive general local 
control of the lighting. The branch circuits 
should be concentrated at panel boards and 
controlled at these panels. Since access to 
the panels for this purpose must be had at 
all times by all manner of persons, it is 
advisable to make the panels dead front safety 

It should be ]30ssible to rearrange the 
muting of branch circuits so that the lighting 
in any region may be controlled at one or more 
panels in that region. The common practice 
of locating the panels at one, or at most, a 
few central points, commonly at the riser 
shafts should be avoided. It should be pos- 
sible to locate a panel at any point where 
it will be most convenient for the control 
of the circuits brought to it. In other words, 
it should be possible to locate a panel at any 
desirable point in the building. 

At the same time, the panels must be so 
placed that ready access can be had to them, 
and so that the distance to the group of lights 
farthest away from the panel is not too great 
for convenience. 

These considerations indicate that a multi- 
plicity of small panels will function better 
than a few large panels. Then the length 
of the branch circuits will never be very 
long. At most fifteen feet of branch circuit 
work will cost as much as a branch circuit 
switch and a proportional part of the panel 

If then, in one-story buildings use is made 
of a lighting main run lengthwise of the 
building and controlled at the riser or main 
switchboards, panels can be tapped off it 
at any point precisely as tool cut-out boxes 
are tapped off the power mains. It is easy to 
figure out how far apart the panels should 
be spaced so that the branch circuit work 
will cost less than the main and panel taps. 
In a building seventy-five feet wide — three 
bays — with four lighting outlets per bay, 
100 wats per outlet, a panel every four bays, 
or every 100 feet generally, will save money 
over extending the branch circuit work. 
Generally speaking, the panels should be so 
placed that as far as possible the money 
invested will be about equally divided between 
branch circuits and panels together with their 
taps and the mains or risers. Receptacle 
circuits must also be taken into considera- 
tion . 

In buildings more than one story high the 
taps from the lighting main on the first floor 
will then also become risers, spaced not over 
100 ft. apart in buildings 75 feet wide. These 

risers may pass through ta]j boxes on each 
floor on which a panel may be mounted, 
or from which a tap may be run to a panel 
in its vicinity. This general method makes 
it possible to use a srrall one-sized panel 
board throughout. 

Fig. 24. Standard Lighting Panel Board 

There are several suitable ways of handling 
the branch circuit work so as to give it 

A iiarl of the lighting distribution in the 
Blooinfield building is shown in Fig. G-B. 
A grid of six parallel •^4-inch conduit lines 
is installed in the forms, two to each row 
of bays. The ^^-jnch conduits are used so 
that two circuits be routed over each line. 
The parallel lines are tied together and to 
the riser tap boxes at each riser point by two 
1-inch conduit lines so that circuits to the 
number of six can be routed home to any 
panel on either side of the building. Money 
would have been saved if the grid had been 
still more extended. 

The conduit and outlets for the ultimate 
and maximum requirements are thus neces- 
sarily installed on all parts of all floors, so 
that no matter where the "dead" and "manu- 
facturing" areas are finally located they can 
both be properly lighted, and the circuits 

294 April 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 4 

routed so that the control over any region can 
be concentrated at suitably located panels. 

In this building the risers are fed separately 
on the first floor, and are placed on every 
fourth column on one side of the building, 
sleeves being provided in the forms through 
the column caps for this purpose. 

The necessity of this extensive grid of con- 
cealed conduits is well shown in Fig. 2.5, which 
indicates the circuit routing on the fourth 
floor prepared after the tool layout was re- 
ceived months after the conduit was neces- 
sarily all in place. Even at that, some 
additional conduits had to be rtm exposed, 
and in several cases the 5-4-inch branch circuit 
conduits were not large enough to take care 
of the "home runs" so that to find space 

lighting. If the lighting is ever changed, 
the conduits and outlets may be taken off 
the ceiling and may be used elsewhere. 

In Fig. 24 is shown a panel box set on, but 
separable from, a riser tap box. The feeder 
from one of the riser switchboards at the foot 
of the power risers described above, comes to 
a similar box on the first floor from the ceiling 
and then, as a riser, continues up to the sixth 
floor. The illustration shows a complete panel 
in its box but without trim or "dead front" 
feature installed. The main switch is of the 
quick break brush contact type. The branch 
circuit switches are a new toggle type. 

Of course, if the most suitable location for 
any panel does not prove to be at a riser, 
it can be located anywhere else, and a tap 

tz — ^s — r.: 


»4w » 







jrocK fiooM 

^ «-^, CT" 



-t ^ 

-J ^ 

Fig. 25. PartofCii 

: Routing, Fourth Flo 

for them these runs had to be routed over 
indirect lines. On other floors, the compli- 
cated routing occurred in different regions. 
In some few cases local switching was neces- 
sary and was obtained by the use of ceiling 
pull switches mounted on outlet boxes. 

Practically all of this difficulty as to final 
routing of branch circuit work can be avoided 
if the lighting distribution, like the power dis- 
tribution, is run exposed except perhaps longi- 
tudinal branch circuit trunks, one on each side 
of the building, tied together at each riser, 
and to the riser tap box. Each trunk should 
pass through a "junction" outlet in each bav 
from which the branch circuit work in each 
bay, whatever it may be, originates. A 
standard system of inserts in each bay ])ro- 
vides for every necessary arrangement of 

from the riser extended to it, as shown in 
Fig. 1.5, page 2SS, where a standard panel has 
been placed in a stock room. 

In more recent work the main switch is 
made a separate affair from the panel proper, 
and this is advocated as a general practice. 
Let the panel board, its busses, and its 
branches be one thing. Then, if a n^ain 
switch, fused or unfused, fuses only, or special 
bus work is required or necessary, let them 
be an extension of the panel. In this way 
any special panels, if needed, can be built 
up of standard or semi-standard parts. 
Suppose only two, four, and eight branch 
panels are made, then by arranging the 
bus work at each end for strap extensions, 
and by drilling for reinforcing ten, twelve, 
fourteen, sixteen, twenty, twenty-four, etc.. 


circuit panels can be built up at will, and the 
necessary main switches, remote control, 
fuses, tic busses, etc., added as desired. In 
the Bloomfield building ten circuit panels 
only were used, eight circuits for lighting, 
two for receptacle circuits, and two spare. 

Receptacle Circuits 

It was thought essential to install in this 
building an elaborate premanent insertion 
receptacle system, for possible tool lights, 
bench lights, soldering irons, drills, and the 
like. Originally it was intended to run these 
circuits in the colimins and floor slabs, but 
the difficulty of working the conduits into the 
forms and reinforcing became insuperable and 
they were finally routed via the power main 
hangers in exposed conduits. 

Of course, insertion receptacles are essen- 
tial and they should be fairly numerous. 
But they are generally wanted on benches 
or tables — not on the columns, walls, or 
other predetermined locations. Probably 
a pair of permanent heavy insertion recep- 
tacles at each riser point will be enough for 
portable drills, vacuum cleaners, etc., and 
general maintenance work. Where such 
receptacles are wanted on assembly tables, 
etc., a small dead front safety-first knife 
switch has been mounted under the riser 
tap box controlling a receptacle main run 
in the under floor trench system to splice 
boxes, one on each column nearest a group of 
tables. From these splice boxes branches 
run to each table and feed the receptacles, 
through a fused dead front safety-first 
switch mounted under the table. Like the 
tool connections, all this work is in flexible 


There can be no question as to the advis- 
ability of using thoroughly good illumination 
in factories, and this applies quite as much 
to natural as to artificial light. No workman 
can be expected to produce a good, clean 
product if he cannot see his tools or has to 
strain his eyes in watching his work. There 
is too much convincing data covering this 
field in existence to leave it a subject for 
discussion. The cost of inefficiency due to 
poor lighting is large compared to the cost 
of luminious energy. 

But given a reasonable amount of generated 
light we are brought face to face with the 
problem of how to distribute it so as to make 
it useful, (hi this phase of the subject reams 
have been written with the residt that an\- 

practical conclu.sions are thoroughly concealed 
by a mass of theoretical camouflage. 

In general the lighting of machine shops is 
simple because there is a broad similarity 
in the tools and kind of work done at them, 
so that generally speaking one or two kinds 
of fixtures will answer most requirements. 
It is essential that the vertical illumination 
or light intensity parallel to the floor be quite 
high — in fact almost equal to the horizontal 
illumination, or light intensity vertical to 
the floor. Furthermore, the light must come 
from several directions so as to prevent 
the occurrence of deep shadows, and to make 
the locating of tools so far as reasonably 
possible, independent of the lighting, because 
then changes in tool location do not neces- 
sarily mean expensive changes in the lighting 
system. If this can be done two things will 
be accomplished. First, the only changes 
necessary to accommodate the lighting to 
different kinds of machine work will be 
changes in intensity by changing the wattage 
at each outlet. Second, individual or local 
tool lighting wiU not be needed. The first 
cost and maintenance of such local lighting 
is high. 

Special conditions will, of course, arise. 
Thus, polishing departments require almost 
entire absence of specular or metallic reflec- 
tion from the work, as such reflection inter- 
feres with proper inspection. This require- 
ment means that either the light on the work 
must come only from such directions that it 
cannot be reflected into the workman's eyes, 
or there must be no sources or surfaces of 
great brightness in the neighborhood, images 
of which can be reflected from the work. 
The first solution is accomplished by properly 
shaded and directed local lighting. The 
second solution may be accomplished by 
properly designed indirect or semi-indirect 
lighting with careful attention to brightness 
contrast and to diffusion This, of course, 
presupposes careful painting of the ceiling 
and walls which, with this method, become 
the real sources of light. 

Again, in the case of deep boring work, 
whereby the very nature of the machine pro- 
cess, the working surfaces are shaded in everj- 
direction, local lighting offers the only 
practical solution of the problem. 

It, therefore, seems that the most generally 
suitable and useful fonn of general machine 
shop lighting will consist of a broad general 
distribution of intensity coming from many 
directions, helped out by local lighting where 
essential or in cases where the general illumin- 

296 April 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 4 






^ • 

V J^ 




ation cannot be made sufficiently economi- 

This result can be most cheaply accom- 
plished in fairly low ceilinged rooms, say 
between fifteen and twenty foot ceiling 
height, by the use of a relatively large 
number of small units each giving the maxi- 
mum amount of light between fifteen and 
sixty degrees from the horizontal. When 
we speak of a relatively large number of 
units remember that generally speaking 
every unit put on the ceiling means one less 
local unit. Also remember that generally 
speaking, each local unit costs considerably 
more than a ceiling unit. 

Direct lighting units will be lower in the 
first cost than either indirect or semi-indirect 
units and remembering the difficulty of 
keeping factory ceiling and wall surfaces 
clean, decidedly less costly in energy con- 

To obtain the results desired, and use the 
cheaper form of direct unit requires that the 
lamp be exposed. This however, will not 
be disturbing if the number of small units 
suggested are used. It results that the 
brightness is well distributed and the bright- 
ness contrast is not excessive. The lamps 
should be placed as near the ceiling as possible 
so as to have them out of general view when 
close at hand. 

Lighting Fixtures 

In the Bloomfield building, as has been 
shown in Fig. G-B, the general illumination 
of manufacturing areas consisted of four units 
per bay. Two per bay being installed in 
packing, shipping, and storage areas. 

Each unit consists of a simple Benjamin 
fitting attached directly to the outlet box 
equipped with an Ivanhoe-Regent SEL-ini) 

Fig. 26. Standard Direct Lighting Unit 

enameled steel dome reflector as shown in 
Fig. 26. Thus all wiring of fixtures and splic- 
ing in the outlet boxes are avoided. The fix- 
ture costs less than $2 erected. Each fixtm-e 
is lamped with a lOO-watt type C clear bulb 

In the office spaces on the sixth floor semi- 
indirect lighting is used, employing four 
fixtures per bay of the type shown in Fig. 
27. Each fixture is lamjjcd with a 200- 
watt type C clear bulj) lamp. Semi-indirect 
lighting is used in this case to reduce the 

Fig. 27. Standard Semi indirect Lighting Unit 

contrasts to a point safe for close clerical 
work. The fighting of the stairways, fire 
lights, hose lights, etc., is economically and 
effectively accomplished by a simple one-light 
receptacle and lamp guard fastened direct to 
the outlet boxes. 

A view of the third floor in the day time 
is shown in Fig. 28. The same view at night 
is given in Fig. 29. A view in the ofiice por- 
tion of the sixth floor in the day time is shown 
in Fig. 30 ; a view in this floor at night is shown 
in Fig. 31. Note that the photographic plate 
shows little if any more halation about the 
fixtures on the third floor than on the sixth, 
indicating that the brightness even with the 
direct units was not excessive. Brightness 
measurements in candle-power ])er sq. in. are 
given in Figs. 2!) and 3 1 . 

Attention is particularly drawn to these 
pictures of the illuminated interiors, as 
these, and not the test results, tell the real 

Illumination Tests 

And now a word as to illumination tests. 
Unfortunately, illumination is rated in hori- 
zontal intensity; that is in terms of the light 
flux recei\ed on an arbitrary horizontal 
surface called the "working plane" — why 
the "working" plane is not clear as hardly 

29S April 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 4 

ever does any one work upon it. Better call 
it the "test plane." 

As a matter of fact, the intensity in sonae 
direction other than the horizontal may be, 
and generally is, much the most important 
of the two. Thus, it is silly to rate the 



oil o 



Fig. 32. Illumination Test, Third Floor 

illumination in a can factory by the horizontal 
intensity near the floor, when it is intensity 
in precisely the reverse direction that is most 
helpful to the workman and enables him to 
see the dies on his press. 

The results should be that the workman 
can see easily and readily what he is doing 
and that the place be cheerful and bright — 
a pleasant place in which to work. Otherwise 
the worker will not be happy and in some 
dictionaries unhappiness is spelled like ineffi- 

The shop must "look" right. And when 
I say that I have said all there is to lighting. 
Foot-candles, watts per sq. foot, lumens, 1am- 
berts, and utilization factors will not help 
us if the eye is not pleased. Of course, I 
do not mean to throw all these things aside. 
They will help in getting results. But do 
not let us get the cart before the horse. We 
do not see lumens — we see light, and light 
is primarily a vi.sual sensation. 

The results of the illumination tests made 
at the Bloomlicld building are here given 
rather as a matter of formality — they mean 
nothing apart from the result that the shop is 
workable at night and during the dark 
hours of the day without a marked decline 

in production. This is foretold by the atti- 
tude of the workers and their general atmos- 
phere of satisfaction. The same measure- 
ments of horizontal intensity over the test 
plane could have been obtained with an 
entirely different system of illumination that 
might not have produced anything like 
as satisfactory results. 

The tests were made in a single section 
only — that is in the space three bays long, 
and three bays wide fed by a single riser, 
and panel. Furthermore, the tests on the 
third floor were made before the tools had 
been installed, it having been our intention 
to make a further test on the second floor 
where tools were in operation so as to show 
what effect the tools have on the illumination. 
Unfortunately, the coal shortage interfered 
and this test, as well as proposed ageing tests, 
will have to be reported later. 

The results of the test on the third floor 
with all nine bays lighted are shown in Fig. 
32. Two tests were made about a week 
apart. The repeat test was carried out 
because it was not believed that the results 
of the first test could be correct. 

The first test was made by Messrs. Powell 
and Summers of the Edison Lamp Works 
using a freshly calibrated Macbeth illuminom- 
meter. The second test was made by the 
same two men, together with the author, 
using a freshly caUbrated Macbeth lUu- 
minometer, a freshly calibrated Shape-Millar 
photometer and a second Sharp-Millar instru- 
ment that had not been used since last cali- 
brated. Check readings, taken on all three 
instruments by three observers agreed within 
a candle foot. That is, within about 10 per 
cent. Voltmeter readings at the lamp ter- 
minals were also taken, and the readings 
corrected to correspond to the actual voltage 
at which the lamps were burned. The 
rated lamp voltage was 115 volts. The 
actual voltage during the test averaged a few 
tenths of a volt over this value. 

Utilization Factor 

It was, therefore, considered that every 
reasonable precaution to insure commercial 
accuracy had been taken. The results are 
interesting since with 0.66 watts per sq. ft. 
of floor area, an average illumination in the 
center three bays of S.7 foot-candles was 
obtained 42 inches above the floor, and a 
utihzation factor of 1.04 — over a hundred 
per cent. 

That is to say, more light is received on 
the test plane than is generated at the lamps. 


This, however, is not by any means impossi- 
ble. It is merely unusual, and is accounted 
for by the fact that the walls, floor, and 
ceiling show unusually high reflection factors. 
If the interior surfaces, except the floor, 
showed 100 per cent reflection factor and the 
reflection factor of the floor was 0.2.3 or 
0.75 absorption factor — 133 per cent of the 
light generated by the lamps would be 
received on the floor. Thus, if the lamp 
generates 100 units, all of this is initially 
received on the floor which reflects 2.") per 
cent of what it receives, or 2.5 units. This is 
again reflected to the floor which again re- 
flects 25 per cent of 25 units, or S.25 units, 
and so on. If this be put in terms of per 
cent of the generated units we get a geometric 
series, that is. 

Per cent light received on floor 

= 100+0.25X100 + 0.252X100+. .. 

= 100(1+0.25 + 0.25=+. 

= 100 

= 133 

The utilization factor is merely the ratio 
of the light flux received on the test plane 
from all sources — ceiling and walls, as well 
as lamps — to the light flux generated by the 

Similar tests were made in the sixth floor 
ofHce space where semi-indirect illimiination 
was used. With only four 200-watt standard- 
ized lamps burning in one bay, the average 
illumination on this floor was 6.87 foot 
candles, the utilization factor 0.34. With 
the lamps in all nine bays lighted the average 
illumination was 14.5 foot candles and the 
utilization factor, taking only the center bay 
into account, 0.75 — a high but not impossi- 
ble value. 


Wall and Ceiling Treatment 

The test results show the importance of 
properly treating all .surfaces on which light 
flux may be incident, so as to reduce absorp- 
tion to a minimum. Every lumen not ab 
sorbed on these surfaces means the need of 
one less generated lumen. 

The readings shown of intensity on planes 
other than the horizontal are interesting as 
they indicate at once why local tool lights 
in this building are entirely unnecessary. 

The efficiency of illumination in this build- 
ing is undoubtedly high as it should be since 
every precaution was taken to obtain such 
results. The ceilings are painted with an 
impervious white semi-gloss enamel con- 
taining no lead and little oil — gums ■ being 
substituted. This kind of paint shows a 
reflection factor of about 0.70 when fresh 
and painted on steel primed with red lead. 
The reflection factor falls off slowly with age, 
and the paint does not change color when 
applied to properly primed surfaces. Further- 
more, the paint can be easily cleaned. The 
walls are similarly painted a light buff 

The windows are glazed with a rolled sharp 
angle ribbed glass, the glass being glazed 
with the ribbed side out. This results in 
diffusing the incoming daylight and reflecting 
back into the building a large part of the 
artificial light which otherwise would escape. 
The use of a glass. with a larger 45 degree 
angle rib would have been still more effec- 

This means that in computing illumination 
by the absorption method, the absorption by 
the windows so glazed is not a material factor 
in increasing the loss of 'light. In modem 
factories a large portion of the wall areas 
consists of windows. 

300 April 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 4 

Life in a Large Manufacturing Plant 


By Chas. M. Ripley 
Publication Bureau, General Electric Company 

This chapter, which completes the educational section of the series, describes the training course which 
is open principally to graduates of technical colleges and universities. In the testing department these 
young men become familiar with the construction and operation of all forms of electrical apparatus, of a 
variety and magnitude that cannot be approached in college laboratories. The work that they perform is a 
necessary procedure in the manufacture of electrical apparatus and it should be definitely understood that 
this work is not specially devised for their instruction apart from regular production. It is this phase of the 
course that makes it of inestimable value to the student engineer, as he is required to handle the commer- 
cial product of the company in the stages between assembly and deliver.y. He therefore becomes familiar 
with the very latest types of apparatus, and in this way acquires experience that is denied to many men 
further advanced on their careers. — Editor. 

There still exists the type of college man 
who fancies that the world is waiting with 
outstretched arms to receive him, and that 
his career in business will be merely coasting 
pleasantly down from the heights which he 
attained at college. Fortunately, in the 
engineering colleges especially, this type of 
man is being succeeded by men having a 
better outlook — men who have had practical 
experience during their summer vacations. 
They have few misconceptions regarding 
the magic power of the sheepskin to obtain 
for them a place in the world without hard 
work. On the contrary, more and more 
they are appreciating that what they learn 
with their sleeves rolled up is invaluable 
to their future success, whether they are 
destined to be engineers, executives, or sales 
managers. And there is no period of their 
life upon which they will look back with so 
much sentiment and gratitude as upon the 
days of practical work, when they learned 
among other things the democracy of overalls 
and a flannel shirt. 

This chapter will describe the life of the 
college graduate who enters the General 
Electric Company's Test Course, and will 
trace the careers of almost 2200 of those who 
have completed the training. 

The diagram on the opposite page shows 
that the General Electric Company's Test 
Course is an open door to the electrical 
industry; it suggests some of the activities for 
which the men will be especially trained; and 
it shows the various fields in which the college 
graduates will work out their own destinies. 

It might be stated that, just as the temper 
of steel makes the tool hold its edge and 
just as the chemical of the photographer 
fixes the picture on the negative, just so 
does this practical training whet to a keen 
edge, fix, indelibly .stamp on their memories 
and crystalize in their minds, the knowledge 

of electricity which they gained in their 
university training. Or to cite another 
parallel, it is similar to the medical student 
who, as an interne in a great metropolitan 
hospital, gets the practice which is necessary 
in order that he acquire the technique of his 

But before discussing this diagram and 
describing the careers of these young men, 
it would be well to suggest the magnitude 
of the future electrical industry and the 
increasing call for trained men to fill its 
responsible executive and engineering 

Electrification has Only Begun 

Not over a tenth of the possible water power 
of this country has been developed; less than 
one per cent of the steam railroads have been 
electrified to date; five hundred miles of new 
track and one thousand new street cars are 
put in service annually; fifteen million houses 
are not lighted electrically; less than one 
per cent are wired for complete electric 
service. The electrical industry was prac- 
tically born in 1S79 when Thomas A. Edison 
invented the incandescent lamp, and was 
put on a commercial basis by Edisori's 
three-wire system about 1882 — barely a 
generation ago! Twelve billion dollars is 
already invested in the electrical industry 
in this country. Last year $23 was spent 
per capita for electrical service and material. 
The annual gross income is over two and 
a half billion dollars. The employees num- 
ber approximately one million. But the 
money to be spent in the next thirty-eight 
years and the size of the industry in 1956 
stagger the imagination. The executives 
and the engineers who will direct the great 
electrification corporations of the next gener- 
ation are in college today — many perhaps 
are reading this article. 



Referring again to the diagram, attention 
is invited to the fact that the test course is 
indicated as a path between college and 
business. The average time required for 
the college man to traverse this pathway is 
fifteen months. His average earnings during 
this time at the Schenectady Works are 

Foreign Fields 

Before fully describing the Test Course 
let us review the electrical industry both 

Alaska and South Africa, building railways in 
Australia and refrigerating plants in the 
Philijjpine Islands. 


It is a difficult matter to make a survey 
of the careers of these young men. It was 
thought that perhaps the best method would 
be to ascertain how many of the old test 
men were members of the American Institute 
of Electrical Engineers. By checking one 
list against the other, it was found that 






□ U (/) 



t >" 

GO'g 5^ 


< C (U 

^ — ^' 

3fe 2 

^^"^ 4 




CD^ ^ 





Within the 

General Electric Co 

5i% of the Graduates 

General Electric Oo 

46S of the Graduates 



steam ( Electric 

Central Stations 

steam t, Hydro Electric 


Army ( Navy 







Telephone & Telegraph 

CoalT Metal 


Iron ( Steel 

PulpS Paper 





The Careers Open to Technical Graduates through the Test Course 

inside and outside of the Company's organiza- 
tion, and find what positions are held toda\- 
by the graduates of the Test Course in the 
pcist- — at the same time bearing in mind 
that when we speak of the past in the electrical 
industry, we speak of an absurdly short 
space of time. The reader should appre- 
ciate that these young men are scattered 
over the four quarters of the globe, doing 
their share in the fascinating work of electrify- 
ing China, harnessing waterfalls in India, 
installing electrical drive in sugar mills in 
the West Indies, substituting electricity 
for steam or hand labor in the mines of 

the names of nearly 1(X)0 graduates ap- 
]ieared on the membership list of the 
Institute, with i>resent address, ]wsition. and 
title. Of this number about .S.">0 hold posi- 
tions with the General Electric Company and 
122 are in foreign countries. One man re- 
marked upon glancing over this list: "This 
thoroughly proves that for the test man the 
world is his field and the sky is his limit." 

It should be stated in connection with 
this list (Table V. ^age 311) that many 
engineers and executives of the Company are 
not members of the National body of the 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 

302 April 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 4 



but of local sections existing at Fort Wayne, 
Pittsfield, Lynn, Schenectady, Philadelphia, 
Chicago, Boston, and other cities throughout 
the country. 

The field of activity includes: railways, 
central stations, governmental work, hydro- 
electrical development, signaling, army and 
navy, power transmission, electro-chemistry, 
manufacturing, and finance. 

Mining, Steel and Railway Engineers 

Many test men engaged in mining, railway 
work, and the iron and steel industry, etc., 
are members of related societies. For 
instance, the list of members of the Associa- 
tion of Iron and Steel Electrical Engineers 
shows that fourteen former test men are 
members of this Association, eight of whom 
are still with the Company. McGraw's 1917 
list of railway officials (Table I) shows that 
the following positions are held by General 
Electric test men in the electric railway field : 




Presidents 12 

Vice Presidents 27 

Secretaries 15 

Treasurers 18 

Auditors 24 

General Managers 18 

Managers 12 

Engineers and Superintendents 42 

Inspectors 3 

Master Mechanics 6 

Purchasing Agents 3 

Claim Agents 3 

Land Commissioners 3 

Test Men in Engineering Departments 

The extent to which test men are employed 
in the various factories and district offices of 
the Company is shown in Table VI, repre- 
senting sixty-three General Electric engineer- 
ing departments. This accounts for 577 
ex-test men. 

Since test men constitute 52 per cent of the 
engineering personnel, and probably 90 per 
cent of the technical force, more than one 
conclusion can be drawn: 

1st. A large number of ex-test men are 
employed in the engineering de- 
partments of the General Electric 
2nd. For a college graduate the Test 
Course is the best if not the only 
route by which he can arri\-e at 
responsible positions in these en- 
gineering departments. 

This census, dealing with sixty-three of the 
engineering departments, could be supple- 
mented by another census dealing with one 
hundred and fi\-e or more commercial depart- 
ments and sections of the Company in the 
above factories and in nearly one hundred 
cities throughout the world. This additional 
census has not been made, but a cursor^' 
survey apparently justifies the belief that the 
percentage of test men in the commercial work 
of the Company is even greater than in the 
engineering. And scores of student engineers 
enter the Construction, Administrative, and 
Manufacturing Departments, Laboratories, etc. 


Table VII shows the j>ercentage of the Com- 
pany's officers, managers, specialists, etc., 
who passed through the preliminary practical 
training in the shops "with their sleeves 
rolled up." 

In addition, there are hundreds of engineers 
and business men, ex-test men, all over the 
country, not with the General Electric 
Company, who have branched off into the 
automobile business, who are proprietors and 
managers of power plants and various 
industries, officers in electrical jobbing con- 
cerns, etc. It would appear, therefore, that 
the young men develop versatility as a 
result of their theoretical and practical 


The students who enter this course are 
practically a picked crew from the graduates 
of over one hundred engineering colleges in 
the United States— north, south, east, and west. 

A total of 257 .students have been accepted 
from colleges in over twenty-two foreign 
countries. These foreign graduates can be 
grouped as follows: 



South American Countries. 





South Africa. . 


West Indies 

France. . . 
Other countrK • 


.. 38 

. . 34 

. 30 

. 20 








Total 257 

Therefore it may be said without exaggera- 
tion that the test men are a cosmopolitan, 
highly educated group of young men. 

304 April 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 4 

College Professors and Instructors 

The instructive value of the Test Course is 
indicated by the fact that instructors and 
professors from many technical colleges have 
found it of advantage to spend their summer 
vacations in the Testing Department of the 
Company, in order to keep in touch with 
practical manufacturing methods and to 
learn more of the design and operating 
characteristics of the latest electrical 
machinery and appliances. A number served 
in test regularly after graduation. 

Magnitude of the Testing Department 

The Testing Department of the General 
Electric Company occupies 732,486 sq. ft. 
of space. This area in down-town New 
York would cover nearly fifteen city blocks, 
each the size of that occupied by the Equitable 
Building, which is bounded by Broadway, 
Nassau, Cedar, and Pine Streets. It is 29 
per cent greater than the entire rentable 
area of the Woolworth Bldg. Or in Chicago, 
this space is 238 per cent as large as the 
entire rentable area of the Railwav Exchange 



Ft. Wayne. . 


Lynn. . . 
Sprague. . 





Total Kv-a. 

Power Supply 
































The Testing Department is as distinctly 
a department of the Company as is the 
Production, Purchasing, or any other; and 
its work must be conducted on a strictly 
manufacturing basis — time and cost records 
being kept and compared with existing 

The great outstanding difference between 
the Testing Department and other depart- 
ments is that it occupies space in a great 
many different buildings and deals with 
an enormous variety of apparatus. Hence 
it is ideal for developing a knowledge of the 
Company's products. In Schenectady, for 
instance, the Testing Department has 
permanent headquarters in fourteen dififerent 
locations distributed throughout the Works. 
The reason for this scattering is that the 
apparatus is tested where it is manufactured. 
In a typical building the rough castings are 
received at one end, where they are machined; 
they are assembled at about the middle of the 
building and, after being tested, are painted 
near the far end of the building and are 
boxed and loaded on railroad cars inside the 
extreme end of the same building. It is 
thus seen that the men in the Testing Depart- 
ment are under the same roof where complete 
manufacturing processes are conducted. 

Building on Michigan Avenue and Jackson 

This space is distributed among the 
different factories as follows: 

TABLE IV Sq. ft. 

Schenectady 428,458 

Pittsfield 64,000 

Fort Wayne 47,070 

Lvnn 131,958 

Erie 50,000 

Sprague. ... 11,000 

Total 732,486 

Enormous Capacity of Testing Apparatus 

Would you believe it possible that the 
General Electric Company should set aside 
and reserve merely for testing purposes electri- 
cal apparatus totaling almost 250,000 kv-a.? 
This statement is, however, a conservative 
figure, since it does not include the power 
stations — a certain portion of which is used 
for testing purposes. The capacity of this 
apparatus is half as great as all of the power 
generating apparatus at Niagara Falls. 

Table III shows the capacity of apparatus 
used for testing. 

Machines Help to Test Each Other 

Inspection of Table III brings out some 
very interesting facts. For instance, at 



Pittsfield the power station has only one- 
tenth the capacity of the Testing Depart- 
ment! The total capacity of apparatus 
reserved for testing in each factory is 
greater than the capacity of its power 
supply. This situation is largely due to 
the "feeding back" method, 
by which two motors, both 
under test, are used for testing 
each other — one running as a 
generator and the other as a 
motor, thus saving floor space, 
power, and generating capacity. 
By this last "feeding back" 
method, testing can be done 
on an enormous scale with the 
use of a comparatively trifling 
amount of coal, as the ma- 
chines being tested supply most 
of the electricity required for 
testing them, only the losses 
being supplied from the power 

Operating Knowledge 

What may be considered as 
a by-product of the knowl- 
edge gained in the Testing 
Course at the Schenectady, Lynn, and Fort 
Wayne Works is the fact that there are no 
operators to take charge of this huge aggrega- 
tion of electrical testing apparatus, because 
the student engineers themselves operate 
the machines which are used for testing the 
Company's product. With this operating 
experience, a graduate of the Test Course 
can enter almost any main station, sub- 
station, or switchhouse and take charge of 
its electrical operation. 

The efficiency of modern electrical protec- 
tive devices is well demonstrated here, for 
all this apparatus runs year after year under 
varying conditions, in charge of a shifting 
crew of student engineers (excepting the 
Pittsfield room shown in the photograph on 
page ;3(),')). 

Wide Variety of Work 

The fact is not as generally understood as' 
it should be, that the student engineers are 
continually shifted from one kind of work to 
another, and are consulted regarding the 
sort of work the>' desire to sijccialize in and 
also what class of testing they desire to take 
u]) month after month. 

For examjile, if a student engineer has 
expressed a j^reference for turbine work, 
he can sjiend fifty per cent or more of his 

time testing large and small turbo-generator 
sets. Turbines are tested non-condensing 
and with vacua up to 2!( inches, and 
the student becomes familiar with the prop- 
erties of steam ranging from 2(J() degrees 
superheat down to 20 per cent moisture. 

Hinli voltage Testing Equipment at Pittsfield 

Steam Engineering 

Turbines for the latest power plants 
ojjcrate with steam at 250 degrees superheat 
and 29 inches vacuum on the exhaust. 
The students gain a working familiarity 
with boiler steam that is hot enough to 
melt tin and get a knowledge of the types 
of piping, fittings, gaskets, valves, etc., 
required to resist such temperatures. 

Among the variations in turbine testing 
are the ship propulsion units being manu- 
factured. Some of these are being fitted 
with the Alquist flexible reduction gears, 
while others employ direct electric drive — 
both developments of the Company. 

In connection with the testing of gen- 
erating apparatus, attention is directed 
to the ijholograplis of turbine and marine 
steam engine testing, which show a great 
amount of high pressure and low pressure 
piping to turbines, engines, condensers, 
pumps, etc. One of the surimses in store 
for the student engineer who enters this 
course is the vast amount of information 
which he secures in regard to steam. 
With the central stations calling for 
higher and still higher efficiencies, the 
General Electric Company has co-operated 
with the boiler industry on the one hand 
ami the condenser industry on the other — 

306 April 1918 


VoL XXI, No. 4 

to produce higher pressures and higher 
superheat from the one, higher \'acua 
from the other, and greater capacit}- from 

The student engineer hves in an atmosphere 
of practical thermodynamics while he is in 
contact with turbine and marine 
engine tests. An indication of the 
scale on which this mechanical-elec- 
trical phase of the Company's testing 
has been developed is shown by the 
fact that recently a condenser equip- 
ment was placed in Building 60 at 
an expense of $300,000, and a steam 
equipment is being installed in Build- 
ing 49 at a further expense of 
$200,000— both solely for testing pur- 
poses. Such is practical turbine 
testing today. In comparison with 
this work the little jet and barometric 
condensers in the old college "lab" 
are but cunning toys. 

An idea of the variety of apparatus 
operated and tested by these young 
men is given by the following 
schedule ; 



(Schenectady Course) 

Building 11 — Motor generator sets up to 
500 kw., synchronous converters, planer 
panel equipment, lighting generators, 
government motors, developmental 

Building 12 — Railway motors, mill, mine 
and crane motors. 

Building IS — Induction motors up to 1.50 h.p., 
d-c. motors and generators, motor-generators 
up to 300 kw. 

Building 60 — Steam turbine a-c. and d-c. gener- 
ating sets, ship propulsion turbines for gear 
and electric drive. 

Building 40 — Induction motor starting com- 

Building 5i — Industrial control devices, field 
and starting rheostats, control panels, indus- 
trial appliances. 

Building 10 — Motor generators above 500 kw., 
synchronous converters 500 kw., frequency 
changers 500 kw., large water wheel generators, 
synchronous motors, steel mill equipment, fly 
wheel sets, double speed tests. 

Building 52 — Induction motors above 150 h.p., 
speed regulating sets variable speed a-c. 

Building 60 — Train control panels, mill and 
mine hoist panels, controllers — all kinds, con- 
tactors and insulators. 

Building 61 — Efficiency tests on turbines, steam 
flow meters, special tests on large apparatus 
from other buildings. 

Building 32 — Voltage regulators, contact making 

Building28 — High voltage testsup to 750,000 volts. 

Test Track and Building No. 203 — Railway 
developmental work. 

Al Pittsfield — Power transformers, feeder regula- 
tors, a-c. motors. 

Power Equipment for Testing Transformers at Pittsfield 
First to Operate Big Installations 

This wide variety of apparatus illustrates 
the breadth and scope of the test man's work, 
for it embraces the latest, and hence the most 
interesting, electrical and mechanical devices 
manufactured. When the engineer of a 
Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul electric 
locomotive throws his controller handle one 
notch ahead, he but duplicates what an 
electrical test man had previously done 
When an operator of the great locks of the 
Panama Canal throws the switches which 
permit a 32,000-ton battleship to pass through, 
he also merely operates what the student 
engineer had previously tested and adjusted. 
And in the great steel mills, central stations, 
mines, and battleships, and in the thousand 
and one other places where electricity is 
used, every piece of electrical apparatus 
has been tested previously by student 
engineers. This follows from the fact that 



no machine can be shipped unless O. K'd by 
the Testing Department. 

What Are the Facts? 

The studont engineers are not told what 
specifications and efficiencies the machines 
are guaranteed to fulfill; they are instructed 
as to what standard and special tests should 
be made. Thus they make all the electrical 
preparations, observations, and measure- 
ments, calculate efficiencies and plot curves 
of performance, all of which are checked and 
compared with the guarantees by those 
who are responsible for the decision as to 
when a machine is ready to be shipped. 


In all of this shop work the student 
engineers are temporarily a part of the well- 
organized testing department, and they 
become personally responsible for the conduct 
of the tests of which they have charge. No 
matter in which of the above buildings 
they are working, they are under the direction 
of the seventy-five men of the permanent 
testing department. These men show the 
student engineers how to make rapid diagnoses 
of unexpected performance by any kind of 
apparatus or device. This suggests to the 
inquiring mind that the test man becomes 
an expert "trouble shooter," and that 
wherever he may encounter electrical 
machinery of any kind, he will probably 
be fully capable of adjusting the connections, 
controllers, brushes, poles, armatures, bear- 
ings, or foundations, or to otherwise diagnose 
trouble, restore the machinery to full opera- 
tion, and instruct the operator how to obtain 
continuous satisfactory performance. 

As not over 10 per cent of the electrical 
and steam installations sold by the General 
Electric Company are erected by the Com- 
pany's construction department, it is aj^jjarent 
that the remaining 90 per cent, when shipped, 
must be ready to operate. Thus the cus- 
tomer's engineers or electricians set the 
apparatus on the foundation according to 
drawings and instructions of the Comiuuiy, 
make the wiring connections according to 
the diagram furnished with the machinery, 
and expect the new installation to start 
up and operate without a hitch when the 
switch is thrown. If the test men have done 
their duty properly, there will be no trouble 
when the customer follows directions. Since 
the cost of satisfying customers' complaints 
has been reduced to a negligible per cent 
of the cost of the apparatus, it would appear 

that the men had thoroughly mastered 
the details and intricacies of the electricial 
machinery and controlling devices, and 
l)roperly adjusted everything — even to the 
smallest relay. 

Government Work 

As to the broad knowledge of the test men, 
let us consider only one phase of the testing 
work of today— government work. Seventy- 
five hundred horse power motors are being 
built to propel some of our latest battleships; 
as are also the turbo-generators which supply 
electricity to these motors; the Curtis 
turbines which will propel so many of 
our new emergency fleet; the gears which 
will transmit the power from these turbines 
to the propeller shaft; the motors which 
rotate the turrets of battleships and hoist 
the ammunition; the generators for the 
wireless; and the small marine steam engine- 
driven lighting units. All of this apparatus, 
whether of 30,000 kv-a. or 2\4 kw. capacity, 
is tested, adjusted, and studied by the student 
engineers before it is shipped. 

To maintain perfect operation of these 
machines so vitally necessary to modem war- 
fare, who would be so well fitted as the man who 
originally tested them or identical machines? 
The Arm}' and Navy Departments in selecting 
officers to take charge of the electrical equip- 
ment of our great war vessels were quick to 
grasp the opportunity of engaging test men 
as chief electricians, chief engineers, wireless 
operators, etc. Can you imagine the delight 
in the heart of a young naval officer when 
he goes to his post of duty on a battleship, 
cruiser, destroj'er, or submarine and finds 
there .some machines which he himself had 
tested and adjusted in the old days at 
Schenectady or Lynn! He understands their 
language. They respond to his touch and 
will faithfully perform their heroic tasks in 
partncrshi]! with him. 

Government Recognition 

That the United States Government 
recognizes the value of practical testing work 
has been demonstrated in at least two ways: 

In 1017, in the midst of their test course, 
2.")2 student engineers left to enter military 
service. Of the 150 who left Schenectady, 
90 jier cent have alread\- received com- 
missions; as have ten out of thirteen who 
left Fort Wayne — some holding offices in the 
army, as high as major or captain, and in 
the navy, such rank as ensign, lieutenant, 
chief electrician, etc., all in less than one year! 

308 April 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 4 

Among the hundreds who went to war, 
only those who left during the Test Course 
have been included in this survey. 

Civil Service Requirements 

But government recognition is not limited 
to military matters. The United States 
Civil Service Commission's printed form 
No. 2204, issued in 1917, in speaking of 
educational training and experience which 
applicants must have for Civil Service 
positions, mentions : 

"and at least one year's additional 
experience in testing electrical ma- 
Civil Service Form No. 1785, issued in 
1917, especially mentions among the necessary 
qualifications of experience and training : 

"one year's experience in the testing of 

electrical machinery and apparatus." 
"five years experience in inspection and 
testing of electrical machinery and 
apparatus, two years of which must 
have been work on the test floor of an 
electrical manufacturing company." 
"three years engineering experience in 
installation or manufacture of electrical 
machinery, one year of which must 
have been inspection or testing." 


The theoretical phase of the training is 
taken care of by an extensive series of 
lectures which are given to the student 
engineers by prominent designing, research, 
and production engineers, and commercial 
managers of the Company. Not only are 
these lectures free, but the students are paid 
full time while attending them. Attendance 
is not compulsory and the student may 
attend one or two each week as desired. 
These lectures are given between 4:30 and 
5:30 p.m., after the close of the working day. 
In order to render them as valuable as possible 
and to afford opportunity for the asking 
and answering of questions, the engineers 
give each lecture several times so that the 
attendance at each class can be kept small 
and the lectures entirely informal. This has 
an added advantage in that those students 
who have missed a lecture may be able to 
make it up later. 

Preventing "Over Specialization" 

The purpofee of these lectures is to round 
out the student's knowledge of the Com- 
pany's product as well as develop his ver- 

satility. The young men are encouraged in 
their desire to become specialists, but are 
]}revented from becoming narrow-minded by 
the broad fields of knowledge that are 
opened up to them by these various lectures. 
For example, if a student engineer desires to 
become a commercial man, these lectures 
give him information of a technical character 
which will make him a better commercial 
man; if he desires to become a designing 
engineer, they give him a knowledge of 
many of the Company's commercial methods; 
should he believe that his future career will 
lie entirely along operating and managing 
lines, he will derive a knowledge of cost 
accounting, production, welfare work, re- 
search developments, safety campaigns, 
factory methods, tookmaking, industrial edu- 
cation, etc. Altogether there are fifty lectures 
at Schenectady, twenty-five at Pittsfield, 
twenty at Lynn, and seventeen at Ft. 

Bearing in mind the varied careers of the 
ex-test men, it will be seen from the number 
of presidents, general managers, executives, 
consulting engineers, directors, superinten- 
dents, commercial engineers, etc., that there 
is great demand for versatile men with a 
wide field of knowledge, as well as an intensive 
knowledge of one kind of work or apparatus. 
It is the old question of which is better : 

To know something about everything, or 
To know everything about something. 

Attentive attendance at these lectures 
will help the young men to know something 
about everything electrical, and will also 
indicate the way and the individuals through 
whom they can learn everything about some- 

Students may attend each of these lectures 
more than once if they desire. 

Post Graduate Course at Union College 

Student engineers who have completed 
a four-year college course or equivalent, 
with B.S. degree, and who wish to continue 
their electrical education from the theoretical 
standpoint, can obtain their advanced 
Master's degree at Union College. The 
Company refunds over 50 per cent of the 
matriculation and tuition fees to those who 
have secured their degree. The classes are 
held every Friday morning on the Company 's 
time, thus making the student engineers' 
working week practically five days only. 

This post graduate work is a two-year 
course and is a comparatively new develop- 



ment, inasmuch as it was organized in 1916. 
There are now thirty-five students enrolled, 
ten of whom, it is expected, will be graduated 
in 1918 with the degree of Master of Science. 
The post graduate course consists largely 
of lectures and demonstrations,' although 
numerous problems are given for home work. 


I. Advanced Electricity, by Prof. E. J. Berg. 
II. Mathematics of Electrical Theory, by Prof. 

III. Lectures on Electron Theory; Electrical Prop- 
erties of Cases and Liquids, by Prof. 
K lee man. 

Lynn — M. I. T. 

A co-operative course between the General 
Electric Company and the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology is described on pages 
102-105 of the Institute's latest catalogue. 


The college men enrolled in the test course, 
it might be correctly stated, are a floating 
population — they are in a continuous state 
of flux. A few weeks after their arrival, they 
begin their migrations, emigrating from one 
department and immigrating into another. 


Every week from twenty to forty men are 
transferred to a new kind of work. There is 
no stagnation, no routine, no winding of 
armatures and field coils, very little if an)- 
repetition of an}' kind of work beyond the 
point where it ceases to be interesting to the 
average man. As long as a \-oung man with 
an active mind is doing something different 
from what he did last week, or better than he 
did it yesterday, his knowledge is broadened. 
Six months more rapidly in this 
fascinating work than six weeks does in the 
dull details of routine. Every student who 
stays in the course is transferred. If he can 
keep up with the procession, he moves along; 
if he cannot keep up with it, it is suggested 
that he is probably better fitted for other lines 
of work. 

At regular intervals the student is given a 
blank entitled "Application for Transfer" 
in which he indicates a preference for the line 
of work which he is to undertake next. 

Thus the student engineer is directing 
and designing his career by selecting the 
several different tests which he desires to 
undertake. This brings up the fact that 
there is no set curriculum, all of which he 

must follow, but that among the fourteen 
classes of apparatus to be tested he can 
have his choice, as far as production con- 
ditions permit. 

The student engineer makes out several 
of these applications for transfer during the 
time spent in the test course and, at the 
bottom of each, the head of the section 
where he has been working grades him. 
according to the following qualifications: 

Technical abilitj- 




Ability to push things 


These gradings are then posted upon a 
card, so it can be seen at a glance whether he 
is excellent, good, fair, or poor in any or 
all of the six qualifications. These cards are 
available for each man's inspection, but 
otherwise are confidential. Good marks in 
regard to personality are especially necessary 
for those desiring commercial work in the 

At the end of six months other events take 
place which will afifect his future career. 
Every student receives a letter from the 
Superintendent of the Testing Department 
as follows : 

"Positions in the various departments 
of the Company are continually opening up, 
and in order to fill these most satisfactorily 
it is necessary to know the nature of 
emplo}'ment each man desires, and feels 
he is best fitted for. 

"With this idea in view, and to cause 
each man to consider well the line of 
work he wants, this note is being sent to 
men who have been on test six months. 

" No man will be recommended for 
employment until he has filled out the 
attached slip and turned it in to the test 
office in jierson." 

Thiis again the individual's personal choice 
and ambitions, together wath such business 
relations as he may have established before 
entering the test coiu-se, are taken into con- 
sideration before he expresses a preference 
as to his future work. 

Office Training 

After six moiUhs or more have elapsed 
since the college man entered the test course, 
anotiier variation presents itself to those 
who have made a good record. The Sujierin- 
tendent of the Testing Department selects 

310 April 191S 


Vol. XXI, No. 4 

men for a three months' assignment to the 
various offices in the engineering and com- 
mercial departments, at the end of which 
training they return to the Testing Depart- 
ment. This sample of what designing and 
commercial engineering work really is, is 
afforded so that they may more fully appre- 
ciate the value of the testing work, and also 
that they will be better able to decide on 
the kind of work for which they are adapted — 
and possibly revise their choice as shown on 
their preference blank. 


Promotion from the Testing 
Department is not haphazard; 
it is not for the star members 
only; it is universal. For, as 
stated above, those who remain 
in the test course will be pro- 
moted, and those who will not 
be proinoted do not complete 
the test course. Every week 
approximately seven men com- 
plete the test — four being pro- 
moted and three leaving for 
positions for which they have 
been recommended, outside the 

Trial Period 

The first step in the promo- 
tion of a man is the "trial 
period" of three months in 
the department where perman- 
ent employment is anticipated. 

By this means the depart- 
ment heads will have the priv- 
ilege of trying out a man in 
order to be certain that his 
personal qualifications and tem- 
perament are suited for the 
position. This is just as important to the 
test man as it is to the department head and 
to the whole organization; and right here in 
this policy will be found one of the secrets 
of the success of the General Electric Com- 
pany: Every man is peculiarly fitted by 
practical experience for the work which he does. 

Value of Practical Experience 

Hundreds of examples could be cited 
to prove that the unromantic work of re- 
pairing engines and generators and even 
inspecting boilers is a valuable asset to an 
engineering career in the electrical industry. 
For instance Mr. W. B. Potter, Engineer 
of the Railway and Traction Engineering 

The Testing Gang at Lynn i 
Old Days 

Department, took a position in the Testing 
Department at the Lynn Works in 18S7 
and has preserved the original letters leading 
up to his engagement. These form an inter- 
esting parallel to later correspondence in 
which he stated; 

" My shop experience and the knowledge of 
electric and steam practice has continually proved 
of inestimable value." 

And Mr. E. E. Boyer, who holds a high 
executive position in the Lynn Works, entered 
the Testing Department there 
in 1885. The following para- 
graph is abstracted from a 
letter written to him by the 
superintendent, April 17, 1885: 

" Our requirements are that each 
applicant must serve a certain 
I eriod in the workshop building 
the different parts of our appa- 
ratus, then serve awhile in the 
assembling room, and finally in the 
testing room, the time occupied 
being from four to six months. The 
pay during this period is but 
sufficient to provide for your board, 
and would be $1 per day." 

(Signed) E. W. Rice, Jr. 


This discloses the fact that 
the idea of building an organ- 
ization on the foundation of 
practical training was put into 
effect thirty-three years ago b}' 
the superintendent, now Presi- 
dent of the Company. 

Building An Organization 

Mr. Thomas A. Edison says: 
" Problems in human engineering 
will receive during the coming years 
the same genius and attention which 
the nineteenth century gave to the 
more material forms of engineering. ' ' 

The great idea of human engineering, with 
which is associated vocational training and 
wisely managed employment departments, 
is a product of the twentieth century; and 
yet the letter signed by the superintendent in 
1885 would indicate that there were some in- 
dividuals living in the nineteenth century who 
fully appreciated this point in forming the nu- 
cleus of a business staff now second to none. 

Additional Information 

In the 32-page booklet (Y-975) entitled 
"Practical Training for Engineering Gra- 
duates,' ' the social opportunities of the student 
engineers are outlined, and photographs in- 
cluded showing exterior and interior views 



of the Edison Club, Edison Hall, and the Boat 
Club in Schenectady; also the Thomson Club 
at Lynn, and aquatic sports at Pittsficld and 
Schenectady. Other information is given 
regarding athletics, home life, cost of room and 
board within walking distance of the Works, 
climate, topography of the country, and size 
of the various Works of the Company. 





In G-E In other 
Company Companies 

Abroad in Business 15 107 

General Officers 

Presidents 1 10 

Vice Presidents and Assistants. . . 1 lo 

Secretaiies and Assistants 6 

Treasurers -i 


General Sales 2 

Advertising 1 

General 25 

Assistant General 4 

Works 3 

District 2 6 

Assistant District Department. . . 2 

Local 10 2 

Department Sales 7 

Directing 1 1 

Department l-l 2 

Contract 1 1 

Business 1 

Employment 1 1 

Assistants 3 2 

No designition 16 


General 7 

Of Motive Power 3 

Division or District 2 

Assistant General 2 

Assistant Electrical 2 

Assistant 2 4 

■ Welfare and Assistant 2 

Technical 1 

Construction 1 2 

Meter 1 

Mechanical 2 

Commercial 3 

Electrical 2 6 

Not designated 18 

Electrical Enniiieers 251 338 

Miscellaneous 33 218 




Departments Per cent 

A-C. Engineering 70 

Construction 37 

Construction Engineering 20 

D-C. Engineering S'5 

D-C Motor Engineering 80 

Flow Meter 57 

Induction Motor 70 

Industrial Control 70 

Industrial Heating Device 75 

Insulation Engineering 29 

Lighting 95 

Power and Mining 89 

Putjlication Bureau 24 


Railway and Traction 83 

Railway Equipment 71 

Railway Locomotive 50 

Railway Motor 69 

Regulator 66 

Research Laboratory 40 

Searchlight 20 

vStandardizing Laboratory 40 

Switchboard 41 

Testing Laboratory 25 

Turbine 63 

Wiring Supplies 50 

Testmen in above 26 departments 

average 51 per cent 


Automobile Motors 75 

Fabroil Gear and Pinion. ... 33 

Gear ana Pinion 100 

Meter and Instrument 18 

Motor 75 

Rectifier Tube 75 

Street Lighting 55 

Transformer 80 

Turbine 57 

Wire and Insulation 67 

Testmen in above 10 departments 

average 63.5 per cent 


Lightning Arrester 01 

Motor 33 

Transformer 83 

Testmen in above 3 departments 

average 6 ) per cent 

Fort Wayne 

A-C. and D-C. Apparatus 57 

Automobile Accessuries 50 

Fractional H.P. Motor 58 

Meter 20 

Rock Drill _0 

Transformer 78 

Testmen in above 6 departments 

average 44 per cent 


Conduit Products 

Hoist 33 

Motor and Generator 33 

Ozonator 100 

Switchboard and Panelboard 

Testmen in above 5 departments 

average 33 jH-r cent 


Air Brake 1" 

Gas Engine 20 

Power and Mining Loco ' 43 

Testmen in above 3 departments 

average "-" per cent 

312 April 1918 


Vol. XXI, No. 4 

District OflBces 




Cincinnati. . 



New York. . . 
Pacific Coast . 
Philadelphia . 



St. Louis 47 

Testmen in above District Engineering 

Offices average 54 per cent 

AVERAGE in above 63 departments, 52 per cent 



Power and Mining Eng. Dept. Section 

Heads 100 

Local Supply Dept. Mgrs 100 

Distnct Power and Mining Dept. Mgrs.. . 100 

District Lighting Dept. Mgrs 100 

Transformer Specialists 92 

Switchboard Specialists 89 

General Office Commercial Dept. Ass't 

Mgrs 83 

Local Small Motors Dept. Mgrs 83 ■ 

District Engineers 80 j 

Schenectady Designing Engineers 78 ^ 

Local Engineers 75 

Resident Agents 74 

General Office Dept. Mgrs 73 

Local Managers 72 

General Office Commercial Dept 71 

Local Apparatus Dept. Mgrs 67 

Meter Specialists 64 

General Office Supply Dept. Section 

Heads 63 

Schenectady Designing Engineers (Supple- 
mentary) 62 

District Railway Dept. Mgrs 60 

Foreign Sales Offices 56 

District Small Motors Dept. Mgrs 50 

District Apparatus Dept. Mgrs 43 

District Supply Dept. Mgrs 43 

Heads of Laboratories 43 

Works Managers 40 

District Managers 40 

General Office Commercial Dept. Mgrs. . . 39 
General Office Administrative Dept. Mgr. 

(Supplementary) 33 

Heating Device Specialists 31 

Railwav Supply Section Heads 30 

Local Chief Clerks 27 

District Fort Wayne Dept. Mgi'S 25 

General Office Administrative Dept. Mgr. . 20 

District Order Dept. Mgrs. and Clerks .... 20 

General Officers 20 

Production Managers 17 

Domestic Device Specialists 6 

General Office Accounting Dept. Section 


Works Accounting Dept 

Local Auditors 

District Auditors 

Among 42 lists of officers, etc., average 

per cent of ex-test men 51 per cent 

"Taking S-peed Curve 

P.XM. discoveR that lus fht^n^ (iDm hoatd Bis OK. 




VOL. XXI, No. 5 

Published by 
General Electric Compani/'s Publicalu 
Schenectady, New York 

MAY 1918 






For Fractional Horse-power Motors 

Rigid mounting: What shall it profit if a bearing be vibrationless within 
itself but free to develop vibration in its housing^ The multiplied impact of high- 
speed running — where a bearing has a loose or "floating" fit in its housing — hastens 
wear in the housing, magnifies looseness, increases vibration, causes noise, and 
destroys efficiency. True alignment and fine adjustment are soon lost. The higher 
the speed, the worse the conditions created and the more serious the results. Rigid 
mounting is essential to highest bearing efficiency in fractional h.p. motors. 

Because " NORffl^ " Precision Bearings must be rigidly 
mounted in their housing, there is no looseness to begin 
with; therefore, no looseness, wear, vibration and noise can 
develop later. Mounted in exact alignment and true adjust- 
ment, this alignment and adjustment are maintained 
indefinitely. Conditions made right at the outset continue 
to be right in service. Results: smooth, silent, dependable 
running at highest efficiency over long periods, with trouble 

See that your Motors are 
" NORffXfl " Equipped 


17PO BRC7<qDWiqy new vqrk. 

Ball, Roller, Thrust, Combination Bearings 

' NORtnn ' Engineers — speed bearing specialists — offer 
you their services without obligation. 

General Electric Review 


Manager, M. P. RICE Editor, JOHN R. HEWETT Associate Editor. B. M. EOFF 

Assistant Editor. E. C. S.\NDERS 

Subscription Rales! United States and Mexico. $2.00 per year; Canada. $2.25 per year; Foreign, $2.50 per year; payable in 
advance. Remit by post-office or express money orders, bank checks, or drafu, made payable to the General Electric Review, 
Schenectady. N. Y. 

Entered as second-class matter, March 26. 1912. at the post office at Schenectady, N. Y., under the Act of March, 1879. 

Vol. XXI. No. .", ,y C.,^^i')l&!fl^n,pany -M.vv lOLS 


Frontispiece .'314 

Editorial: Motor Power for "The Heart of the World" 315 

The Polyphase Shunt Motor 317 

By W. C. K. Altes 

The Keystone Steel and Wire Company : 332 

By F. B. Crosby 

The Value of "g" in Engineering and Physical Work 344 

By Sanford A. Moss 

Fundamentals of Illumination Design 

Part I: fundamental Concepts 353 

By Ward Harrison 

The 3()(J0-volt D-C. Gearless Locomotive for the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul 

Railroad 362 

By A. H. Armstrong 

Ventilation Systems for Steam Turbine Alternators : 

Part II: Operation of Ventilating Systems 367 

By E. Knowlton and E. H. Freibi-rghouse 

Methods for More Efficiently Utilizing Our Fuel Resources 

Part XVII: The Extent of the Use of Pulveri/^ed Fuel in the Industries and its 

Possibilities in the War -^^S 

By F. P. Coffin 

Congress on National Service -^^1 

By G. L. Ale.xandkr 

How to Succeed 3cS3 

Bv John L. Baii.ev 

" -a 

n " " S 

g "^ c J 

c M "5. „ 

< S .2 -c 

§■ & 



Last June you were asked to contribute 
to the First Red Cross War Fund; and you 
gave more than a hundred miUion dollars. 
Last December you were asked to become 
members of the Red Cross; and seventeen 
million of you did, bringing the total enroll- 
ment to twenty-two million. These responses 
indicate the faith you had in that organi- 

Now, the Red Cross announces that its 
service during the past year to our Country 
and her Allies has necessitated appropriations 
that have about exhausted the First War 
Fund. To provide the money necessary to 
continue the humanitarian work during the 
coming year, the President of the United 
States (also President of the Red Cross) has 
appointed the week of May 20-27 as the 
period during which an intensive appeal will 
be made to you to contribute to a Second 
Red Cross War Fund of one hundred million 

In advance of making this second appeal 
to you for an operating fund, the Red Cross 
has prepared a report of its past performance 
to substantiate the faith you have placed in 
its ability to spend your money wisely. 
Copies will be obtainable from the Chairman 
of the Local Red Cross Chapters. 

For the information of those who analyze 
expenditures, the report includes the following 
financial statement : 

First War Fund Appropriations up to March 1. 1918 

Foreign Relief: 







Great Britain 

Other Countries 

Relief for prisoners, etc. 

Equipment and expenses 
in U.S. of Personnel for 





United States Relief: 
Army Base Hospitals. . . 
Navy Base Hospitals. . . 
Medical and Hospital 


Sanitary Service 

Camp Service 







Total U.S. Relief $8,589,899.27 

Working capital for pur- 
chase of supplies for 
resale to Chapters or for 
shipment abroad 15,000,000.00 

Working cash advances for 

France and United States 4,286,000.00 

Total Foreign Relief. . . $47,325,609.38 
Restricted as to use by 

Donor '. 2, ,520,409. 57 

Total of War Fund .Appro- 
priations $77,721,918.22 

The inclusion of such a doUars-and-cents 
statement is a commendable procedure that 
could well be adopted by other institutions 
which solicit contributions to their main- 
tenance, for it is indicative of the business- 
like character of the management. The 
amounts of the individual items ably show 
the immensity of the Red Cross's activity in 
monetary units. Surely there could be no 
stronger financial argument than this to con- 
Nance >-ou that you should gi\-e liberally to the 
establishment of a Second Red Cross War 
Ftind for the continuance of the relief work 
during the coming year. 

Since the work of the organization covers 
almost every kind of humanitarian relief that 
mone\' and effort can bring about . it would be